Leroy Gordon "Gordo" Cooper Jr. was an American aerospace engineer, test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, the youngest of the seven original astronauts in Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States. Cooper learned to fly as a child, after service in the United States Marine Corps during World War II, he was commissioned into the United States Air Force in 1949. After service as a fighter pilot, he qualified as a test pilot in 1956, was selected as an astronaut in 1959. In 1963 Cooper piloted the longest and last Mercury spaceflight, Mercury-Atlas 9. During that 34-hour mission he became the first American to spend an entire day in space, the first to sleep in space, the last American launched on an solo orbital mission. Despite a series of severe equipment failures, he managed to complete the mission under manual control, guiding his spacecraft, which he named Faith 7, to a splashdown just 4 miles ahead of the recovery ship. Cooper became the first astronaut to make a second orbital flight when he flew as Command Pilot of Gemini 5 in 1965.
Along with Pilot Pete Conrad, he set a new space endurance record by traveling 3,312,993 miles in 190 hours and 56 minutes—just short of eight days—showing that astronauts could survive in space for the length of time necessary to go from the Earth to the Moon and back. Cooper liked to race cars and boats, entered the $28,000 Salton City 500 miles boat race, the Southwest Championship Drag Boat races in 1965, the 1967 Orange Bowl Regatta with fire fighter Red Adair. In 1968, he entered the 24 Hours of Daytona, but NASA management ordered him to withdraw due to the dangers involved. After serving as backup commander of the Apollo 10 mission, he was superseded by Alan Shepard, retired from NASA and the Air Force with the rank of colonel in 1971. Leroy Gordon Cooper Jr. was born on March 6, 1927, in Shawnee, the only child of Tecumseh, residents Leroy Gordon Cooper Sr. and Hattie Lee Cooper. His mother was a school teacher, his father enlisted in the U. S. Navy during World War I, served on the presidential yacht USS Mayflower.
After the war Cooper Sr. completed his high school education. He joined the Oklahoma National Guard, flying a Curtiss JN-4 biplane, despite never having formal military pilot training, he graduated from college and law school, became a state district judge. During World War II he was called to active duty, served in the Pacific theater in the Judge Advocate General's Corps, he transferred to United States Air Force after it was formed in 1947, was stationed at Hickham Air Force Base, Hawaii. He retired from the USAF with the rank of colonel in 1957. Cooper attended Jefferson Elementary School and Shawnee High School in Shawnee, where he was on the football and track teams. During his senior high school year, he played at halfback in the state football championship, he was active in the Boy Scouts of America, where he achieved Life Scout. His parents owned a Command-Aire biplane, he learned to fly at a young age, he unofficially soloed when he was 12 years old, earned his pilot's license in a Piper J-3 Cub when he was 16.
His family moved to Murray, when his father was called back into service, he graduated from Murray High School in June 1945. After Cooper learned that the United States Army and Navy flying schools were not taking any more candidates, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, he left for Parris Island as soon as he graduated from high school, but World War II ended before he saw overseas service. He was assigned to the Naval Academy Preparatory School as an alternate for an appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, but the primary appointee was accepted, Cooper was assigned to guard duty in Washington, D. C, he was serving with the Presidential Honor Guard when he was discharged from the Marine Corps in 1946. Cooper went to Hawaii to live with his parents, he started attending the University of Hawaii, bought his own J-3 Cub. There he met his first wife, Trudy B. Olson of Seattle, through the local flying club, she was active in flying, would become the only wife of a Mercury astronaut to have a pilot's license.
They were married on August 1947 in Honolulu when both were 20 years old. They had two daughters: Camala Keoki, born in 1948, Janita Lee, born in 1950. At college, Cooper was active in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, which led to his being commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U. S. Army in June 1949, he was able to transfer his commission to the United States Air Force in September 1949. He received flight training at Perrin Air Force Base and Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, in the T-6 Texan. On completion of his flight training in 1950, Cooper was posted to Landstuhl Air Base, West Germany, where he flew F-84 Thunderjets and F-86 Sabres for four years, he became a flight commander of the 525th Fighter Bomber Squadron. While in Germany, he attended the European Extension of the University of Maryland, he returned to the United States in 1954, studied for two years at the U. S. Air Force Institute of Technology in Ohio, he completed his Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering there on August 28, 1956.
While at AFIT, Cooper met Gus Grissom, a fellow USAF officer, the two became good friends. They were involved in an accident on takeoff from Lowry Field on June 23, 1956, when the Lockheed T-33 Cooper was piloting lost power, he aborted the takeoff, but the landing gear collapsed and the aircraft skidded erratically for 2,000 feet, cr
Applause is a form of ovation by the act of clapping, or striking the palms of the hands together, in order to create noise. Audiences applaud after a performance, such as a musical concert, speech, or play, as a sign of enjoyment and approval. Clapping nowadays is popular and in most countries audience members clap their hands at random to produce a constant noise, it tends to synchronize to a weak degree. The age of the custom of applauding is uncertain; the variety of its forms is limited only by the capacity for devising means of making a noise. Within each culture, however, it is subject to conventions; the ancient Romans had set rituals at public performances to express degrees of approval: snapping the finger and thumb, clapping with the flat or hollow palm, waving the flap of the toga. Emperor Aurelian substituted the waving of napkins that he had distributed to the Roman people for the toga flapping. In Roman theatre, at the close of the play, the chief actor called out "Valete et plaudite!", the audience, guided by an unofficial choregos, chanted their approval antiphonally.
This was organized and paid for. A claque was an organized body of professional applauders in French theatres and opera houses who were paid by the performer to create the illusion of an increased level of approval by the audience. In Christianity, customs of the theatre were adopted by the churches. Eusebius says that Paul of Samosata encouraged the congregation to indicate approval of his preaching by waving linen cloths, in the 4th and 5th centuries applause of the rhetoric of popular preachers had become an established custom. Applause in church fell out of fashion, by the influence of the quasi-religious atmosphere of the performances of Richard Wagner's operas at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, the reverential spirit that inspired this soon extended back to the theatre and the concert hall. An applause has three fundamental characteristics: Strength: Intensity of the applause Pace: Clap repetition speed Length: Time the applause persistsAccording to these characteristics, the applause can be classified into the following categories: Booing, Absence of applause, Collective and Ovation.
Well-recognized politicians and musicians receive applause as soon as they first appear on stage before any performance activity has transpired. This accolade is given to indicate admiration for their past achievements, is not a response to the performance the audience is attending. Applause during church services is traditionally regarded as taboo, in light of the sanctity of the proceedings; this rule may be relaxed to permit applause in honor of the bride and groom when the newly married couple may turn to be greeted by the congregation following the exchange of vows. Applause may be permitted at certain services in honor of a specific individual, such as the investiture of a new priest or minister. In less traditional congregations in contemporary, evangelical "megachurches", a more casual atmosphere exists and applause may be encountered as as at any secular performance. Indiscriminate applause is considered a violation of classical music concert etiquette: Applause is discouraged between movements, reserved instead for the end of the entire work.
There have been a number of attempts to further restrict applause in various circumstances, e.g. court theaters in Berlin prohibit applause during the performance and before the curtain call. By contrast, opera performances have traditionally been interrupted by applause at the end of an aria or certain other set pieces, many opera scores reflect a break in the music at places where applause would occur. Regarding this practice as a distraction, Richard Wagner headed it off by eliminating breaks in the score within each act. In light of the quasi-religious atmosphere of the first act of Parsifal, it is traditional for the audience not to applaud at all at the end of that act, but file out of their seats in silence. In most performances, if spectators enjoy a performance in classical performances, they may accompany by throwing flowers onstage. On some occasions, applause occurs in the middle of an event; the President of the United States, in his State of the Union address, is interrupted by applause.
It is customary for jazz performers to receive applause in the middle of a tune, after completing an improvisational solo. It is typical to applaud at the end of a musical number in a musical theatre piece. Extended applause at the conclusion of an event but not always resulting in a standing ovation, implies approval above and beyond ordinary measure, compels the performer to return in acknowledgement and at times proceed to an encore. A golf clap is a form of quiet clapping, so-named because it is the preferred form of applause for golfers.
The Roman triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or and traditionally, one who had completed a foreign war. On the day of his triumph, the general wore a crown of laurel and the all-purple, gold-embroidered triumphal toga picta, regalia that identified him as near-divine or near-kingly, was known to paint his face red, he rode in a four-horse chariot through the streets of Rome in unarmed procession with his army and the spoils of his war. At Jupiter's temple on the Capitoline Hill, he offered sacrifice and the tokens of his victory to the god Jupiter. Republican morality required that, despite these extraordinary honours, the general conduct himself with dignified humility, as a mortal citizen who triumphed on behalf of Rome's Senate and gods; the triumph offered extraordinary opportunities for self-publicity, besides its religious and military dimensions.
Most Roman festivals were calendar fixtures, while the tradition and law which reserved a triumph to extraordinary victory ensured that its celebration, attendant feasting, public games promoted the general's status and achievement. By the Late Republican era, triumphs were drawn out and extravagant, motivated by increasing competition among the military-political adventurers who ran Rome's nascent empire, in some cases prolonged by several days of public games and entertainments. From the Principate onwards, the triumph reflected the Imperial order and the pre-eminence of the Imperial family; the triumph was consciously imitated by medieval and states in the royal entry and other ceremonial events. In Republican Rome exceptional military achievement merited the highest possible honours, which connected the vir triumphalis to Rome's mythical and semi-mythical past. In effect, the general was close to being "king for a day", close to divinity, he wore the regalia traditionally associated both with the ancient Roman monarchy and with the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus: the purple and gold "toga picta", laurel crown, red boots and, again the red-painted face of Rome's supreme deity.
He was drawn in procession through the city in a four-horse chariot, under the gaze of his peers and an applauding crowd, to the temple of Capitoline Jupiter. The spoils and captives of his victory led the way. Once at the Capitoline temple, he sacrificed two white oxen to Jupiter and laid tokens of his victory at Jupiter's feet, dedicating his victory to the Roman Senate and gods. Triumphs were tied to season, or religious festival of the Roman calendar. Most seem to have been celebrated at the earliest practicable opportunity on days that were deemed auspicious for the occasion. Tradition required; the ceremony was thus, in some sense, shared by the whole community of Roman gods, but overlaps were inevitable with specific festivals and anniversaries. Some may have been coincidental. For example, March 1, the festival and dies natalis of the war god Mars, was the traditional anniversary of the first triumph by Publicola, of six other Republican triumphs, of the first Roman triumph by Romulus.
Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis. Religious dimensions aside, the focus of the triumph was the general himself; the ceremony promoted him – however temporarily – above every mortal Roman. This was an opportunity granted to few. From the time of Scipio Africanus, the triumphal general was linked to Alexander and the demi-god Hercules, who had laboured selflessly for the benefit of all mankind, his sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy and malice of onlookers. In some accounts, a companion or public slave would remind him from time to time of his own mortality. Rome's earliest "triumphs" were simple victory parades, celebrating the return of a victorious general and his army to the city, along with the fruits of his victory, ending with some form of dedication to the gods; this is so for the earliest legendary and semi-legendary triumphs of Rome's regal era, when the king functioned as Rome's highest magistrate and war-leader.
As Rome's population, power and territory increased, so did the scale, length and extravagance of its triumphal processions. The procession mustered in the open space of the Campus Martius well before first light. From there, all unforeseen delays and accidents aside, it would have managed a slow walking pace at best, punctuated by various planned stops en route to its final destination of the Capitoline temple, a distance of just under 4 km. Triumphal processions were notoriously slow; some ancient and modern sources suggest a standard processional order. First came the captive leaders and soldiers walking in chains, their captured weapons, gold, silver and curious or exotic treasures were carted behind them, along with paintings and models depicting significant places and episodes of the war. Next in line, all on foot, came Rome's senators and magistrate
Kamran Rashid Khan, better known by his stage name Lazarus, is a Detroit-based American rapper and physician of Pakistani descent. He is known for his singles GODFLOW and Man On A Mission along with his songs Drug of Choice, Open Heart Surgery, Underdog, MTBK and Decapitation Chamber featuring Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Royce da 5'9", Bohemia and Ghostface Killah respectively. Kamran Rashid Khan was born in Michigan to a Muslim family from Pakistan, he attended Wayne State University where he received a Bachelor's degree in Biology and Michigan State University where he studied medicine. While studying medicine, Lazarus built a career in Hip Hop, he started rapping without a stage name but changed his name to Lazarus due to hate crimes and racial stereotyping. He told in an interview to The Source that after 9/11 he felt that his chances of becoming a rapper were finished and that his stage name metaphors the biblical character, resurrected from the dead. Lazarus gained popularity through freestyle rapping on radio stations in Detroit.
He won many rap battles on FM 95.5 and FM 105.9. His singles were played on FM 98. Lazarus started making mixtapes and performing at venues in Detroit including opening up for G-Unit and D12. In 2005, he was interviewed by Discovery Channel and was featured in the documentary titled “The Real 8 Mile,”, hosted by Charlie LeDuff. Lazarus released his debut album Chapter One: The Prince Who Would Be King in 2007 which led to receive him three nominations “Lyricist of the Year,” “Song of the Year,” and “Artist of the Year” at the 2007 Detroit Hip Hop Awards; the album had 18 tracks including a featured track with Royce da 5'9". The album spawned the single Let The Game Know; the single received over a million views on YouTube and its music video was directed by Anthony Garth. Another music video of the single Drug of Choice from his mixtape Lazarus Story received worldwide coverage and gained over a million views on YouTube, it was filmed in Pakistan. In 2013, Lazarus signed to Russell Simmons' YouTube multi-channel network All Def Digital and in 2014 he released the single Open Heart Surgery featuring D12's rapper Bizarre.
It won the award for "Song of the Year" at the 12th Underground Music Awards in New York City. Lazarus released his single Underdog featuring Royce da 5'9" in July 2015; the track was introduced by Chuck D of Public Enemy. In October 2015, he opened up for Ludacris at his concert in Texas, he was featured on the song "Raw As It Gets" from D12's 2015 mixtape Devil's Night. The mixtape was promoted by Shady Records. In January 2016, Lazarus released the track Fearless featuring Crooked I in which he criticized Donald Trump; the song included the verse: “Donald wants my arm embedded, Muslims cannot stay here. Now I'm feeling like a mutant but am I Magnus or Xavier?” In an interview with Examiner.com, he said regarding this verse: “It’s like the comic book "X-Men." As silly as it may sound, Muslims are the new mutants of today’s society. Senator Kelly in the "X-Men" and Donald Trump are saying the same thing. There is supposed violence taking place by Muslims somewhere, now we must propose a ban on them all.”
Lazarus released the music video of Underdog featuring Royce da 5'9" in February 2016 under All Def Digital. The music video of Raw As It Gets from D12's mixtape Devil’s Night was released in August 2016. In January 2017, Lazarus and Punjabi rapper Bohemia released their collaborative track MTBK featuring Deep Jandu and Shaxe Oriah; the single was produced by Kali Denali Music as a tribute to the late Labh Janjua and its music video crossed 3 million views on YouTube. His next single Man On A Mission produced by Dub Muzik was released in August 2017. DesiHipHop.com reviewed it positively saying "Lazarus just dropped his most creative song to date." The music video for the song was produced and directed by Lazarus himself. It was released under his independent record company Laz Army Records and reached over a million views on YouTube. Lazarus toured Pakistan in October 2017 and released his next video Pakistan in November 2017 in which he rapped about the country in the Urdu language and dedicated it to the well renowned Pakistani poet Allama Iqbal on his birthday.
In December 2017, Lazarus celebrated the 10 year anniversary of his received 2007 track GODFLOW by releasing a music video for it. The video was shot in Lahore and produced by the visual effects team of Muhammad Shah; the song was produced by Alpha-Bet. It was released on New Year's Eve under Laz Army Records and attained over a million views on YouTube on its first week of release. In March 2018, Lazarus was featured on the track Raindrops alongside Royce da 5'9", Obie Trice and Swifty McVay of D12 on the mixtape No Parachute; the song was produced by Dub Muzik and introduced by Chuck D. In July 2018, Lazarus dropped the song Decapitation Chamber featuring Ghostface Killah of the Wu-Tang Clan; the song was produced by Rebel of KhanArtists and introduced by Chuck D. Lazarus toured with Ghostface Killah in Canada to perform the single; the song was awarded a plaque for having reached 5 million downloads off the Wu-Invasion Mixtape it was featured on hosted by Ghostface Killah and DJ Symphony. In August 2018, Lazarus performed alongside Swifty McVay of D12 and Obie Trice in Pontiac, Michigan to promote the soundtrack of Devil’s Night: Dawn of the Nain Rouge starring Eminem’s brother Nathan Mathers.
Lazarus was featured on the soundtrack on the song titled. Lazarus performed on the ‘Shady Gang National Tour’ alongside Swifty McVay, Obie Trice and Crooked I. In October 2018, Lazarus released the music video of Decapitation Chamber
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years for the purpose of keeping an audience's attention. Although people's attention is held by different things, because individuals have different preferences in entertainment, most forms are recognisable and familiar. Storytelling, drama and different kinds of performance exist in all cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens; the process has been accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and sells entertainment products. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; the experience of being entertained has come to be associated with amusement, so that one common understanding of the idea is fun and laughter, although many entertainments have a serious purpose.
This may be the case in the various forms of ceremony, religious festival, or satire for example. Hence, there is the possibility that what appears as entertainment may be a means of achieving insight or intellectual growth. An important aspect of entertainment is the audience, which turns a private recreation or leisure activity into entertainment; the audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a play, television show, or film. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts. Most forms of entertainment have persisted over many centuries, evolving due to changes in culture and fashion for example with stage magic. Films and video games, for example, although they use newer media, continue to tell stories, present drama, play music. Festivals devoted to music, film, or dance allow audiences to be entertained over a number of consecutive days; some activities that were once considered entertaining public punishments, have been removed from the public arena.
Others, such as fencing or archery, once necessary skills for some, have become serious sports and professions for the participants, at the same time developing into entertainment with wider appeal for bigger audiences. In the same way, other necessary skills, such as cooking, have developed into performances among professionals, staged as global competitions and broadcast for entertainment. What is entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another; the familiar forms of entertainment have the capacity to cross over different media and have demonstrated a unlimited potential for creative remix. This has ensured the continuity and longevity of many themes and structures. Entertainment can be distinguished from other activities such as education and marketing though they have learned how to use the appeal of entertainment to achieve their different goals. Sometimes entertainment can be a mixture for both; the importance and impact of entertainment is recognised by scholars and its increasing sophistication has influenced practices in other fields such as museology.
Psychologists say the function of media entertainment is "the attainment of gratification". No other results or measurable benefit are expected from it; this is in contrast to marketing. However, the distinctions become blurred when education seeks to be more "entertaining" and entertainment or marketing seek to be more "educational"; such mixtures are known by the neologisms "edutainment" or "infotainment". The psychology of entertainment as well as of learning has been applied to all these fields; some education-entertainment is a serious attempt to combine the best features of the two. Some people are entertained by the idea of their unhappiness. An entertainment might produce some insight in its audience. Entertainment may skillfully consider universal philosophical questions such as: "What is the meaning of life?". Questions such as these drive many narratives and dramas, whether they are presented in the form of a story, play, book, comic, or game. Dramatic examples include Shakespeare's influential play Hamlet, whose hero articulates these concerns in poetry.
Novels give great scope for investigating these themes. An example of a creative work that considers philosophical questions so entertainingly that it has been presented in a wide range of forms is The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. A radio comedy, this story became so popular that it has appeared as a novel, television series, stage show, audiobook, LP record, adventure game and online game, its ideas became popular references and has been tran