Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire in England. It borders the unitary authority of North Lincolnshire and the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire, the three areas making up the ceremonial county; the population of the Unitary Authority at the 2011 Census was 159,616. North East Lincolnshire is part of the Humber region. North East Lincolnshire was created from the boroughs of Cleethorpes and Great Grimsby on 1 April 1996 with the abolition of Humberside; the area lies within the Parts of a historic subdivision of Lincolnshire. The north part of the authority has a flat landscape. Ashby cum Fenby Aylesby Barnoldby le Beck Beelsby Bradley Brigsley Cleethorpes East Ravendale Great Coates Grimsby Habrough Hatcliffe Healing Humberston Immingham Irby upon Humber Laceby Little Coates New Waltham Old Clee Scartho Stallingborough Waltham Weelsby Wold Newton Waltham Windmill Cleethorpes Coast Light Railway Pleasure Island Blundell Park The Greenwich Meridian passes through the county.
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority that has operated a cabinet-style council since 2003. There are 42 councillors, they elect the cabinet in May each year. Each cabinet member is responsible for making decisions within their portfolio area; the governance of North East Lincolnshire Council has come under scrutiny from the audit commission on two occasions leading to special public interest reports for its failings. During this time it was run politically as a coalition between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. In June 2011 it became. In 2012, Labour gained a majority on the authority, before losing it two years and have run it as a minority since. North East Lincolnshire council was the council subject to the Kelly report for Ian Huntley involvement and the Soham murders; the radio station for the area is called Compass FM, takes its logo from the logo of North East Lincolnshire, being based south of Grimsby railway station. BBC Radio Humberside have a small studio to the east of Grimsby town centre.
Grimsby Institute have the innovative Estuary TV television, based at the Grimsby Institute of Further & Higher Education. Propeller TV was part of Grimsby Institute; the Grimsby Telegraph is a daily newspaper. The North East Lincolnshire towns of Grimsby and Cleethorpes, form the economic area known as Greater Grimsby; the main sectors of the Greater Grimsby economy are drink. This is a table of trend of regional gross value added of North and North East Lincolnshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling; the area has one power station, the South Humber Bank Power Station, owned and operated by Centrica sited at Stallingborough. Similar to North Lincolnshire, the area has its fire and police run by Humberside Fire and Rescue Service and Humberside Police. There are four main roads that link to the unitary authority - the A180, built in 1984, the A46 from Lincoln; the A46 terminates in Cleethorpes terminating at the Laceby roundabout, follows the former route of the A18 through Grimsby and Cleethorpes.
The A18 which runs from Doncaster to Laceby past the Humberside Airport. And the A16 from southern Lincolnshire through Louth, Entering the town at toll bar roundabout Waltham There are good connections by railway from Doncaster and Sheffield, which start at Manchester Airport - the TransPennine Express, it is transport by sea. The two ports of Immingham and Grimsby, when combined, have the largest tonnage of freight of any UK port. Immingham has many DFDS freight routes to Europe; the local LEA has comprehensive schools, becoming comprehensive in the early 1970s when part of the County Borough of Grimsby, the Lindsey Education Committee, based in Lincoln. However, due to the proximity of West and East Lindsey which have grammar schools, some children capable of passing the eleven-plus are bussed over the border to places such as Caistor and Alford. Previous to this Cleethorpes had girls' and boys' grammar schools, Grimsby had the girls' and boys' Wintringham grammar schools; the local secondary schools have improved in recent years, but Grimsby still has some of the worst GCSE results in the country.
There is a clear cut dichotomy of education up to 16, with schools on the edge of Grimsby and Cleethorpes performing with respectable results, leaving the centre of these towns with struggling schools that have faced closure. Most schools have converted to Academy status, with some lucky enough to move into brand new spacious buildings, it is more the case that affluent parents would refuse to send their children to schools in central Grimsby, hence the schools on the outer edge do much better. Franklin College has a good reputation at A level, produces the best A level results for state schools in the former area of Humberside, it was formed based in Beverly. Sixth formers travelled from East and West Lindsey to attend this college, such was its reputation; the main FE college in Grimsby is the Grimsby Institute. This has links with the fishing industry, it offers higher education courses, has done for many years - HNDs, for vocational subjects. It has the long-term ambition to become a university.
The University of Humberside used to have its food science campus at t
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
East Midlands Ambulance Service
East Midlands Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust provides emergency 999, urgent care and patient transport services for the 4.8 million people within the East Midlands region of the UK - covering Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire. In 2016/17 EMAS received over 938,837 emergency 999 calls with ambulance clinicians dispatched to 653,215 incidents. EMAS employs about 3,290 staff at more than 70 locations, including two control rooms at Nottingham and Lincoln - the largest staff group are those who provide accident and emergency responses to 999 calls. In 2013 EMAS took on 140 new emergency care assistants. In 2014 EMAS announced. In 2010 − 11 EMAS missed key performance targets after a cold spell brought ice. By June 2015 EMAS had failed to meet their category 1 response times for the fifth successive year. EMAS provided patient transport services until contracts worth £20 million per year were taken over in 2012 by two private sector companies. In 2012−13 EMAS had a budget of £148 million.
The Trust spent £4.3 million on voluntary and private ambulance services in 2013−14 for support in busy periods. In 2015 the service faced a drop in funding of around £6 million a year. In October 2014 the Trust decided to spend £88,000 on upgrading its computer equipment. In 2018 the trust said it would need an extra £20 million a year to meet the new ambulance performance standards. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Official website
Fortifications of Kingston upon Hull
The fortifications of Kingston upon Hull consisted of three major constructions: the brick built Hull town walls, first established in the early 14th century, with four main gates, several posterngates, up to thirty towers at its maximum extent. The town walls were demolished and replaced with the town docks over 50 years from the 1770s, the Citadel was demolished and the site turned over to shipbuilding and dock activities in the 1860s; the early Hull is thought to have been surrounded by a ditch, in the 14th century, construction of walled defences began. During the reign of Edward I, in 1322 the town gained the right of murage for five years. Additional grants of murage were given in 1341, in 1348; the circuit of walls is thought to have been completed by sometime around 1356, built of brick. The plan of the fortified town has been said to be similar to that of the contemporary Bastides of France, in particular Libourne founded under Edward I; when built the walls stretched from the west bank of the Hull to the bank of the Humber Estuary.
By 1640 there were with barbicaned gates constructed across a moat at either end. There were intermediate gates at Myton Gate. There was a wall against the Humber, from Hessle Gate to the confluence of River Hull and Humber Estuary at South End. Except at the mamhole the south walls were built up to the banks of the Humber. There were no walls on the bank of the River Hull, soft ground at Northgates near the river bank prevented the walls being contiguous up to the river bank, in 1585 the fortifications at this gap were improved. In addition to the five main gates several posterns in the wall existed, only wide enough for a person, each surmounted by a manned tower. Known examples are Low Gate in the north wall, at the end of the streets Posterngate, Blackfriargate on the western walls. In the 16th century John Leland stated that there were over twenty towers in the circuit of the walls. After Henry VIII's visit in 1541 all entrances except the main gates, as well as North and Hessle gates were ordered to be walled up.
During the English Civil War the fortifications were added to, with "hornworks" built outside the main gates, additional defences connected the batteries as high as the original walls, a wide ditch outside the walls was added. The earthen ramparts behind the town walls were built up at this time. During the late 17th and 18th centuries, the walls continued to be maintained. In 1735 a tower over Beverley Gate was removed due to its poor condition, Hessle Gate unblocked in 1761. In 1774 the walls from North Gate to Harry Ogle's Tower, on the Humber bank were granted to the Hull Dock Company for the construction of a new town dock. Entrance to the town via the River Hull was protected by a chain hung across the river's mouth. A tower on the east bank may have been installed in 1380. After Henry VIII's visit the east side chain tower was improved. In the 1590s during a period of expected invasion from the Netherlands improvements were ordered to the chain. In 1774 the Hull Dock Act established the Hull Dock Company, entitled to raise £100,000 of capital through share issues and loans.
It inherited the city walls and related defences west of the river. The town docks were subsequently built along the route of the walls; the first dock was built in the area occupied by Beverley and North gates, the intermediate walls, which were demolished, a second dock was built on the land between Hessle and Myton gates, a third dock between the two was opened 1829 as Junction Dock. The southern stretch of walls were removed in the early 1800s. During the Pilgrimage of Grace control of Hull was taken by the rebels. After the rebellion, in late 1541 King Henry VIII visited Hull, instructed that the fortifications be improved.
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t