1930 Women's World Games
The 1930 Women's World Games were the third regular international Women's World Games, the tournament was held between September 6 - September 8 at the Letná Stadium in Prague. The games were organized by the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale under Alice Milliat as a response to the IOC decision to include only a few women's events in the 1928 Olympic Games; the games were attended by 200 participants from 17 nations, there among: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Netherlands, Poland and Switzerland. Canada attended with a basketball team; the athletes competed in 12 events: running, high jump, long jump, discus throw, shot put and triathlon. The tournament held exhibition events in basketball, fencing and canoeing; the tournament was opened with an olympic style ceremony. The games attended an audience of several world records were set. On September 8 the sole basketball match was played between Canada and France, Canada won by 18-14. A special commemorative medal was issued for the participants.
Participation medal Picture British team Picture Canadian basketball team Picture Czechoslovak team
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona, it marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city, bidding to host those Games. To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler had a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium built, as well as six gymnasiums and many other smaller arenas; the games were the first to be televised, radio broadcasts reached 41 countries. Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million, her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports. Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy and antisemitism, the official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter, wrote in the strongest terms that Jews should not be allowed to participate in the Games.
When threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, Hitler appeared to allow athletes of other ethnicities from other countries to participate. However, German Jewish athletes were barred or prevented from taking part by a variety of methods and Jewish athletes from other countries seem to have been side-lined in order not to offend the Nazi regime. Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million ℛℳ. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin or outlays of the German national government. Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events and became the most successful athlete to compete in Berlin while the host country was the most successful country overall with 89 medals total, with the United States coming in second with 56 medals; these were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years due to the disruption of the Second World War. The next Olympic Games were held in 1948.
The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting votes for their own favorite host cities. The vote occurred in 1931, during the final years of the Weimar Republic, two years before Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in 1933. Many other cities around the world wanted to host the Summer Olympics for that year, but except for Barcelona they did not receive any IOC votes; the other cities competing to hold the games were Alexandria, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Helsinki, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro and Rome. Helsinki, Rome and Rio de Janeiro would go on to host the Olympic Games in 1952, 1960, 1992 and 2016, respectively; the selection procedure marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city, bidding to host those Games. The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Athens and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, respectively. After the Nazis took control and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates about changing the decision to hold the Games in Berlin.
However, Hitler's regime gave assurances that Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete on a German Olympic team. Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organisation of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak and other undesirables". Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organisation of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Among Diem's ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation; the 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay was the first of its kind, following on from the reintroduction of the Olympic Flame at the 1928 Games.
It pioneered the modern convention of moving the flame via a relay system from Greece to the Olympic venue. Leni Riefenstahl filmed the relay for the 1938 film Olympia; the sportive, knightly battle awakens the best human characteristics. It unites the combatants in understanding and respect, it helps to connect the countries in the spirit of peace. That's; the games were the first to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station, they used three different types of TV cameras, so blackouts would occur when changing from one type to another. The 1936 Olympic village is located at Elstal on the western edge of Berlin; the site, 30 kilometres from the centre of the city, consisted of one and two-floor dormitories, a large dining hall, Dining Hall of the Nations, a swimming facility, gymnasium and other training facilities.
Its layout was designed and cons
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes in mammals, including humans, many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species, since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY; the DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs. The Y chromosome is passed only from father to son. With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest-evolving parts of the human genome. To date, over 200 Y-linked genes have been identified. All Y-linked genes are expressed and hemizygous except in the cases of aneuploidy such as XYY syndrome or XXYY syndrome; the Y chromosome was identified as a sex-determining chromosome by Nettie Stevens at Bryn Mawr College in 1905 during a study of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. Edmund Beecher Wilson independently discovered the same mechanisms the same year.
Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered in 1890 by Hermann Henking. She realized that the previous idea of Clarence Erwin McClung, that the X chromosome determines sex, was wrong and that sex determination is, in fact, due to the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. Stevens named the chromosome "Y" to follow on from Henking's "X" alphabetically; the idea that the Y chromosome was named after its similarity in appearance to the letter "Y" is mistaken. All chromosomes appear as an amorphous blob under the microscope and only take on a well-defined shape during mitosis; this shape is vaguely X-shaped for all chromosomes. It is coincidental that the Y chromosome, during mitosis, has two short branches which can look merged under the microscope and appear as the descender of a Y-shape. Most therian mammals have only one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains SRY, which triggers embryonic development as a male.
The Y chromosomes of humans and other mammals contain other genes needed for normal sperm production. There are exceptions, however. Among humans, some men have two Xs and a Y, or one X and two Ys, some women have three Xs or a single X instead of a double X. There are other exceptions in which SRY is damaged, or copied to the X. Many ectothermic vertebrates have no sex chromosomes. If they have different sexes, sex is determined environmentally rather than genetically. For some of them reptiles, sex depends on the incubation temperature; the X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, termed autosomes, when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" – possessing this allele caused the organism to be male. The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time, genes that were beneficial for males and harmful to females either developed on the Y chromosome or were acquired through the process of translocation.
Until the X and Y chromosomes were thought to have diverged around 300 million years ago. However, research published in 2010, research published in 2008 documenting the sequencing of the platypus genome, has suggested that the XY sex-determination system would not have been present more than 166 million years ago, at the split of the monotremes from other mammals; this re-estimation of the age of the therian XY system is based on the finding that sequences that are on the X chromosomes of marsupials and eutherian mammals are present on the autosomes of platypus and birds. The older estimate was based on erroneous reports that the platypus X chromosomes contained these sequences. Recombination between the X and Y chromosomes proved harmful—it resulted in males without necessary genes found on the Y chromosome, females with unnecessary or harmful genes only found on the Y chromosome; as a result, genes beneficial to males accumulated near the sex-determining genes, recombination in this region was suppressed in order to preserve this male specific region.
Over time, the Y chromosome changed in such a way as to inhibit the areas around the sex determining genes from recombining at all with the X chromosome. As a result of this process, 95% of the human Y chromosome is unable to recombine. Only the tips of the Y and X chromosomes recombine; the tips of the Y chromosome that could recombine with the X chromosome are referred to as the pseudoautosomal region. The rest of the Y chromosome is passed on to the next generation intact, allowing for its use in tracking human evolution. By one estimate, the human Y chromosome has lost 1,393 of its 1,438 original genes over the course of its existence, linear extrapolation of this 1,393-gene loss over 300 million years gives a rate of genetic loss of 4.6 genes per million years. Continued loss of genes at the rate of 4.6 genes per million years would result in a Y chromosome with no functional genes –, the Y chromosome would lose complete function – within the next 10 million years, or half that time with the current age estimate of 160 million years.
Comparative genomic analysis reveals that many mammalian species are experiencing a similar loss of function in their h
Gdynia is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. Located in Kashubia in Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia has a population of 246,232 making it the twelfth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest in the voivodeship after Gdańsk, it is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity, with a population of over a million people. For centuries, Gdynia remained a small fishing village on the Baltic coast. At the beginning of the 20th-century Gdynia became a seaside resort town and experienced an inflow of tourists; this triggered an increase in local population. After Poland regained its independence in 1918, a decision was made to construct a Polish seaport in Gdynia, between the Free City of Danzig and German Pomerania, making Gdynia the primary economic hub of the Polish Corridor, it was that the town was given a more cosmopolitan character with modernism being the dominant architectural style and emerged as a city in 1926.
The rapid development of Gdynia was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. The German troops refrained from deliberate bombing; the newly built port and shipyard were destroyed during the war. The population of the city suffered much heavier losses as most of the inhabitants were evicted and expelled; the locals were either displaced to other regions of occupied Poland or sent to Nazi concentration camps throughout Europe. After the war, Gdynia was settled with the former inhabitants of Warsaw and lost cities such as Lviv and Vilnius in the Eastern Borderlands; the city was regenerating itself with its shipyard being rebuilt and expanded. In December 1970 the shipyard workers protest against the increase of prices was bloodily repressed; this contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in Gdańsk. Today the port of Gdynia is a regular stopover on the itinerary of luxurious passenger ships and a new ferry terminal with a civil airport are under realisation; the city won numerous awards in relation to safety, quality of life and a rich variety of tourist attractions.
In 2013 Gdynia was ranked as Poland's best city to live in and topped the rankings in the overarching category of general quality of life. Gdynia is highly noted for its access to education. There are prestigious universities such as the Polish Naval Academy nearby. Gdynia hosts the Gdynia Film Festival, the main Polish film festival, was the venue for the International Random Film Festival in 2014; the area of the city of Gdynia shared its history with Pomerelia. Late 10th century: Pomerelia was united with Poland. During the reign of Mieszko II Pomerelia became independent. 1116/1121: Bolesław III reunited Pomerelia with Poland. 1209: First mention of Oxhöft. 1227: Pomerelia again became an independent Duchy. 1253: First known mention of the name "Gdynia", as a Pomeranian fishing village. The first church on this part of the Baltic Sea coast was built there. 1294: Pomerelia was inherited by the future Polish king Przemysł II, remained as part of Poland until – 1309–1310. 1380: The owner of the village which became Gdynia, Peter from Rusocin, gave the village to the Cistercian Order.
1382: Gdynia became property of the Cistercian abbey in Oliva, now Oliwa. 1454: Thirteen Years' War started. 1466: Thirteen Years' War ended. Pomerelia became part of Royal Prussia, a newly established province of the Kingdom of Poland, of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1772: In the First Partition of Poland, Royal Prussia was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia. Gdynia became known in German as Gdingen, was expropriated from the Cistercian Order. 1789: There were only 21 houses in Gdynia. Around that time Gdynia was so small that it was not marked on many maps of the period: it was about halfway from Oxhöft to Kleine Katz. 1870: The Kingdom of Prussia became part of the German Empire. The village of Gdingen had some 1,200 inhabitants. At the time it was not a poor fishing village; the first Kashubian mayor of Gdingen was Jan Radtke. Map of Danzig and around in 1899, showing Gdingen 1905: Gdingen shown on a big map, on the coast between Oxhöft and Zoppot. 1919: Treaty of Versailles and the start of the dismemberment of eastern Germany.
1920: Gdingen, along with other parts of former West Prussia, became a part of the new Republic of Poland. The decision to build a major seaport at Gdynia village was made by the Polish government in winter 1920, in the midst of the Polish–Soviet War; the authorities and seaport workers of the Free City of Danzig felt Poland's economic rights in the city were being misappropriated to help fight the war. German dockworkers went on strike, refusing to unload shipments of military supplies sent from the West to aid the Polish army, Poland realized the need for a port city it was in
Maria Jadwiga Kwaśniewska-Maleszewska, née Kwaśniewska was a Polish athlete who competed in the javelin throw. She competed for Poland in the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, where she won the bronze medal in the Javelin throw. During World War II she was active in the anti-Nazi underground, helped Polish and Jewish homeless and starved people. Profile at ŁKS Łódź website
60 metres, or 60-meter dash, is a sprint event in track and field. It is a championship event for indoor championships dominated by the best outdoor 100 metres runners. At outdoor venues it is a rare distance, at least for senior athletes; the 60 metres was an Olympic event in the 1900 and 1904 Summer Games but was removed from the schedule thereafter. American Christian Coleman holds the men's world record in the 60 metres with a time of 6.34 seconds, while Russian Irina Privalova holds the women's world record at 6.92. In the past, it was common for athletes to compete in the 60 yards race; this is the predecessor of the 55 metres race. 60 metres is 65.6168 yards. Updated 4 January 2019. Indoor results only Updated February 2019. Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense: Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.47 seconds: Christian Coleman ran 6.37, 6.42 A, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47. Maurice Greene ran 6.40, 6.41, 6.42, 6.43, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47.
Su Bingtian ran 6.43, 6.47. Ronnie Baker ran 6.44, 6.45 A, 6.46, 6.47. Tim Harden ran 6.44, 6.47. Andre Cason ran 6.45, 6.46. Bruny Surin ran 6.46. Jon Drummond ran 6.46, 6.47. Jason Gardener ran 6.46. Terrence Trammell ran 6.46. Justin Gatlin ran 6.46, 6.47. Marcus Brunson ran 6.46. Dwain Chambers ran 6.46. + = en route to 100m mark Updated February 2019. Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense: Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.99 seconds: Irina Privalova ran 6.93, 6.94, 6.95, 6.96, 6.97, 6.98, 6.99. Merlene Ottey ran 6.97, 6.99. Gail Devers ran 6.98, 6.99. Ekaterini Thanou ran 6.99. Murielle Ahouré ran 6.99. + = en route to 100m mark Notes: A Known as the World Indoor Games The original winner in 1987 was Ben Johnson, disqualified in 1989 after admitting long term drug use. Notes: A Known as the World Indoor Games The original silver medal winner in 1987 was Angella Issajenko, disqualified in 1989 after admitting long term drug use.
The original winner in 2003 was Zhanna Block, disqualified in 2011, had her results from November 2002 onwards annulled. All-time men's best 60 metres from alltime-athletics.com All-time women's best 60 metres from alltime-athletics.com
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC, is part of the modern decathlon; the sport of throwing the discus traces back to it being an event in the original Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. The discus as a sport was resurrected in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. Organized Men's competition was resumed in the late 19th century, has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first modern competition, the 1896 Summer Olympics. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games, the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.
Today the sport of discus is a routine part of modern track-and-field meets at all levels, retains a iconic place in the Olympic Games. The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia, he invented this technique. After only one year of developing the technique he earned a silver medal in the 1900 Olympics. Women's competition began in the first decades of the 20th century. Following competition at national and regional levels it was added to the Olympic program for the 1928 games; the men's discus is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms and diameter of 22 centimetres, the women's discus has a weight of 1 kilogram and diameter of 18 centimetres. Under IAAF rules, Youth boys throw the 1.6 kilograms discus, the Junior men throw the unique 1.75 kilograms discus, the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kilogram discus. In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49; the 1.5 kilograms discus is thrown by ages 50–59, men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram discus.
Women throw the 1 kilogram discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw; the typical discus has sides made of plastic, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used. To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m diameter, recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres. The thrower takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw, he spins anticlockwise around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.
The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower; as well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. A faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability; the technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more. The discus technique can be broken down into phases; the purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and a half circles. The speed of delivery is high, speed is built up during the throw. Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.
During the wind-up, weight is evenly distributed between the feet, which are about shoulder distance and not overly active. The wind-up sets the tone for the entire throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance; this is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle. For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, the athlete'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common; the aim is to land in the'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point.
The left foot should land quickly after the right. Weight shoul