Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, best known for his founding of modern Singapore and the British Malaya. He was involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire, he wrote The History of Java. Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles was born on 5 July 1781 on board the ship Ann off the coast of Port Morant, Jamaica, to Captain Benjamin Raffles and Anne Raffles, his father was a Yorkshireman who had a burgeoning family and little luck in the West Indies trade during the American Revolution, sending the family into debt. With the little money the family had, it went into schooling Raffles where he attended a boarding school. In 1795, at the age of 14, Raffles started working as a clerk in London for the British East India Company, the trading company that shaped many of Britain's overseas conquests.
Nine years in 1804, the 23-year-old Raffles married Olivia Mariamne Devenish, a widow 10 years his senior:57, 73, 107, married to Jacob Cassivelaun Fancourt, an assistant surgeon in Madras who had died in 1800.:59, 69In 1805, he was sent to Prince of Wales Island, starting his long association with Southeast Asia. He started with a post, as assistant secretary, under the Honourable Philip Dundas, the new Governor of Penang. At this time he made the acquaintance of Thomas Otho Travers, who would accompany him for the next twenty years, his knowledge of the Malay language, as well as his wit and ability, gained him favour with Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, he was sent to Malacca. In 1811, after the annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France during Napoleon's war, Raffles had no choice but to leave the country, he mounted a military expedition in the Dutch East Indies. The war was swiftly conducted by Admiral Robert Stopford, General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, Colonel Robert Rollo Gillespie, who led a well-organized army against an army of French conscripts with little proper leadership.
The previous Dutch governor, Herman Willem Daendels, had built a well-defended fortification at Meester Cornelis, at the time, the governor, Jan Willem Janssens, mounted a brave but futile defence at the fortress. The British, led by Colonel Gillespie, captured it within three hours. Janssens was captured; the British invasion of Java took a total of forty-five days, during which Raffles was appointed the Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies by Baron Minto before hostilities formally ceased. He took his residence at Buitenzorg and despite having a small subset of Britons as his senior staff, kept many of the Dutch civil servants in the governmental structure. During the brief British rule in Java, Raffles negotiated peace and mounted some significant military expeditions against local Javanese princes to subjugate them to British rule. Most significant of these was the assault on Yogyakarta on 21 June 1812. During the attack, the Yogyakarta kraton was extensively looted by British troops.
Raffles seized much of the contents of the court archive. The event was unprecedented in Javanese history, it was the first time an indigenous court had been taken by storm by a European army, the humiliation of the local aristocracy was profound. Although peace returned to Central Java in the immediate aftermath of the British assault, the events may have fuelled the deep-seated instability and hostility to European involvement that gave rise to the Java War of the 1820s. Raffles ordered an expedition to Palembang in Sumatra to unseat the local sultan, Mahmud Badaruddin II, to seize the nearby Bangka Island to set up a permanent British presence in the area in the case of the return of Java to Dutch rule after the end of the War of the Sixth Coalition in Europe. During his lieutenant-governorship, Raffles placed some restrictions on the local slave trade in line with wider British policy across its Asian territories, although slavery remained widespread and Raffles himself was served by a large retinue of slaves at his official residences in Java.
Raffles attempted a replacement of the Dutch system of forced agricultural deliveries in kind with a cash-based land tenure system of land management influenced by the earlier writings of Dirk van Hogendorp. Under Raffles's aegis, a large number of ancient monuments in Java were systematically catalogued for the first time; the first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. C. Cornelius. Under the harsh conditions of the island, his wife, died on 26 November 1814, an event that devastated Raffles. In 1815, he left again for England shortly before the island of Java was returned to control of the Netherlands following the Napoleonic Wars, under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. Raffles had been removed from his post by the East India Company ahead of the handover and replaced by John Fendall on account of the poor financial performance of the colony during his administration and allegations of financial impropriety on his own part.
He sailed to England in early 1816 to clear his name and, en route, visited Napoleon, in exil
Pico Island, is an island in the Central Group of the Portuguese Azores. The landscape features an eponymous volcano, Ponta do Pico, the highest mountain in Portugal, the Azores, the highest elevation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In the tradition of the Portuguese poet, Raul Brandão, Pico is referred to as the Ilha Preta, for its black volcanic earth, responsible for its UNESCO-designated historical vineyards that allowed the development of the island. After depositing herds on the island in the first half of the 15th century, the first colonies were formed around 1460 by settlers from the north of Portugal, its first Captain-Donatário was Álvaro de Ornelas, but he never took up his role on the island, as it was incorporated into Captaincy of Faial. Lajes was its first entitled village followed by São Roque in 1542, its settlers were occupied with wheat cultivation in addition to the exploration of the woad industry, influenced by export industries of its island neighbor, Faial. The viticulture industry, helped by the rich soils and micro-climates, had allowed to expand the lands cultivating grapes.
Its development would occur uninterrupted along the margins of history except for volcanic eruptions during the 18th century. In 1723, Madalena was elevated to the status of "town", confirming its economic importance to the island, its commercial links to Faial. Pico's famous verdelho, for more than two centuries, was appreciated in many countries. But, the spread of powdery mildew and phylloxera during the middle of the 19th century destroyed many of the vineyards, creating a crisis on the island that lasted until the 20th century; the presence of American whalers in the waters of the Azores at the end of the 18th century introduced a new economy that would serve to stabilize the economy until new casts were introduced on the island. Whaling became the primary industry around the island until the 1970s; the island is 17.5 km south of São Jorge and just 7 km east of Faial, in the Central Group of islands, an area, colloquially known as o Triangulo. Pico is 46 kilometers long, at its maximum extent about 16 kilometers wide, rising from its center to the west in the summit of the stratovolcano of Pico.
Along the central plain of volcano cones to the eastern coast, the landscape is pitted with the remnants of craters and lake-filled cones, dominated by the ancient volcano of Topo. Geomorphologically, the island is composed of three units: Topo Volcano - Located on the southeastern coast, it corresponds to an ancient volcano destroyed by erosion and landslides. Cones in this region are oriented along a west-northwest and south-southeast axis along a path east to west between the other volcanic structures. Along its flanks are diverse lava and spatter cones that are formed along radial fractures and faults; the island of Pico's tectonic structures are oriented along a west-northwest to east-southeast and a northeast to southwest axis. The main axis controls the main structures the main mountain of Pico, while the secondary axises affect the radial fractures and faults along the central plain and eastern volcano. Similar to the geomorphological structures described above, the volcanic landforms have been identified by Madeira in the following units: Volcanic Complex of Lajes - pertains to the oldest volcanic structures, comprising volcanoes and debris that are between 35-300,000 thousand years old.
Volcanic Complex of Calheta de Nesquim - dating to about 230,000 thousand years ago, this is a fissural zone of cones and basaltic lavas, associated with the Achada Plain, the many faults along the central plateau of the island. Volcanic Complex of Madalena - the most recent volcanic complex, with both geological and historical eruptions; the last volcanic eruption occurred in a small submarine eruption off the northwest coast. Prior to this, major volcanic activity was evident in lava fields generated in only the areas of Prainha, Santa Luzia, São João and Silveira; the paths of the lava flows are still visible. Today, the only visible evidence of active volcanism appears on the summit of Pico, in the base and interior of the Piqueninho. Additionally, there are emissions on 2000 meters altitude. There have been found areas of de-gasification along the fault associated with the Lagoa do Capitão and another in the Topo Volcano, as well as a spring rich in CO2 in the area of Silveira. Pi
Valli Vara Pora is a 1995 Tamil comedy film directed by S. V. Solai Raja; the film features Pandiarajan and Nirosha in the lead roles, with Vinu Chakravarthy, Vijaya Lalitha, Venniradai Moorthy, Muralikumar, Pasi Narayanan and Kumarimuthu playing supporting roles. The film, produced by M. Padmanabhan and S. Nivethan, had musical score by K. S. Mani Oli and was released on 10 February 1995; the film was a remake of Malayalam film Meleparambil Aanveedu. The film became a failure at the box office. Meenakshi and Ayyasamy have three sons: Periyapandi and Chinnapandi; the three brothers are bachelors, Chinnapandi is the only graduate of his family. Kavitha, a relative, is in love with Chinnapandi has no feelings towards her. Chinnapandi sets out for a Kerala village to work as manager of a courier company. There, he meets a Kerala woman named Pavalam, she falls in love with him but her father Menon wants Pavalam to get married against her will. Chinnapandi and Pavalam fall in love with each other and they try to elope from the village the villagers catch them.
Menon, the village chief, accepts for their marriage and both get married. That same day, he comes to know that he is transferred to his native village. Chinnapandi is afraid of whether or not his parents would agree to their marriage, so he keeps Pavalam undercover as a maid in his home, his brothers Periyapandi and Thangapandi fall in love with Pavalam. What transpires next forms the rest of the story; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer K. S. Mani Oli; the soundtrack, released in 1995, features 6 tracks with lyrics written by Piraisoodan, Pattukottai Shanmugasundaram and Ramadaasan