SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, one of the official languages of China. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese; the similar Taiwanese Mandarin is a national language of Taiwan. Standard Singaporean Mandarin is one of the four official languages of Singapore. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. Standard Chinese is a standardised form of the language called Putonghua in Mainland China. Guoyu is a similar linguistic standard in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.

Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.

Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.

Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.

In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists

Calista Flockhart

Calista Kay Flockhart is an American actress. On television, she is best known for her roles as the title character on Ally McBeal, Kitty Walker on Brothers & Sisters, Cat Grant on Supergirl. In film, she is known for roles in The Birdcage, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her. Flockhart has received a Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award, been nominated for three Primetime Emmy Awards. Calista Kay Flockhart was born in Freeport, the daughter of Kay Calista, an English teacher, Ronald Flockhart, a Kraft Foods executive, her parents live in Morristown, Tennessee. She has Gary, her mother reversed her own middle names in naming her Calista Kay. Because her father's job required the family to move Flockhart and her brother grew up in several places including Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, Norwich, New York; as a child, she wrote. Flockhart attended Shawnee High School in New Jersey. Following graduation in 1983, Flockhart attended Glassboro State College her freshman year subsequently attended the Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

While there, she attended a specialized and competitive class, lasting from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. In her sophomore year at Rutgers, Flockhart met aspiring actress Jane Krakowski, the best friend of her roommate, they both would work together on Ally McBeal. People began recognizing Flockhart's acting ability when William Esper made an exception to policy by allowing Flockhart to perform on the main stage. Though this venue is reserved for juniors and seniors, Harold Scott insisted that Flockhart perform there in his production of William Inge's Picnic. Flockhart graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Theatre in 1988 as one of the few students who completed the course. Rutgers inducted her into the Hall of Distinguished Alumni on May 3, 2003. Flockhart moved to New York City in 1989 and began seeking auditions, living with three other women in a two-bedroom apartment and working as a waitress and aerobics instructor, she remained until 1997. In spring 1989, Flockhart made her first television appearance in a minor role in an episode of Guiding Light as a babysitter.

She played a teenager battling an eating disorder on a one-hour Afternoon Special on TV. Flockhart made her professional debut on the New York stage, appearing in Beside Herself alongside Melissa Joan Hart, at the Circle Repertory Theatre. Two years Flockhart appeared in the television movie Darrow. Though she appeared in films Naked in New York and Getting In, her first substantial speaking part in a film was in Quiz Show, directed by Robert Redford. Flockhart debuted on Broadway in 1994, as Laura in The Glass Menagerie. Actress Julie Harris felt Flockhart should be hired without further auditions, claiming that she seemed ideal for the part. Flockhart received a Clarence Derwent Award for her performance. In 1995, Flockhart became acquainted with actors such as Dianne Wiest and Faye Dunaway when she appeared in the movie Drunks; that year, Flockhart starred in Jane Doe as a drug addict. In 1996, Flockhart appeared as the daughter of Dianne Wiest and Gene Hackman's characters in The Birdcage. Throughout that year, she continued to work on Broadway, playing the role of Natasha in Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters.

In 1997, Flockhart was asked to audition for the starring role in David E. Kelley's Fox television series Ally McBeal. Kelley, having heard of Flockhart, wanted her to audition for the contract part. Though she hesitated due to the necessary commitment to the show in a negotiable contract, she was swayed by the script and traveled to Los Angeles to audition for the part, which she won, she earned a Golden Globe Award for the role in 1998. Flockhart appeared on the June 29, 1998, cover of Time magazine, placed as the newest iteration in the evolution of feminism, relating to the ongoing debate about the role depicted by her character. Flockhart starred on the show until it was canceled in 2002. Flockhart performed in a starring role as Kitty Walker, opposite Sally Field, Rachel Griffiths and Matthew Rhys, in the ABC critically acclaimed prime time series Brothers & Sisters, which premiered in September 2006 in the time slot after Desperate Housewives; the show was cancelled in May 2011 after running for five years.

Flockhart's character was significant throughout the series' first four years, but her appearances were reduced for the 2010–2011 season, coinciding with the departure of TV husband Rob Lowe. Flockhart played the role of Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream, a 1999 film version of Shakespeare's play. In 2000, she appeared in Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her and Bash: Latter-Day Plays accompanying Eve Ensler to Kenya in order to protest violence against women female genital mutilation. Flockhart starred in the Off-Broadway production of Ensler's The Vagina Monologues. In 2004, Flockhart appeared as Matthew Broderick's deranged girlfriend in The Last Shot. In the same year, Flockhart travelled to Spain for the filming of Fragile, which premiered in September 2005 at the Venice Film Festival, she was offered the role of Susan Mayer on Desperate Housewives but declined, the role went to Teri Hatcher. In 2014, Flockhart landed a role as mob boss Ellen, it was expected to air in 2015. This had been Flockhart's first acting role in three years, after her hiatus when Brothers & Sisters ended.

In 2015, F

USS Earl K. Olsen

USS Earl K. Olsen was a Cannon-class destroyer escort built for the United States Navy during World War II, she served in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and provided escort service against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys. At war's end, she continued service as a training ship, she was named in honor of Earl Kenneth Olsen, who lost his life while attempting to bring a fellow officer to safety during the night Battle of Tassafaronga, off Guadalcanal, 30 November – 1 December 1942. Lieutenant Commander Olsen was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. Earl K. Olsen was launched on 13 February 1944 by Tampa Shipbuilding Co. Inc. Tampa, Florida. After serving as school ship for the Fleet Sound School at Key West, from 24 June to 13 August 1944, Earl K. Olsen sailed to Casco Bay, for refresher training before reporting to Boston, Massachusetts, on 24 August, for convoy duty. Between 28 August 1944 and 24 May 1945, she made six voyages escorting convoys between Boston, New York, United Kingdom ports.

On the fifth voyage as the convoy sailed for Southampton, USAT J. W. McAndrew and the French aircraft carrier Béarn collided on 13 March in a violent storm. Earl K. Olsen rescued two men and escorted the two stricken ships into Ponta Delgada, for emergency repairs while Olsen rejoined her convoy. At the close of the war in Europe, Earl K. Olsen, now under the command of Lieutenant Commander Robert G. Nichols USN, sailed from New York on 8 June 1945 to join the Pacific Fleet, training at Guantanamo Bay, during her passage to Pearl Harbor, she arrived on 19 July. Heading west again on 6 August, she escorted ships to island ports and arrived at Manila on 3 September; the same day she commenced the first of four voyages to escort LSTs to Yokohama, operated in the Philippines until 9 January 1946. Earl K. Olsen returned to San Pedro, California, on 24 February 1946, sailed on 10 March for Norfolk, arriving the 26th. On 11 April she got underway for Green Cove Springs, arriving the 13th, to decommission.

Her captain at decommissioning was Lieutenant Commander Robert G. Nichols USN, she was placed out of commission in reserve on 17 June 1946. Assigned to Naval Reserve duty on 13 December 1946, Earl K. Olsen was towed to Tampa and served with reduced complement. Recommissioned on 21 November 1950, she reached Charleston, South Carolina, her new home port, on 7 January 1951. With her complement increased, she continued to train Naval Reservists, but with a larger cruising range, visiting the Caribbean, France and Portugal two summers, 1951 and 1955. From 18 July 1953, she continued Reserve training duty out of Philadelphia, punctuated by fleet exercises. Reporting for inactivation on 23 November 1957, Earl K. Olsen was placed out of commission in reserve again on 25 February 1958, at Philadelphia, she was broken up for scrap. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Earl K. Olsen at NavSource Naval History