UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions. The cup was one of the many inter-European club competitions that have been organised by the Union of European Football Associations; the first competition was held in the 1960–61 season — but not recognised by the governing body of European football until two years later. The final tournament was held in 1998 -- 99. From 1972 onwards, the winner of the tournament progressed to play the winner of the European Cup in the UEFA Super Cup. Since the abolition of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, the UEFA Super Cup place reserved for the Cup Winners' Cup winner has been taken by the winner of the UEFA Cup, now UEFA Europa League; the competition's official name was the European Cup Winners' Cup. Throughout its 39-year history, the Cup Winners' Cup was always a straight knock-out tournament with two-legged home and away ties until the single match final staged at a neutral venue, the only exception to this being the two-legged final in the competition's first year.
In common with other UEFA club tournaments, the away goal applied. The format was identical to the original European Champions' Cup with 32 teams contesting four knock-out rounds prior to the showpiece final, with the tournament running from September to May each year. Following the influx of new UEFA member nations during the 1990s, a regular August preliminary round was added to reduce the number of entrants to 32. Entry was restricted to one club from each UEFA member association, the only exception being to allow the current Cup Winners' Cup holders to enter alongside their nation's new domestic cup winners in order to allow them a chance to defend their Cup Winners' Cup title. However, if this team qualified for the European Champions' Cup they would default on their place in the Cup Winners' Cup and no other team would replace them. On occasions when a club completed a domestic league and cup'double' that club would enter the European Cup/UEFA Champions League and their place in the Cup Winners' Cup would be taken by the domestic cup runners-up.
In 1998–99, the competition's final year, Heerenveen of the Netherlands entered the Cup Winners' Cup despite only reaching the semi-final of the previous season's Dutch Cup. This was due to both Dutch Cup finalists Ajax and PSV Eindhoven qualifying for the expanded Champions League. Mirroring the circumstances behind the creation of the European Cup five years earlier, the idea for a pan-European cup competition contested by all of Europe's domestic cup winners came from prominent European sports journalists; the European Cup had proven to be a great success and the Fairs Cup had proven popular – as a result, other ideas for new European football tournaments were being aired. One proposal was for a tournament based upon the format of the European Cup, but with national cup winners rather than league champions taking part, which could run alongside that competition; the inaugural Cup Winners' Cup was held in the 1960–61 season and was a semi-official pilot tournament. However the initial reaction to the competition's creation was unenthusiastic on the part of many of Europe's top clubs – many European associations did not have domestic cup competitions at the time and in those countries that did, the cup competition was held in low esteem and not taken by the bigger clubs.
It was only in England, Scotland and to a lesser extent Germany and Spain that the domestic cup was considered prestigious. Many were sceptical about the viability of a European tournament for cup winners and many of the bigger clubs eligible to contest the first CWC turned down the chance to enter, such as Atlético Madrid of Spain and AS Monaco of France; the inaugural CWC was contested by just 10 clubs but the games were well attended and the response from the public and the media to the new tournament was positive and enthusiastic. For the tournament's second season in 1961–62, UEFA took over the running of all aspects of the competition and this time all the clubs eligible to enter accepted the opportunity. By 1968, all UEFA member nations had set up domestic cup competitions due to the success of the Cup Winners' Cup. UEFA regarded it as the second most prestigious competition, behind the European Cup and ahead of the Fairs Cup. Therefore, a team qualified for both the European Cup and the Cup Winners' Cup would play in the European Cup, whereas a team qualified for both the UEFA Cup and the Cup Winners' Cup would play in the Cup Winners' Cup.
Many commentators and fans regarded the Cup Winners' Cup as weaker than the UEFA Cup, which had more and better teams from the stronger European leagues. In the 1985–86 season, English clubs were banned from European competition as a result of Heysel Stadium disaster. Manchester United, Coventry City and Liverpool were prevented from competing in the Cup Winners' Cup until the beginning of the 1990–91 season. No club managed to retain the Cup Winners' Cup, although eight times a winning side followed up their victories with a losing appearance in the following season's final. After the establishment of the UEFA Champions League in the early 1990s, the standing and prestige of the Cup Winners' Cup began to decline. With th
1961–62 European Cup
The 1961–62 European Cup was the seventh season of the European Cup. The competition was won by Benfica for the second time in a row, beating Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympisch Stadion in Amsterdam. Malta entered its champion for the first time this season; the draw for the preliminary round took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, on Tuesday, 4 July 1961. As title holders, Benfica received a bye, the remaining 28 teams were grouped geographically into two pots; the first team drawn in each pot received a bye, while the remaining clubs would play the first round in September. The calendar was decided by the involved teams. 1 The second leg was scratched and Vorwärts Berlin were advanced to the first round as Linfield were unable to arrange an alternate venue after UK immigration officials refused to issue the Vorwärts team visas to enter the country. Rangers won 6–4 on aggregate. Nürnberg won 9–1 on aggregate. Dukla Prague won 6–5 on aggregate. Feyenoord won 11–2 on aggregate. Boldklubben 1913 won 15–2 on aggregate.
Servette won 7–1 on aggregate. Standard Liège won 4–1 on aggregate. Real Madrid won 5–1 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 10–5 on aggregate. Partizan won 3–1 on aggregate. Juventus won 3–2 on aggregate. Austria Wien won 2–0 on aggregate. Real Madrid won 12–0 on aggregate. Standard Liège won 7–1 on aggregate. Benfica won 6–2 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 4–2 on aggregate. Juventus won 7–1 on aggregate. Dukla Prague won 5–4 on aggregate. Rangers won 6–2 on aggregate. Nürnberg won 3–1 on aggregate; the Rangers-Vorwärts tie was scheduled to be played at Ibrox Stadium in Glasgow, but was moved to the Malmö Stadion in Malmö, Sweden after the East German club were again refused visas to enter the UK. The original match in Malmö was abandoned due to heavy fog with Rangers leading 1-0, the match was replayed the following morning. 1 Real Madrid beat Juventus 3–1 in a play-off to qualify for the semi-finals. Standard Liège won 4–3 on aggregate. Real Madrid 1–1 Juventus on aggregate. Benfica won 7–3 on aggregate.
Tottenham Hotspur won 4–2 on aggregate. Benfica won 4–3 on aggregate. Real Madrid won 6–0 on aggregate; the top scorers from the 1961–62 European Cup are as follows: 1961–62 All matches – season at UEFA website All scorers 1961–62 European Cup according to protocols UEFA + all scorers preliminary round 1961–62 European Cup - results and line-ups European Cup results at Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation
Ernst Franz Hermann Happel was an Austrian football player and coach. He is regarded as one of the most successful managers winning both league and domestic cup titles in the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria as well as winning the European Cup twice, the first in 1970 and the second in 1983, a runners-up medal at the 1978 FIFA World Cup, he was the first of the five managers to have won the European Cup with two different clubs, Carlo Ancelotti, Ottmar Hitzfeld, José Mourinho and Jupp Heynckes being the other four. He is one of six managers – along with José Mourinho, Carlo Ancelotti, Giovanni Trapattoni, Tomislav Ivić and Eric Gerets – to have won domestic league championships in at least four different countries. Happel started his professional playing career at Rapid Wien, where he made his first team debut at age 17. Forming a solid defensive partnership with Max Merkel, he played 14 years for Rapid, from 1943 till 1954 and 1956 till 1959, winning the Austrian Championship title six times.
He was chosen in Rapid's Team of the Century in 1999. The two years in between Happel played for Racing Club de Paris in France. Happel made his debut for Austria in September 1947 against Hungary and was a participant at the 1954 FIFA World Cup in Switzerland, where he helped them reach third place, at the 1958 World Cup, his last international was a September 1958 match against Yugoslavia. He scored 5 goals. After retiring as a player, Happel went on to become one of the greatest coaches of all-time, he won the league title in four different countries. He took two different clubs to gold in the European Champions' Cup and the Netherlands to second place in the 1978 World Cup, his first club was ADO Den Haag in 1962, with whom he won the Dutch Cup in 1968. After Den Haag he coached Feyenoord, with whom he won the European Cup and the Intercontinental Cup in 1970, the Dutch championship in 1971. At the 1978 World Cup in Argentina, Happel was coach of the Dutch national team and reached the final against the Argentine national team.
Always a man of few words, Happel's pre-match pep talk is said to have consisted of just one sentence: "Gentlemen, two points." The Dutch, lost the final 3-1 in extra time. During his career as coach, Happel worked for several clubs, including Sevilla, Club Brugge and Hamburger SV. In 1983, he won the European Cup again, 13 years after the triumph with Feyenoord, this time with Hamburger SV, defeating Juventus in the final, he is one of five coaches in the history of the European Cup to win the title with two different clubs, the others being Ottmar Hitzfeld, who won with Borussia Dortmund and Bayern Munich. In 1987, Happel returned to Austria as coach of Swarovski Tirol. With the club, he won the Austrian Championship title twice before becoming coach of the Austria national team in 1992. All youth players of Rapid Vienna automatically became member of the Hitler Jugend in 1938. Ernst reported, he was conscripted and dispatched to the Eastern Front in 1943. Although he never saw action, he was arrested by the Americans in 1945.
He escaped by jumping out of the train wagon in Munich and took several months to make his way back to Vienna. He smuggled himself into the Russian zone with the excuse that he had seen from afar his house was still standing and that he'd started playing at Rapid Vienna again. Ernst Happel never married, he was described by one of his ex-players Birger Jensen as a bit of a loner, always accompanied by his cigarettes and cognac. He would meet up with Austrian friends, enjoying card games and darts. A heavy smoker for most of his adult life, Happel died of lung cancer in 1992 at age 66. In the wake of his death, the biggest football stadium in Austria, the Praterstadion in Vienna, was renamed the Ernst-Happel-Stadion. Four days after his death, Austria reached a 0 -- 0 draw; as of 6 January 2019 *Dates of first and last games under Happel not dates of official appointments *Dates of first and last games under Happel not dates of official appointments Rapid Wien Austrian Football Bundesliga: 1945–46, 1947–48, 1950–51, 1951–52, 1953–54, 1956–57 Austrian Cup: 1946 Zentropa Cup: 1951Austria FIFA World Cup: 1954 ADO Den Haag Dutch Cup: 1968 Feyenoord Eredivisie: 1970–71 European Cup: 1969–70 Intercontinental Cup: 1970 Club Brugge Belgian Championship: 1975–76, 1976–77, 1977–78 Belgian Cup: 1977 Standard Liège Belgian Cup: 1981 Belgian Supercup: 1981 Netherlands FIFA World Cup: 1978 Hamburger SV Bundesliga: 1981–82, 1982–83 DFB-Pokal: 1986–87 European Cup: 1982–83 Swarovski Tirol Austrian Championship: 1988–89, 1989–90 Austrian Cup: 1989 Individual European Coach of the Year—Sepp Herberger Award: 1978, 1983 European Coach of the Season: 1982–83 World Soccer Magazine 7th Greatest Manager of All Time: 2013 Player profile – Rapid Archive Ernst Happel at National-Football-Teams.com
Royal Sporting Club Anderlecht known as Anderlecht or RSCA, is a Belgian professional football club based in Anderlecht, Brussels Capital-Region. Anderlecht plays in the Belgian First Division A and is the most successful Belgian football team in European competitions, with five trophies, as well as in the Belgian domestic league, with 34 championship wins, they have won nine Belgian Cups and hold the record for most consecutive Belgian championship titles, winning five between the 1963–64 and 1967–68 seasons. Founded in 1908, the club first reached the highest level in Belgian football in 1921–22 and have been playing in the first division continuously since 1935–36 and in Europe since 1964-65, they won their first major trophy after World War II with a championship win in 1946–47. Since they have never finished outside the top six of the Belgian first division, they are ranked 12th amongst all-time UEFA club competition winners, tenth in the International Federation of Football History & Statistics continental Clubs of the 20th Century European ranking and were 41st in the 2012 UEFA team rankings.
In 1986, they achieved their best UEFA ranking with a joint first place with Juventus. Anderlecht have been playing their matches in the Astrid Park in the municipality of Anderlecht since 1917, their current stadium, Constant Vanden Stock Stadium, was first opened in 1983, replaced the former Emile Versé Stadium. They play in white outfits, they have long-standing rivalries with Standard Liège. Founded as Sporting Club Anderlechtois on 27 May 1908 by a dozen football lovers at the Concordia café, the club beat Institut Saint-Georges in their first match, 11–8, they joined the official competition in 1909–10, starting at the lowest level in the Belgian football league system the third provincial division. In 1912–13, they gained promotion to the second-higher level of football named the Promotion. After only one season at that level, the championships were suspended due to World War I, resumed in 1919–20. With the popularity of the team increasing, Anderlecht had moved to a new stadium in the Astrid Park in 1917.
They baptized the stadium Stade Emile Versé in honor of the club's first major patron, the industrialist Emile Versé. At the end of the 1920–21 season, Anderlecht were promoted to the first division for the first time in their history. In the next 14 seasons, Anderlecht were relegated four times and promoted four times, earning themselves the mockery of local rival clubs Union Saint-Gilloise and Daring Club de Bruxelles, who nicknamed them the "lift club". In 1933, 25 years after their formation, the club changed their name to Royal Sporting Club Anderlechtois. Since their promotion in 1935, Anderlecht has remained at the top level of football. With Jef Mermans, a striker signed from K Tubantia FC in 1942 for a record fee of 125,000 Belgian francs, Anderlecht won their first league title in 1947, their success increased in the following years as they won six more titles between 1949–50 and 1955–56 and two more in 1958–59 and 1961–62. In the 1960s, under the coaching of Pierre Sinibaldi and of Andreas Beres, the club won five titles in a row, still a Belgian league record.
The star of this team was Paul Van Himst, topscorer in 1965, 1967 and 1969 and Belgian Golden Shoe winner in 1960, 1961, 1965 and 1974. Anderlecht played in the first European Champion Clubs' Cup in 1955–56, lost both legs of their tie against Vörös Lobogo, they had to wait until the 1962–63 season to win their first European tie, with a 1–0 victory over Real Madrid, which followed a 3–3 draw in Spain. For the first time, they advanced to the second round, where they beat CSKA Sofia before losing to Dundee in the quarter-finals. In the 1969–70 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Anderlecht lost in the final against Arsenal. Between 1975 and 1984, Anderlecht only won one championship but they achieved considerable European success: they won the 1975–76 and 1977–78 European Cup Winners' Cups against West Ham United and Austria Wien as well as the two subsequent European Super Cups; the 1982–83 season was a noteworthy season for the club for numerous reasons: former Anderlecht favourite Paul Van Himst was named the new coach, they won the 1982–83 UEFA Cup and the rebuilding of the club stadium began.
But in the domestic league, Anderlecht had to settle for second place behind Standard. Their bid to retain the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 failed at the final hurdle against English side Tottenham Hotspur. Anderlecht reached the final controversially by beating another English side, Nottingham Forest, with a debatable extra time penalty to win 3–2 on aggregate, it was found Anderlecht had bribed the referee the equivalent of £27,000 to ensure passage to the final. After three second-place finishes in a row, the Purple and Whites secured an easy 18th title in 1984–85, 11 points ahead of Club Brugge. In 1985–86, Anderlecht won the championship again, but this time after a two-legged play-off against Club Brugge. Anderlecht won their 20th championship on the last matchday of the 1986–87 season, they lost key players Franky Vercauteren, Enzo Scifo and Juan Lozano. A weakened team coached by Raymond Goethals finished only fourth in 1988 behind Club Brugge, KV Mechelen and Royal Antwerp, but they nonetheless managed to lift the Belgian Cup for the sixth time in cl
Highbury is a district in North London and part of the London Borough of Islington. The area now known as Islington was part of the larger manor of Tolentone, mentioned in the Domesday Book. Tolentone was owned by Ranulf brother of Ilger and included all the areas north and east of Canonbury and Holloway Roads; the manor house was situated by what is now the east side of Hornsey Road near the junction with Seven Sisters Road. After the manor decayed, a new manor house was built in 1271 to the south-east; the site for Highbury Manor was used by a Roman garrison as a summer camp. During the construction of a new Highbury House in 1781, tiles were found that could have been Roman or Norman. Ownership of Highbury passed to Alicia de Barrow, who in 1271 gave it to the Priory of St John of Jerusalem known as the Knights Hospitallers in England; the wealthy Lord Prior built Highbury manor as a substantial stone country lodging with a grange and barn. In 1381, during the Peasants' Revolt, Jack Straw led a mob of 20,000 rioters who "so offended by the wealth and haughtiness" of the Knights Hospitallers destroyed the manor house.
The Lord Prior at the time, Robert Hales, who had taken refuge in the Tower of London, was captured and beheaded on Tower Hill. Jack Straw and some of his followers used the site as a temporary headquarters; this should not be confused with the better known Jack Straw's Castle a pub and now residential flats at Whitestone Ponds, named after the semi-legendary leader of the revolt. The Manor of Highbury remained the possession of the Knights of St John until it was confiscated by Henry VIII in 1540; the land stayed as crown property until Parliament began selling it in the 17th century. John Dawes, a wealthy stockbroker, acquired the site of Jack Straw's Castle together with 247 acres of surrounding land. In 1781 he built Highbury House at a cost of £ 10,000 on the spot. Over the next 30 years the house was extended by new owners, firstly Alexander Aubert and John Bentley, to include a large observatory and lavish gardens; the grounds around Highbury House started to be sold off in 1794. By 1894 Highbury House and its remaining grounds became a school.
In 1938 Highbury House was demolished and is now the site of Eton House flats, built by the Old Etonian Housing Association in 1939. After the Manor house had been destroyed in 1381, the grange and barn remained on the east side of the track that ran south to Hopping Lane, now St Paul's Road on the line of Highbury Park / Highbury Grove. In 1740 a small ale and cake house was opened in the Highbury. In 1770 William Willoughby took over Highbury Barn and increased its popularity, he expanded its size and facilities, taking over land and buildings from the farm next door, reaching beyond what is now Kelvin Road and created a bowling green, trap-ball grounds and gardens. It could cater for company dinners of 2,000 people and dancing and became one of the most popular venues in London. In 1854 events at the annual balls in the grounds of the Barn included the aeronaut Charles Green's balloon ascent. By 1865 there was a huge dancing platform, a rebuilt theatre, high-wire acts, music hall and the original Siamese twins.
The Barn became the victim of its own success. After a riot led by students from Bart's Hospital in 1869, locals complained about the Barn's riotous and bawdy clientele; this led in 1871 authorities revoked the Barn's dancing licence. By 1794 Highbury consisted of Highbury House and Highbury Hill House, Highbury Barn and the gated terraces of Highbury Terrace and Highbury Place, built on land leased by John Dawes. Highbury may have stayed this way, as the plan was to create a 250 acres park – Albert Park – between St Paul's Road/Balls Pond Road and the Seven Sisters Road. Instead a 27.5 acre site, now Highbury Fields was saved in 1869 and the 115 acre Finsbury Park were created. The rest of the area was developed; the majority of the development of the area occurred in two phases. After this time, development went high-density with close packed terraced houses being built in the north of Highbury. Available land continued to be in-filled with more housing until 1918, but little else changed until after World War II.
A need for a place for Catholic residents of Highbury to worship in the 1920s led to the commissioning of St Joan of Arc's church, thought to be the first dedicated to the saint canonised in 1920, on a site on Kelross Road where the church hall is now located. The church was soon expanded, but the influx of Catholic residents after the war led to a need for a new, larger church; the new church dedicated to St Joan of Arc, designed by Stanley Kerr Bate, opened on 23 September 1962 on Highbury Park. Highbury was again by V-1 flying bombs. On 27 June 1944, a V-1 destroyed Highbury Corner, killing 26 people and injuring 150. Highbury Corner had an impressive station and hotel which were damaged in this attack but its main building remained in use until demolished in the 1960s during the building of the Victoria Line; the original westbound platform buildings remain on the opposite side of Holloway Road, as does a small part of the original entrance to the left of the present station entrance. A red plaque, mount
Futbol Club Barcelona referred to as Barcelona and colloquially known as Barça, is a Spanish professional football club based in Barcelona, Spain. Founded in 1899 by a group of Swiss and Catalan footballers led by Joan Gamper, the club has become a symbol of Catalan culture and Catalanism, hence the motto "Més que un club". Unlike many other football clubs, the supporters operate Barcelona, it is the fourth-most valuable sports team in the world, worth $4.06 billion, the world's second-richest football club in terms of revenue, with an annual turnover of €690.4 million. The official Barcelona anthem is the "Cant del Barça", written by Jaume Picas and Josep Maria Espinàs. Domestically, Barcelona has won 25 La Liga, 30 Copa del Rey, 13 Supercopa de España, 3 Copa Eva Duarte, 2 Copa de la Liga trophies, as well as being the record holder for the latter four competitions. In international club football, Barcelona has won 20 European and World titles: 5 UEFA Champions League titles, a record 4 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, a joint record 5 UEFA Super Cup, a record 3 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, a joint record 3 FIFA Club World Cup.
Barcelona was ranked first in the International Federation of Football History & Statistics Club World Ranking for 1997, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2015 and occupies the second position on the UEFA club rankings. The club has a long-standing rivalry with Real Madrid. Barcelona is one of the most supported teams in the world, the club has one of the largest social media following in the world among sports teams. Barcelona players have won a record number of Ballon d'Or awards, with recipients including Johan Cruyff, as well as a record number of FIFA World Player of the Year awards, with winners including Ronaldo, Romário and Rivaldo. In 2010, three players who came through the club's youth academy were chosen as the three best players in the world in the FIFA Ballon d'Or awards, an unprecedented feat for players from the same football school. Barcelona is one of three founding members of the Primera División that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, along with Athletic Bilbao and Real Madrid.
In 2009, Barcelona became the first Spanish club to win the continental treble consisting of La Liga, Copa del Rey, the UEFA Champions League, became the first Spanish football club to win six out of six competitions in a single year, by winning the Spanish Super Cup, UEFA Super Cup, FIFA Club World Cup. In 2011, the club won five trophies; this Barcelona team, which won 14 trophies in just 4 years under Pep Guardiola, is considered by some in the sport to be the greatest team of all time. By winning their fifth Champions League trophy on 6 June 2015, Barcelona became the first European club in history to achieve the continental treble twice; the highest paid sports team in the world, in November 2018 Barcelona became the first sports team with average first-team pay in excess of £10m per year. On 22 October 1899, Hans Gamper placed an advertisement in Los Deportes declaring his wish to form a football club. Eleven players attended – Walter Wild, Lluís d'Ossó, Bartomeu Terradas, Otto Kunzle, Otto Maier, Enric Ducal, Pere Cabot, Carles Pujol, Josep Llobet, John Parsons, William Parsons – and Foot-Ball Club Barcelona was born.
FC Barcelona had a successful start in regional and national cups, competing in the Campionat de Catalunya and the Copa del Rey. In 1902, the club won its first trophy, the Copa Macaya, participated in the first Copa del Rey, losing 1–2 to Bizcaya in the final. In 1908, Hans Gamper – now known as Joan Gamper – became club president in a desperate attempt to save Barcelona from extinction, finding the club struggling not just on the pitch, but financially and after not winning a competition since the Campionat de Catalunya in 1905, he said in a meeting, "Barcelona must not die. If there is nobody, going to try I will assume the responsibility of running the club from now on." Club president on five separate occasions between 1908 and 1925, he spent 25 years in total at the helm. One of his main achievements was ensuring Barça acquire its own stadium and thus generate a stable income. On 14 March 1909, the team moved into the Camp de la Indústria, a stadium with a capacity of 8,000. To celebrate their new surroundings, the club conducted a logo contest the following year.
Carles Comamala won the contest, his suggestion became the crest that the club still wears – with some minor changes – as of the present day. With the new stadium, Barcelona participated in the inaugural version of the Pyrenees Cup, which, at the time, consisted of the best teams of Languedoc and Aquitaine, the Basque Country and Catalonia; the contest was the most prestigious in that era. From the inaugural year in 1910 to 1913, Barcelona won the competition four consecutive times. Carles Comamala played an integral part of the four-time champion, managing the side along with Amechazurra and Jack Greenwell; the latter became the club's first full-time coach in 1917. The last edition was held in 1914 in the city of Barcelona. During the same period, the club changed its official language from Castilian to Catalan and evolved into an important symbol of Catalan identity. For many fans, participating in the club had less to do with the game it
Real Madrid CF
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol referred to as Real Madrid, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid. Founded on 6 March 1902 as the Madrid Football Club, the club has traditionally worn a white home kit since inception; the word real is Spanish for "royal" and was bestowed to the club by King Alfonso XIII in 1920 together with the royal crown in the emblem. The team has played its home matches in the 81,044-capacity Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in downtown Madrid since 1947. Unlike most European sporting entities, Real Madrid's members have owned and operated the club throughout its history; the club was estimated to be worth €3.47 billion in 2018, it was the highest-earning football club in the world, with an annual revenue of €750.9 million in 2018. The club is one of the most supported teams in the world. Real Madrid is one of three founding members of La Liga that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, along with Athletic Bilbao and Barcelona.
The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably El Clásico with Barcelona and El Derbi with Atlético Madrid. Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s, winning five consecutive European Cups and reaching the final seven times; this success was replicated in the league, where the club won five times in the space of seven years. This team, which consisted of players such as Alfredo Di Stéfano, Ferenc Puskás, Francisco Gento, Raymond Kopa, is considered by some in the sport to be the greatest team of all time. In domestic football, the club has won 64 trophies. In European and worldwide competitions, the club has won a record 26 trophies. In international football, they have achieved a record seven club world championships. Real Madrid was recognised as the FIFA Club of the 20th Century on 11 December 2000, received the FIFA Centennial Order of Merit on 20 May 2004; the club was awarded Best European Club of the 20th Century by the IFFHS on 11 May 2010.
In June 2017, the team succeeded in becoming the first club to win back to back Champions Leagues made it three in a row in May 2018, extending their lead atop the UEFA club rankings. Real Madrid's origins go back to when football was introduced to Madrid by the academics and students of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, which included several Cambridge and Oxford University graduates, they founded Sky Football in 1897 known as La Sociedad as it was the only one based in Madrid, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa. In 1900, conflict between members caused some of them to leave and create a new club, Nueva Sociedad de Football, to distinguish themselves from Sky Football. Among the dissenters were Julián Palacios, recognized as the first Real Madrid president, Juan Padrós and Carlos Padrós, the latter two being brothers and future presidents of Real Madrid. In 1901 this new club was renamed as Madrid Football Club. Following a restructuring in 1902, Sky was renamed as "New Foot-Ball Club".
On 6 March 1902, after a new Board presided by Juan Padrós had been elected, Madrid Football Club was founded. Three years after its foundation, in 1905, Madrid FC won its first title after defeating Athletic Bilbao in the Spanish Cup final; the club became one of the founding sides of the Royal Spanish Football Federation on 4 January 1909, when club president Adolfo Meléndez signed the foundation agreement of the Spanish FA. After moving between grounds the team moved to the Campo de O'Donnell in 1912. In 1920, the club's name was changed to Real Madrid after King Alfonso XIII granted the title of Real to the club. In 1929, the first Spanish football league was founded. Real Madrid led the first league season until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona. Real Madrid won its first League title in the 1931–32 season and retained the title the following year, becoming the first team to win the championship twice. On 14 April 1931, the arrival of the Second Spanish Republic caused the club to lose the title Real and went back to being named Madrid Football Club.
Football continued during the Second World War, on 13 June 1943 Madrid beat Barcelona 11–1 in the second leg of a semi-final of the Copa del Generalísimo, the Copa del Rey having been renamed in honour of General Franco. It has been suggested Barcelona players were intimidated by police, including by the director of state security who "allegedly told the team that some of them were only playing because of the regime's generosity in permitting them to remain in the country." The Barcelona chairman, Enrique Piñeyro, was assaulted by Madrid fans. However, none of these allegations have been proven and FIFA and UEFA still consider the result as legitimate. According to Spanish journalist and writer, Juan Carlos Pasamontes, Barcelona player Josep Valle denied that the Spanish security forces came before the match. Instead, at the end of the first half, Barcelona coach Juan José Nogués and all of his players were angry with the hard-style of play Real Madrid was using and with the aggressiveness of the home crowd.
When they refused to take the field, the Superior Chief of Police of Madrid appeared, identified himself, ordered the team to take the field. Santiago Bernabéu Yeste became president of Real Madrid in 1945. Under his presidency, the club, its stadium Santiago Bernabéu and its training facilities Ciudad Deportiva were rebuilt after the Spa