Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978, when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norway's two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, respectively; the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The slump in sales for paperbased encyclopedias around the turn of the 21st century hit Kunnskapsforlaget hard, but a fourth edition of the paper encyclopedia was secured by a grant of 10 million Norwegian kroner from the foundation Fritt Ord in 2003; the fourth edition consisted of a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries. First edition, 1978-1981, 12 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås Second edition, 1986-1989, 15 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås.
Third edition, 1995-1998, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen. Fourth edition, 2005-2007, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen; the online edition of SNL was launched in 2000, had both private and institutional subscribers. The paywall was removed on 25 February 2009, the online encyclopedia became free. On 12 March 2010, Kunnskapsforlaget announced that they would close the online encyclopedia because of lacklustre sales and failing revenue, it was announced that the articles would not be given to the Wikimedia Foundation, with chief-editor Petter Henriksen stating that: "It is important that the people behind the articles remain visible". In 2011, the foundations Fritt Ord and Sparebankstiftelsen DNB acquired the encyclopedia, hired Anne Marit Godal as the new chief editor and established a new organisation, assisted by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers and Translators Association. In 2014 the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association took over the encyclopedia.
In 2016 Erik Bolstad became the new chief editor. As of 2018, the SNL has around 200,000 articles online, updated by 750 affiliated academics; the SNL accepts contributions from users, but all changes to the articles are verified by a topic expert before publication. The online encyclopedia are among the most-read Norwegian published sites, with around 2 million unique visitors per month; the online version of Store norske leksikon
Leknes is a town in Nordland county, Norway. The town is the administrative centre of the municipality of Vestvågøy. Leknes was designated a "town" in 2002; the 2.52-square-kilometre town has a population of 3,556 which gives the town a population density of 1,411 inhabitants per square kilometre. The town is situated in the geographical middle of the Lofoten archipelago on the island of Vestvågøya, it is 68 kilometres west of the town of Svolvær and 65 kilometres east of the village of Å in Moskenes. Leknes is one of the few towns in Lofoten that does not depend on fisheries and does not have its town centre by the sea; because of this, because of its rapid growth in recent years, it does not have the same traditional wooden architecture as most other towns in Lofoten, may thus not be as picturesque as its neighbouring fishing villages. However, the natural surroundings are among the most stunning in Norway, with mountains, peaks and white sandy beaches; the town's harbour Leknes Havn is one of Norway's most important and visited harbours for cruise ships.
The old school in the Fygle neighborhood has been converted into a museum. Hol Church is located on the eastern edge of the town. Leknes is a "twin town" with nearby village of Gravdal, where one branch of the Nordland Hospital is located. Gravdal is located about 4 kilometres southwest of Leknes. In Leknes, the sun is above the horizon from May 26 to July 17, in winter the sun does not rise from December 9 to January 4. Leknes is the shopping centre of Lofoten, only rivaled by Svolvær; the European route E10 highway runs through the town connecting all the main islands of Lofoten to the mainland. Leknes has an airport, Leknes Airport, for regional aircraft, with 7 daily scheduled flights to Bodø and some daily flights to Svolvær with the airline Widerøe; the town has a small bus terminal, a hub with bus links to the rest of Lofoten. The newspaper Lofot-Tidende has been published in Leknes since 1987
Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer. Such a performance is known as a puppet play; the puppeteer uses movements of her hands, arms, or control devices such as rods or strings to move the body, limbs, in some cases the mouth and eyes of the puppet. The puppeteer speaks in the voice of the character of the puppet, synchronizes the movements of the puppet's mouth with this spoken part; the actions and spoken parts acted out by the puppets are used in storytelling. There are many different varieties of puppets, they are made of a wide range of materials, depending on their form and intended use, they can be complex or simple in their construction. The simplest puppets are finger puppets, which are tiny puppets that fit onto a single finger, sock puppets, which are formed from a sock and operated by inserting one's hand inside the sock, with the opening and closing of the hand simulating the movement of the puppet's "mouth".
A hand puppet is controlled by one hand which occupies the interior of the puppet and moves the puppet around. A "live-hand puppet" is similar to a hand puppet but is larger and requires two puppeteers for each puppet. Marionettes are suspended and controlled by a number of strings, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above by the puppeteer. Puppetry is a ancient form of theatre, first recorded in the 5th century BC in Ancient Greece; some forms of puppetry may have originated as long ago as 3000 years BC. Puppetry takes many forms, but they all share the process of animating inanimate performing objects to tell a story. Puppetry occurs in all human societies where puppets are used for the purpose of entertainment through performance, as sacred objects in rituals, as symbolic effigies in celebrations such as carnivals, as a catalyst for social and psychological change in transformative arts. Puppetry is a ancient art form, thought to have originated about 4000 years ago.
Puppets have been used since the earliest times to animate and communicate the ideas and needs of human societies. Some historians claim. There is evidence that they were used in Egypt as early as 2000 BCE when string-operated figures of wood were manipulated to perform the action of kneading bread. Wire controlled, articulated puppets made of clay and ivory have been found in Egyptian tombs. Hieroglyphs describe "walking statues" being used in ancient Egyptian religious dramas. Puppetry was practiced in ancient Greece and the oldest written records of puppetry can be found in the works of Herodotus and Xenophon, dating from the 5th century BCE. Sub-Saharan Africa may have inherited some of the puppet traditions of ancient Egypt. Secret societies in many African ethnic groups still use puppets in ritual dramas as well as in their healing and hunting ceremonies. Today, puppetry continues as a popular form within a ceremonial context, as part of a wide range of folk forms including dance and masked performance.
In the 2010s throughout rural Africa, puppetry still performs the function of transmitting cultural values and ideas that in large African cities is undertaken by formal education, books and television. There is slight evidence for puppetry in the Indus Valley Civilization. Archaeologists have unearthed one terracotta doll with a detachable head capable of manipulation by a string dating to 2500 BC. Another figure is a terracotta monkey which could be manipulated up and down a stick, achieving minimum animation in both cases; the epic Mahabharata, Tamil literature from the Sangam Era, various literary works dating from the late centuries BC to the early centuries AD, including Ashokan edicts, describe puppets. Works like the Natya Shastra and the Kamasutra elaborate on puppetry in some detail; the Javanese Wayang theater was influenced by Indian traditions. Some scholars trace the origin of puppets to India 4000 years ago, where the main character in Sanskrit plays was known as "Sutradhara", "the holder of strings".
Wayang is a strong tradition of puppetry native of Indonesia in Java & Bali. In Java, wayang kulit, an elaborate form of shadow puppetry is popular. Javanese rod puppets are used to tell fables from Javanese history. Another popular puppetry form in Indonesia is Wayang golek. China has a history of puppetry dating back 3000 years in "pi-yung xi", the "theatre of the lantern shadows", or, as it is more known today, Chinese shadow theatre. By the Song Dynasty, puppets played to all social classes including the courts, yet puppeteers, as in Europe, were considered to be from a lower social stratum. In Taiwan, budaixi puppet shows, somewhat similar to the Japanese Bunraku, occur with puppeteers working in the background or underground; some experienced puppeteers can manipulate their puppets to perform various stunts, for example, somersaults in the air. Japan has many forms including the bunraku. Bunraku developed out of Shinto temple rites and became a sophisticated form of puppetry. Chikamatsu Monzaemon, considered by many to be Japan's greatest playwright, gave up writing Kabuki plays and focused on the puppet-only Bunraku plays.
Consisting of one puppeteer, by 1730 three puppeteers were used to operate each puppet in full view of the audience. The puppeteers, who dressed all in black, would become invisible when standing against a black background, while the to
Nordland is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The county was known as Nordlandene amt; the county administration is in Bodø. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen has been administered from Nordland since 1995. In the southern part is Vega, listed on the UNESCO World Heritage site list; the history of Nordland is a tale about the gifts from the sea: One of the most productive seas in the world providing food all year since ancient times, the same sea creates a climate more moderate than any other place in the arctic. The county is divided into traditional districts; these are Helgeland in the south, Salten in the centre, Ofoten in the northeast. In the northwest lie the archipelagoes of Lofoten and Vesterålen. Nordland is located along the northwestern coast of the Scandinavian peninsula in Northern Norway. Due to the large distance to the densely populated parts of Europe, this is one of the least polluted areas in Europe.
Nordland extends about 500 km from Trøndelag to Troms. The distance by road from Bindal in the far south of the county to Andenes on the northern tip is 800 km. Nordland has a rugged coastline, with many fjords. From south to north, the main fjords are Bindalsfjord, Ranfjord, Saltfjord-Skjerstadfjord, Tysfjord and Andfjord, shared with Troms county; the best-known is the Vestfjorden, not a fjord, but an open stretch of sea between the Lofoten island group and the mainland. The Raftsundet strait, with its famous branch Trollfjord, is the shortest waterway connecting Lofoten and Vesterålen; the continental shelf is narrow west of Andenes, nowhere else in Norway is the deep ocean only a few kilometres from shore. Saltstraumen whirlpool is just southeast of Bodø, Moskenstraumen is located in southern Lofoten. Steep mountains near the sea and an flat lowland area in between the mountains and the sea is typical for the long coastline in Nordland, Strandflaten continues out from the shore, the result is numerous islands, of which Helgeland have thousands.
The southern part of Norways largest island, Hinnøya is in Nordland, as is the third-largest island, Langøya. In the fjords, the coastal brim is much less developed: There might be a more gradual slope, with hills, towards the mountains, or no lowland at all. There are valleys at the head of fjords with a river at the centre of the valley. Mo i Rana, Mosjøen and Rognan are situated in such valleys. Norway's second-largest glacier, the second-largest lake, Røssvatnet, the second-deepest fjord, Tysfjord are all located in Nordland; the largest river is Vefsna. The Saltfjellet mountain range forms a natural border between Helgeland and Salten, is where the Arctic Circle cuts through the county; the western part of this mountain range is dominated by steep mountains and fjord inlets, with glaciers stretching towards the sea, while the eastern part of the mountains is more gentle and rounded, with some forested valleys, is well suited for hiking. The interior of Nordland, towards the border with Sweden, is dominated by the Kjølen Mountains.
The highest mountain in Nordland is Oksskolten in Okstindan range, the second-highest is Suliskongen in Fauske, the third is Storsteinfjellet in Narvik. Stetind in Tysfjord has been voted as Norway's national mountain. There are many glaciers in the mountains, like Blåmannsisen, the Sulitjelma Glacier, Frostisen—7 of the 15 largest glaciers in continental Norway are located in Nordland. In the geological past, a collision with Greenland pushed long slices of the seabed on top of the existing bedrock, today forming the bedrock from Dovrefjell and Trollheimen south of Trondheim stretching north in Trøndelag and through Nordland to justh north of Tromsø; this Cambrian—Silurian bedrock, much of it mica schist, is by far the largest area in Norway with soft bedrock rich in nutritions good for plant growth. It forms the bedrock in the fjord areas, while the islands off the coast and some of the easternmost areas along the border with Sweden are made up of hard bedrock. In some areas, as in Tysfjord and Sørfold, the bedrock is a mix of hard granite.
Much of the Lofoten mountains are of precambrian eruptive origin and 3.5 billion years old, among the oldest on earth. The youngest rock in Norway is on Andøya known for its fossils of dinosaurs and other life forms; as the land was depressed by the ice sheet in the ice age, substantial areas in the lowest altitudes was beneath the surface of the sea for thousands of years acquiring marine deposits. Due to post-glacial rebound, this is now dry land, reaching 120 metres above sea level today in Saltdal, 100 m in Narvik and Brønnøysund, 30–50 m in Lofoten and Vesterålen. Limestone is common in Nordland, with many caves throughout the county, such as Grønligrotta in Rana. There are more caves in Rana than any other area in northern Europe. In August 2006 the Tjoarvekrajgge cave in Sørfold was explored and verified as the longest cave in Scandinavia.
Vestfjord or Vestfjorden is a 155-kilometre long sea in Nordland county, Norway. The name means "the west fjord", although it is called a fjord, it could best be described as a firth or an open bight of sea; the "fjord" lies between the Salten district of mainland Norway. The term fjord is used more for bodies of water in the western Scandinavian languages than the more narrow usage assigned in English; the Vestfjord flows from the area near the town of Narvik to southwest. The mouth of the Vestfjord is about 80 kilometres wide running from the mainland town of Bodø to the islands of Røstlandet and Værøya to the northwest of Bodø; the Vestfjord is famous for its cod fishery, exploited back to the early medieval period. More the winter invasion of Orcas in the inner parts of Vestfjord has become a tourist attraction. Strong winds with heavy seas are not uncommon in Vestfjord in winter
The Schutzstaffel was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany, throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany. From 1929 until the regime's collapse in 1945, the SS was the foremost agency of security and terror within Germany and German-occupied Europe; the two main constituent groups were the Allgemeine SS and Waffen-SS. The Allgemeine SS was responsible for enforcing the racial policy of Nazi Germany and general policing, whereas the Waffen-SS consisted of combat units within Nazi Germany's military. A third component of the SS, the SS-Totenkopfverbände, ran the concentration camps and extermination camps.
Additional subdivisions of the SS included the Sicherheitsdienst organizations. They were tasked with the detection of actual or potential enemies of the Nazi state, the neutralization of any opposition, policing the German people for their commitment to Nazi ideology, providing domestic and foreign intelligence; the SS was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other victims in the Holocaust. Members of all of its branches committed war crimes and crimes against humanity during World War II; the SS was involved in commercial enterprises and exploited concentration camp inmates as slave labor. After Nazi Germany's defeat, the SS and the NSDAP were judged by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg to be criminal organizations. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the highest-ranking surviving SS main department chief, was found guilty of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials and hanged in 1946. By 1923, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler had created a small volunteer guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz to provide security at their meetings in Munich.
The same year, Hitler ordered the formation of a small bodyguard unit dedicated to his personal service. He wished it to be separate from the "suspect mass" of the party, including the paramilitary Sturmabteilung, which he did not trust; the new formation was designated the Stabswache. The unit was composed of eight men, commanded by Julius Schreck and Joseph Berchtold, was modeled after the Erhardt Naval Brigade, a Freikorps of the time; the unit was renamed Stoßtrupp in May 1923. The Stoßtrupp was abolished after the failed 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt by the NSDAP to seize power in Munich. In 1925, Hitler ordered Schreck to organize the Schutzkommando, it was tasked with providing personal protection for Hitler at NSDAP events. That same year, the Schutzkommando was expanded to a national organization and renamed successively the Sturmstaffel, the Schutzstaffel; the SS marked its foundation on 9 November 1925. The new SS was to provide protection for NSDAP leaders throughout Germany. Hitler's personal SS protection unit was enlarged to include combat units.
Schreck, a founding member of the SA and a close confidant of Hitler, became the first SS chief in March 1925. On 15 April 1926, Joseph Berchtold succeeded him as chief of the SS. Berchtold changed the title of the office to Reichsführer-SS. Berchtold was considered more dynamic than his predecessor, but became frustrated by the authority the SA had over the SS; this led to him transferring leadership of the SS to his deputy, Erhard Heiden, on 1 March 1927. Under Heiden's leadership, a stricter code of discipline was enforced than would have been tolerated in the SA. Between 1925 and 1929, the SS was considered to be a small Gruppe of the SA. Except in the Munich area, the SS was unable to maintain any momentum in its membership numbers, which declined from 1,000 to 280 as the SA continued its rapid growth; as Heiden attempted to keep the SS from dissolving, Heinrich Himmler became his deputy in September 1927. Himmler displayed good organizational abilities compared to Heiden; the SS established a number of Gaus.
The SS-Gaus consisted of SS-Gau Berlin, SS-Gau Berlin Brandenburg, SS-Gau Franken, SS-Gau Niederbayern, SS-Gau Rheinland-Süd, SS-Gau Sachsen. With Hitler's approval, Himmler assumed the position of Reichsführer-SS in January 1929. There are differing accounts of the reason for Heiden's dismissal from his position as head of the SS; the party announced that it was for "family reasons." Under Himmler, the SS gained a larger foothold. He considered the SS an elite, ideologically driven National Socialist organization, a "conflation of Teutonic knights, the Jesuits, Japanese Samurai", his ultimate aim was to turn the SS into the most powerful organization in Germany and most influential branch of the party. He expanded the SS to 3,000 members in his first year as its leader. In 1929, the SS-Hauptamt was expanded and reorganized into five main offices dealing with general administration, finance and race matters. At the same time, the SS-Gaus were expanded into three SS-Oberführerbereiche areas, namely the SS-Oberführerbereich Ost, SS-Oberführerbereich