A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in academic monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit and an integral component of a large research university, they publish work, reviewed by scholars in the field. They produce scholarly works, but often have "popular" titles, such as books on religion or on regional topics; because scholarly books are unprofitable, university presses may publish textbooks and reference works, which tend to have larger audiences and sell more copies. Most university presses operate at a loss and are subsidized by their owners. Demand has fallen as library budgets are cut and the online sales of used books undercut the new book market. Many presses are experimenting with electronic publishing. Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press are the two oldest and largest university presses in the world, they have scores of branches around the world throughout the British Commonwealth. In the United States, colonial colleges required printers to publish university catalogs, ceremonial materials, a limited number of scholarly publications.
Following the 17th-century work of Harvard College printer Samuel Green, William Hilliard of Cambridge, began publishing materials under the name "University Press" in 1802. Modern university presses emerged in the United States in the late 19th century. Cornell University started one in 1869 but had to close it down; the University of Pennsylvania Press, University of Chicago Press, University of California Press, Northwestern University Press, Columbia University Press followed. The biggest growth came after 1945 as higher education expanded rapidly. There was a leveling off after 1970. In Scotland Archie Turnbull served as the long-time director of the Edinburgh University Press, 1952-87; the British university presses had strong expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The Edinburgh University Press became the leading Scottish academic publisher, it was famous for publishing major books on the history and literature of Scotland, by enlisting others in Scotland. By the time of independence in 1947, India had a well-established system of universities, several leading ones developed a university press.
The main areas of activity include monographs by professors, research papers and theses, textbooks for undergraduate use. However, the basic problem faced by scholarly publishers in India is the use of multiple languages, which splintered and reduced the base of potential sales; as new universities opened in Africa after 1960, some developed a press based on the European model. In Nigeria for an example, scholarly presses played a central role in shaping and encouraging intellectual efforts and gaining international attention for the product; however the established European presses Oxford University Press, dominated the market, allowing a narrow niche for new local presses such as Ibadan University Press now University Press Plc. In 2008, the Association of American University Presses has 125 member presses, of which 95 were operated by universities. Growth has been sporadic, with 14 presses established in the 1940s, 11 in the 1950s. Since 1970, 16 universities have opened presses and several have closed.
Today, the largest university press in the United States is the University of Chicago Press. University presses tend to develop specialized areas of expertise, such as regional studies. For instance, Yale publishes many art books, the Chicago and Indiana publish many academic journals, the University of Illinois press specializes in labor history, MIT Press publishes linguistics and architecture titles, Northwestern University Press publishes in continental philosophy and the performing arts, the Catholic University of America Press publishes works that deal with Catholic theology and church history; the Distribution Services Division provides the University of Chicago Press's warehousing, customer service, related services. The Chicago Distribution Center began providing distribution services in 1991, when the University of Tennessee Press became its first client; the CDC serves nearly 100 publishers including Stanford University Press, University of Minnesota Press, University of Iowa Press, Temple University Press, Northwestern University Press, many others.
Since 2001, with development funding from the Mellon Foundation, the Chicago Digital Distribution Center has been offering digital printing services and the BiblioVault digital repository services to book publishers. In 2009, the CDC enabled the sales of electronic books directly to individuals and provided digital delivery services for the University of Michigan Press among others; the Chicago Distribution Center has partnered with an additional 15 presses including the University of Missouri Press, West Virginia University Press, publications of the Getty Foundation. Financially, university presses have come under growing pressure from their University sponsors to cut their losses. Only a few presses, such as Oxford, Harvard and Yale have endowments; the subsidies range from $150,000 to $500,000. Sales of academic books have been declining, however as University libraries cut back their purchases. At Princeton University Press in the 1960s, a typical hardcover monograph would sell 1660 copies in the five years after publication.
By 1984 that average had declined to 1003 and in after 2000 typical sales of monographs for all presses are below 500. University libraries
Digital scholarship is the use of digital evidence, methods of inquiry, research and preservation to achieve scholarly and research goals. Digital scholarship can encompass both scholarly communication using digital media and research on digital media. An important aspect of digital scholarship is the effort to establish digital media and social media as credible and legitimate means of research and communication. Digital scholarship has a close association with digital humanities, though the relationship between these terms is unclear. Digital scholarship may include born-digital means of scholarly communication that are more traditional, like online journals and databases, e-mail correspondence and the digital or digitized collections of research and academic libraries. Since digital scholarship is concerned with the production and distribution of digital media, discussions about copyright, fair use and digital rights management accompany academic analysis of the topic. Combined with open access, digital scholarship is offered as a more affordable and open model for scholarly communication.
According to Ernest L. Boyer in Scholarship Reconsidered, integration and teaching are the four main aspects of scholarship; the growth of digital media means that the main areas of scholarship can each benefit from expansions in their own way thanks to the infinite sharability of digital content. In education, the main areas of relevance are science, technology and math, it is said that students learn best in a classroom when they are engaged. The emergence of digital scholarship and digital media allows for another means for students to become engaged. Key areas of academia that digital media is used on are to illustrate concepts, model displays and reinforce 21st century skills. Critics cite concerns about the legitimacy and verifiability of digital scholarship and the erosion of authors' rights as reasons to be concerned about digital scholarship; as scholarly communication evolves, controversy over the definition and value of the term "digital scholarship" is to continue. Digital scholarship must take all of cultural, economic and institutional responsibilities to take its position as academic scholarship and to realize the core purpose of higher education with the possibilities of our time.
Concerns with how to regulate digital scholarship have arisen across universities across the world. The explosion in availability and creation of scholarly works has led many universities to adjust their policies on how they will manage scholarship in the future; these universities feel pressured to take action because digital technologies have led to the easy reproduction and commodification of these creations. Many universities are unclear how to address the copyrighting of online classes and media presentations. Current law does not cover these specific areas of media produced in the academic world. In the past any printed work done by professors was considered their intellectual property, but now the question stands as to who owns these different forms of multimedia. One of the main concerns of faculty is that universities will soon take ownership of this digital media. Universities have taken a growing interest in creations that have revenue-generating potential, like online classes or lecture slides, while showing concern for products that may be used by comparable institutions reducing their competitive advantage.
In order to stay on top of others academically, universities have sought to keep the intellectual property created within the university away from others schools. Not only are universities using digital scholarship to make money and stay ahead, but they have interests in protecting their brand. While universities attempt to protect digital scholarship, it is in many professors best interests for their creations to be seen by the world as to grow their brand and acclaim as a professor. Laws that may apply to digital scholarship are outdated but professors would like to use the argument of faculty ownership of traditional works as historical practice and practice compatible with mission of higher education as a public good. Professors argue that it took time and serious effort to make the presentations, media. To date professors have been questioned whether they have the right to bring their course outlines, lecture outlines, lecture notes with them if they decide to leave the university where they created them.
Change over the ability of professors to bring digital scholarship with them is expected as universities have begun to take notice and assert copyrights. Professors will argue that since they are the creators and authors of the product they are the owners according to law; as of now most copyright laws in America indicate that the author or creator holds the copyright, but the same cannot be said for digital scholarship. The law explicitly states that if the work is within the scope of his or her employment the work is the property of the employer. Since the employer here would be the university, professors are technically creating work for hire. While faculty of universities appear to not be credited for their work, the primary reason for a university to take ownership of a faculty's work is that the member created the work using university funds mostly. Solutions to the lack of clear laws regarding ownership of digital scholarship are not being created but many universities have created written contracts with professors over who owns future work or what they can do with previous work.
For example, in the U. S. Supreme Court case Stanford v. Roche, the court decided that Roche, a former Stanford researcher, was a co-owner with Stanford of patents for testing kits to detect HIV. While this cas
Carole Pateman is a feminist and political theorist. She is known as a critic of liberal democracy and has been a member of the British Academy since 2007. Pateman was born in Sussex and has had an international career, living in four continents and teaching and doing research in three. Educated at a grammar school, she left at age 16, she entered Ruskin College, Oxford in 1963, attended Lady Margaret Hall, became lecturer in political theory at the University of Sydney in 1972. She earned a DPhil at the University of Oxford. Since 1990, Professor Pateman has taught in the Department of Political Science at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she is now Distinguished Professor Emeritus. Professor Pateman served as President of the International Political Science Association. In 2007, she was named a Fellow of the British Academy, she served as President of the American Political Science Association in 2010–11. She is an Honorary Professor for the Cardiff University School of European Studies.
She gave the Faculty Research Lecture at UCLA in 2001, is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the British Academy and the UK Academy of Social Sciences. She holds honorary degrees from the Australian National University, the National University of Ireland, Helsinki University. In 2012 she was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science. Pateman was a Guggenheim Fellow 1993-94. Since 1994 Pateman has been a Member of the International Advisory Board of the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. In 2012 she was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science. In 2013, she earned the Special Recognition Award by the UK Political Studies Association. In April 2015, she was elected as a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales; the Australian Political Science Association awards the Carole Pateman prize biennially for the best book published on the topic of gender and politics. Pateman, Carole. Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 9780521290043. Pateman, Carole; the problem of political obligation: a critical analysis of liberal theory. Chichester New York: Wiley. ISBN 9780471996996. Pateman, Carole; the problem of political obligation: a critique of liberal theory. Cambridge: Polity in association with Blackwell. ISBN 9780745601359. Pateman, Carole; the sexual contract. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745604329. Pateman, Carole; the disorder of women: democracy and political theory. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804717656. Pateman, Carole. Justice and democracy: essays for Brian Barry. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521836951. Pateman, Carole. Contract and domination. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745640044. Pateman, Carole. Australasian Political Studies Association directory of women political scientists 1980. Canberra: Australasian Political Studies Association. OCLC 220934996. Pateman, Carole. Women, social science and public policy. Sydney London: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 9780868616858.
Pateman, Carole. Feminist interpretations and political theory. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271007427. Pateman, Carole. Basic income worldwide horizons of reform. Houndmills, Basingstoke New York, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230285422. Pateman, Carole. Feminist challenges: social and political theory. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781138000681. Original printed in 1986. Pateman, Carole, "Freedom and democratization: why basic income is preferred to basic capital", in Dowding, Keith. Pateman, Carole. "Introduction". Australian Journal of Political Science. 18: 1–2. Doi:10.1080/00323268308401882. Pateman, Carole. "Participatory Democracy Revisited". Perspectives on Politics. 10: 7–19. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.646.7316. Doi:10.1017/S1537592711004877. The Equivalent of the Right to Land and Liberty? Democracy and the Idea of a Basic Income Basic income Carole Pateman Papers - Pembroke Center Archives, Brown University On, Steve, "A conversation with Carole Pateman: reflections on democratic participation, The Sexual Contract, power structures.", in Browning, Gary.
Redwood City, California
Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area 27 miles south of San Francisco, 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood City's history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods; the county seat of San Mateo County in the heart of Silicon Valley, Redwood City is home to several global technology companies including Oracle, Electronic Arts, Evernote and Informatica. The city had an estimated population of 86,685 in 2017; the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, for both men; the Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the surrounding area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 15.2 square miles is water. A major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of, Westpoint Slough.
Redwood City stretches from the San Francisco Bay towards the Santa Cruz Mountains between San Carlos to the northwest and Atherton to the southeast with Woodside to the southwest. It is divided by Highway 101 and further inland El Camino Real on the northwest/southeast axis and Woodside Road on the north-northeast/south-southwest axis. Locally, the former two are regarded as north/south and the latter east/west, as 101 and El Camino connects Redwood City to San Francisco and San Jose and Woodside Road runs from San Francisco Bay to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Neighborhoods include Bair Island to the northeast of Highway 101; the northern neighborhood of Redwood Shores to the northeast of Highway 101 is part of Redwood City, although it is not possible to travel by road from one to the other without passing through the neighboring city of San Carlos, or through Belmont via unincorporated San Mateo County. Stretching along Highway 101 to the southeast of Woodside Road is Friendly Acres, further inland and still to the southeast of Woodside Road are Redwood Village and Redwood Oaks.
Most neighborhoods are to the northwest of Woodside Ride and southwest of Highway 101. Centennial and Stambaugh Heller are adjacent to 101. Next inland are Edgewood, Mt. Carmel and Palm Canyon, Eagle Hill and Woodside Plaza. Furthest inland is Farm Hills. Neighborhoods associated with Redwood City but not part of the incorporated city include Emerald Lake Hills and Kensington Square inland and to the north and North Fair Oaks to the southeast. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos' Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood, formally part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a large middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up and income level. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool wet winters; the National Weather Service, which maintains both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month and July is the warmest month.
The record highest temperature of 110 °F was recorded on both July 14 and 15, 1972. The record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11, 1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher. The normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998. The record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13, 1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation. Snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions. Redwood City incorporated in 1867, the first city to do so in San Mateo County, it has been the county seat since the county was formed in 1856; the land had been part of the Rancho de las Pulgas granted to the Arguello family in 1835 by the Mexican government. Their control was challenged after the Mexican–American War when California became part of the United States; the family lawyer, Simon M. Mezes, in 1854 defended the claim somewhat and was allowed to buy the part of the estate, now Redwood City.
Mezes sold some of the land to people squatting on it along the banks of Redwood Creek and named the settlement, Mezesville. Though the city did not keep that name, Mezes Park still exists on land Mezes had given for open space. In 1907 Eikichi and Sadakusi Enomoto, Japanese immigrant brothers, grew the first chrysanthemums commercially in the United States in Redwood City. In 1926 the chamber of commerce proclaimed the city the "Chrysanthemum Center of the World" though the internment of Japanese Americans in 1941 and other factors removed flower growing as a major industry in the city; the 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815. The population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White, 1,881 African American, 511 Native American, 8,216 Asian, 795 Pacific Islander, 14,967 from other races, 4,190 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 persons. Non-Hispanic Whites n
David Starr Jordan
David Starr Jordan was an American ichthyologist, educator and peace activist. He was president of the founding president of Stanford University. Jordan was born in Gainesville, New York, grew up on a farm in upstate New York, his parents made the unorthodox decision to educate him at a local girls' high school. He was inspired by Louis Agassiz to pursue his studies in ichthyology, he was part of the pioneer class of undergraduates at Cornell University, graduating in 1872 with a master's degree in botany. Jordan obtained a medical degree, M. D. from Indiana Medical College in 1875. Jordan married Susan Bowen in 1875 and she died in 1885 after 10 years of marriage, they had three children, Edith Monica, Harold Bowen, Thora. Jordan married Jessie Knight in 1887. Jordan and his second wife had three additional children, Knight Starr and Eric Knight. Jordan taught natural history courses at several small Midwestern colleges, he was accepted into the natural history faculty of Indiana University Bloomington as a professor of zoology in 1879.
Jordan's teaching included his version of eugenics, which "sought to prevent the decay of the Anglo-Saxon/Nordic race by limiting racial mixing and by preventing the reproduction of those he deemed unfit". Six years in 1885, he was named President of Indiana University, becoming the nation's youngest university president at age 34 and the first Indiana University president, not an ordained minister, he improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system which, like Cornell's, was an early application of the modern liberal arts curriculum. In March 1891, he was approached by Leland and Jane Stanford, who offered him the presidency of their about-to-open California university, Leland Stanford Junior University. Andrew White, the president of Cornell, had recommended Jordan to the Stanfords based on an educational philosophy fit with the Stanfords' vision of a non-sectarian, co-educational school with a liberal arts curriculum, he accepted the offer.
Jordan arrived at Stanford in June 1891 and set about recruiting faculty for the university's planned September opening. Pressed for time, he drew on his own acquaintances; that first year at Stanford he was instrumental in establishing the university's Hopkins Marine Station. He served Stanford as president until 1913 and chancellor until his retirement in 1916; the university decided not to renew his three-year-term as chancellor in 1916. As the years went on, Jordan became alienated from the university. While chancellor, he was elected president of the National Education Association. Jordan was the University Club in San Francisco. Jordan served as a Director of the Sierra Club from 1892 to 1903. In retirement, Jordan served as an evolution expert witness for the defense in the 1925 Scopes Trial, he continued promoting his views on eugenics. In 1928 Jordan served on the initial board of trustees of the Human Betterment Foundation, a eugenics organization that advocated compulsory sterilization legislation in the United States.
On September 19, 1931, Jordan died at his home on the Stanford campus after suffering a series of strokes over two years. In 1905, Jordan launched an apparent coverup of the murder by poisoning of Jane Stanford. While vacationing in Oahu, Stanford had died of strychnine poisoning, according to the local coroner’s jury. Jordan sailed to Hawaii, hired a physician to investigate the case, declared she had in fact died of heart failure, a condition whose symptoms bear no relationship to those observed, his motive for doing this has been a subject of speculation. One possibility is that he was acting to protect the reputation of the university, he had written the president of Stanford's board of trustees offering several alternate explanations for Mrs. Stanford's death, suggesting they select whichever would be most suitable. Given that Mrs. Stanford had a difficult relationship with him and planned to remove him from his position at the university, he might have had a personal motive to eliminate suspicions that might have swirled around an unsolved crime.
Jordan's version of Mrs. Stanford's demise was accepted until the appearance of several publications in 2003 emphasizing the evidence that she was murdered. Jordan promoted the concept of improving human genetics, through removal from the breeding pool of those deemed unworthy to reproduce, in his series of publications titled The Blood of the Nation, he chaired the first Committee on Eugenics of the American Breeder's Association, from which the California program of forced deportation and sterilization emerged. Jordan went on to help found the Human Betterment Foundation as a trustee; the Human Betterment Foundation published "Sterilization for Human Betterment." Jordan made a eugenics-based argument against warfare, contending that war was detrimental to the human species because it removed the strongest men from the gene pool. In 1910, Jordan asserted "Future war is impossible because the nations cannot afford it" and the war debt in Europe amounts to 26 billion US dollars, "all owed to the unseen vampire, which the nations will never pay and which taxes poor people 95 million dollars a year."
He thought burdens of militarism in time of peace are exhausting the strength of the leading nations overloaded with debts and the certain result of
John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. was an American author. He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception." He has been called "a giant of American letters," and many of his works are considered classics of Western literature. During his writing career, he authored 27 books, including 16 novels, six non-fiction books, two collections of short stories, he is known for the comic novels Tortilla Flat and Cannery Row, the multi-generation epic East of Eden, the novellas Of Mice and Men and The Red Pony. The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Grapes of Wrath is considered Steinbeck's masterpiece and part of the American literary canon. In the first 75 years after it was published, it sold 14 million copies. Most of Steinbeck's work is set in central California in the Salinas Valley and the California Coast Ranges region, his works explored the themes of fate and injustice as applied to downtrodden or everyman protagonists.
Steinbeck was born on February 1902, in Salinas, California. He was of German and Irish descent. Johann Adolf Großsteinbeck, Steinbeck's paternal grandfather, shortened the family name to Steinbeck when he immigrated to the United States; the family farm in Heiligenhaus, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is still named "Großsteinbeck." His father, John Ernst Steinbeck, served as Monterey County treasurer. John's mother, Olive Hamilton, a former school teacher, shared Steinbeck's passion for reading and writing; the Steinbecks were members of the Episcopal Church, although Steinbeck became agnostic. Steinbeck lived in a small rural town, no more than a frontier settlement, set in some of the world's most fertile land, he spent his summers working on nearby ranches and with migrant workers on Spreckels sugar beet farms. There he learned of the harsher aspects of the migrant life and the darker side of human nature, which supplied him with material expressed in such works as Of Mice and Men, he explored his surroundings, walking across local forests and farms.
While working at Spreckels Sugar Company, he sometimes worked in their laboratory, which gave him time to write. He had considerable mechanical fondness for repairing things he owned. Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and went on to study English Literature at Stanford University near Palo Alto, leaving without a degree in 1925, he traveled to New York City. When he failed to publish his work, he returned to California and worked in 1928 as a tour guide and caretaker at Lake Tahoe, where he met Carol Henning, his first wife, they married in January 1930 in Los Angeles, with friends, he attempted to make money by manufacturing plaster mannequins. When their money ran out six months due to a slow market and Carol moved back to Pacific Grove, California, to a cottage owned by his father, on the Monterey Peninsula a few blocks outside the Monterey city limits; the elder Steinbecks gave John free housing, paper for his manuscripts, from 1928, loans that allowed him to write without looking for work.
During the Great Depression, Steinbeck bought a small boat, claimed that he was able to live on the fish and crab that he gathered from the sea, fresh vegetables from his garden and local farms. When those sources failed and his wife accepted welfare, on rare occasions, stole bacon from the local produce market. Whatever food they had, they shared with their friends. Carol became the model for Mary Talbot in Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row. In 1930, Steinbeck met the marine biologist Ed Ricketts, who became a close friend and mentor to Steinbeck during the following decade, teaching him a great deal about philosophy and biology. Ricketts very quiet, yet likable, with an inner self-sufficiency and an encyclopedic knowledge of diverse subjects, became a focus of Steinbeck's attention. Ricketts had taken a college class from Warder Clyde Allee, a biologist and ecological theorist, who would go on to write a classic early textbook on ecology. Ricketts became a proponent of ecological thinking, in which man was only one part of a great chain of being, caught in a web of life too large for him to control or understand.
Meanwhile, Ricketts operated a biological lab on the coast of Monterey, selling biological samples of small animals, rays, starfish and other marine forms to schools and colleges. Between 1930 and 1936, Steinbeck and Ricketts became close friends. Steinbeck's wife began working at the lab as secretary-bookkeeper. Steinbeck helped on an informal basis, they formed a common bond based on their love of music and art, John learned biology and Ricketts' ecological philosophy. When Steinbeck became upset, Ricketts sometimes played music for him. Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is loosely based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan, it centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the'Cup of Gold', on the women, fairer than the sun, who were said to be found there. Between 1930 and 1933, Steinbeck produced three shorter works; the Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932, consists of twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, discovered by a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway Indian slaves.
In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page, four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood. To a God Unknown, named after a Vedic hymn, follows the life of a homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pa
Edward Flanders Robb Ricketts known as Ed Ricketts, was an American marine biologist and philosopher. He is best known for Between Pacific Tides, a pioneering study of intertidal ecology, for his influence on writer John Steinbeck, which resulted in their collaboration on the Sea of Cortez republished as The Log from the Sea of Cortez. Ricketts was born in Illinois, to Abbott Ricketts and Alice Beverly Flanders Ricketts, he had a younger sister, a younger brother, Thayer. His sister Frances said of him that he had a mind like a dictionary and was in trouble for correcting teachers and other adults. Ricketts spent most of his childhood in Chicago, except for a year in South Dakota when he was ten years old. After a year of college, Ricketts traveled to New Mexico. In 1917 he was drafted into the Army Medical Corps, he hated the military bureaucracy but, according to John Steinbeck, "was a successful soldier." After discharge from the army, Ricketts studied zoology at the University of Chicago. He was influenced by his professor, W. C.
Allee, but dropped out without taking a degree. He spent several months walking through the American south, from Indiana to Florida, he used material from this trip to publish an article in Travel magazine titled "Vagabonding." He studied some more at the university. In 1922 Ricketts met and married Anna Barbara Maker, whom he called "Nan." A year they had a son, Edward F. Ricketts, Jr. and moved to California to set up Pacific Biological Laboratories with Albert E. Galigher: Galigher was Ricketts' college friend with whom he had run a similar business on a smaller scale. In 1924 Ricketts became sole owner of the lab, soon two daughters were born: Nancy Jane on 28 November 1924, Cornelia on 6 April 1928. Between 1925 and 1927, Ricketts' sister Frances and both his parents moved to California. In late 1930 Ricketts met aspiring writer John Steinbeck and his wife Carol, who had moved to Pacific Grove earlier in the year. For more than a year Carol worked half-time for Ricketts at the lab, until 1932 when Ricketts' wife Nan left, taking their two daughters, Ricketts no longer had enough money to pay Carol's salary.
Steinbeck himself spent time at the lab, learning marine biology, helping Ricketts preserve specimens and talking about philosophy. Steinbeck lived near the lab. What kept them together was the discovery that each had an boundless curiosity about everything, that their personality meshed so well. Steinbeck had a need to give, Ricketts a need to receive. Ricketts made listening an art. At one point in Steinbeck's life, he suffered an "overwhelming emotional upset", went to the lab to stay with Ricketts. Ricketts played music for Steinbeck. Nan's separation from Ricketts in 1932 was the first of many separations. In 1936 Ricketts and Nan separated for good, he took up residence in his lab. On 25 November 1936, a fire spread from the adjacent cannery. Ricketts lost nearly everything, including an extraordinary amount of correspondence, research notes and his prized library, which had held everything from invaluable scientific resources to his beloved collection of poetry. However, the manuscript of Ricketts' textbook Between Pacific Tides had been sent to the publisher.
John Steinbeck would become a silent 50 % partner after funding its reconstruction costs. In 1940 Ricketts and Steinbeck journeyed to the Sea of Cortez in a chartered fishing boat to collect invertebrates for the scientific catalog in their book, Sea of Cortez. In 1940, Ricketts began a relationship with Eleanor Susan Brownell Anthony "Toni" Solomons Jackson, who became his common-law wife; as Steinbeck's secretary, Jackson helped edit The Log From the Sea of Cortez. Jackson, who had attended the University of California, Los Angeles, was the daughter of Katherine Gray Church and Theodore Solomons, an explorer and early member of the Sierra Club, who had discovered and defined the John Muir Trail. Jackson and her young daughter Katherine Adele moved in with Ricketts and lived with him until 1947. In addition to Steinbeck, their circle of friends included the novelist and painter Henry Miller and the mythologist and lecturer Joseph Campbell. During World War II, Ricketts again served in this time as a medical lab technician.
During his service, he kept compiling data. His son was drafted in 1943. In 1945, Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row was published. Ricketts, the model for "Doc," became a celebrity, tourists and journalists began seeking him out. Steinbeck portrayed "Doc" as a many-faceted intellectual, somewhat outcast from intellectual circles, a party-loving drinking man, in close touch with the working class and with the prostitutes and bums of Monterey's Cannery Row. Steinbeck wrote of "Doc": "He wears a beard and his face is half Christ and half satyr and his face tells the truth."Ricketts himself read Cannery Row with exasperation, by all accounts, but ended saying that it could not be criticized because it had not been written with malice. Ricketts was portrayed as "Doc" in Sweet Thursday, the sequel to Cannery Row. In September 1946, Ricketts' daughter Nancy Jane had a son; that same year, his stepdaughter Kay's health deteriorated du