Stanley Milgram was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale. Milgram was influenced by the events of the Holocaust the trial of Adolf Eichmann, in developing the experiment. After earning a PhD in social psychology from Harvard University, he taught at Yale and for most of his career as a professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center, until his death in 1984, his small-world experiment, while at Harvard, led researchers to analyze the degree of connectedness, including the six degrees of separation concept. In his career, Milgram developed a technique for creating interactive hybrid social agents, which has since been used to explore aspects of social- and self-perception, he is regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of social psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Milgram as the 46th-most-cited psychologist of the 20th century.
Milgram was born in 1933 in New York City to Jewish parents. His parents were Adele and Samuel Milgram, who had emigrated to the United States from Romania and Hungary during World War I, he was the second of three children. Milgram's immediate and extended family were both affected by the Holocaust. After the war, relatives of his who had survived Nazi concentration camps and bore concentration camp tattoos stayed with the Milgram family in New York for a time, his Bar Mitzvah speech was on the subject of the plight of the European Jews and the impact that World War II events would have on Jewish people around the world. He said, upon becoming a man under Jewish law: "As I... find happiness in joining the ranks of Israel, the knowledge of the tragic suffering of my fellow Jews... makes this... an occasion to reflect upon the heritage of my people—which now becomes mine.... I shall try to understand my people and do my best to share the responsibilities which history has placed upon all of us."
He wrote to a friend from childhood: "I should have been born into the German-speaking Jewish community of Prague in 1922 and died in a gas chamber some 20 years later. How I came to be born in the Bronx Hospital, I'll never quite understand."Milgram's interest in the Holocaust had its basis in what his biographer, Professor Thomas Blass, referred to as Milgram's "lifelong identification with the Jewish people." Author Kirsten Fermaglich wrote that Milgram as an adult had "a personal conflict as a Jewish man who perceived himself both as an outsider, a victim of the Nazi destruction, as an insider, as scientist." Alexandra stated that Milgram's Jewish identity led to his focus on the Holocaust and his obedience-to-authority research. He shared this as well with Herbert Winer, one of his obedience study subjects, who noted after speaking to Milgram about the experiment that "Milgram was Jewish. I was Jewish. We talked about this. There was a motive behind neutral research."Milgram married his wife, Alexandra, in a ceremony at the Brotherhood Synagogue in Greenwich Village in Manhattan on December 10, 1961, they had two children and Marc.
Milgram's father worked as a baker, providing a modest income for his family until his death in 1953. Milgram attended PS 77 and James Monroe High School in the Bronx, excelled academically and was a great leader among his peers. One of Milgram's classmates at James Monroe High School was Philip Zimbardo, the architect of the Stanford prison experiment. Milgram and Zimbardo shared an affinity for the popular television program Candid Camera and an admiration for its creator, Allen Funt. By the time he was college age, his family had moved to nearby Queens. In 1954, Milgram received his bachelor's degree in political science from Queens College in New York, which he attended tuition-free, he studied at Brooklyn College, where he received A-grades in "Psychology of Personality" and "An Eclectic Approach to Social Psychology." He applied to a PhD program in social psychology at Harvard University, was rejected due to an insufficient background in psychology. He was accepted to Harvard in 1954 after first enrolling as a student in Harvard's Office of Special Students.
In 1961, Milgram received a PhD in social psychology from Harvard. He became an assistant professor at Yale in the fall of 1960, he served as an assistant professor in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard from 1963 to 1966 on a three-year contract. The contract was extended for one additional year, but with the lower rank of a lecturer. Most because of his controversial obedience experiment, Milgram was denied tenure at Harvard. In 1967 he accepted an offer to become a tenured full professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center, he taught at City University until he died in 1984. Milgram had a number of significant influences, including psychologists Solomon Asch and Gordon Allport. Milgram died on December 1984, aged 51, of a heart attack in New York City, it was his fifth heart attack. He left behind a widow, Alexandra "Sasha" Milgram, a daughter, Michele Sara, a son, Marc Daniel. In 1963, Milgram submitted the results of his obedience experiments in the article "Behavioral Study of Obedience."
In the ensuing controversy, the American Psychological Association held up his application for membership for a year because of questions about the ethics of his work, but did grant him full membership. Ten years in 1974, Milgram published Obedience to
Maria Antonina Czaplicka referred to as Marya Antonina Czaplicka and Marie Antoinette Czaplicka, was a Polish cultural anthropologist, best known for her ethnography of Siberian shamanism. Czaplicka's research survives in three major works: her studies in Aboriginal Siberia. Curzon Press republished all three volumes, plus a fourth volume of articles and letters, in 1999. Czaplicka was born in the Stara Praga district of Warsaw in 1884, into an impoverished Polish nobility family, she started her studies with the so-called Flying University, an underground institution of higher education in Russian-held Poland. She supported herself with a number of poorly paid jobs, as a teacher and lady's companion, she wrote poetry, a novel for children called Olek Niedziela. In 1910 she became the first woman to receive a Mianowski Scholarship, was therefore able to continue her studies in the United Kingdom, she left Poland in 1910 and continued her studies at the Faculty of Anthropology of the London School of Economics under Charles G. Seligman, at Somerville College, Oxford under R.
R. Marett. Marett encouraged her to use her Russian language skills in a review of literature on native tribes in Siberia, which became her book Aboriginal Siberia, published in 1914. At this stage she had never visited Siberia, but the quality of her writing led to Aboriginal Siberia becoming the major reference work in its field. Marett had intended the work reported in Czaplicka's Aboriginal Siberia to be the basis for fieldwork in Siberia. In May 1914, she began such fieldwork, leading a joint expedition of Oxford University and University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology staff. Together with English ornithologist Maud Doria Haviland, English painter Dora Curtis, Henry Usher Hall of the Museum, she arrived in Russia shortly before World War I broke out. After the war started Czaplicka and Hall decided to continue their expedition while the others decided to go back to the United Kingdom. Czaplicka and Hall spent the entire winter travelling along the shores of the Yenisei River: more than 3,000 kilometres altogether.
Czaplicka prepared several hundreds of photographs of people of Siberia, as well as countless notes on anthropometry and their customs. Czaplicka received funds from the Committee for Anthropology of the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford to collect specimens from Siberia. In addition, she collected botanical specimens for the Fielding-Druce Herbarium. Czaplicka returned to England in 1915, she wrote a diary of her travel entitled My Siberian Year, published in 1916 by Mills & Boon. In 1916, she became the first female lecturer in anthropology at Oxford University, supported by the Mary Ewart Trust, she gave lectures on the nations of Central and Eastern Europe as well as on the habits of the Siberian tribes. She spoke on Polish issues, including Danzig's post-war disposition. In 1920, her work was honoured with a Murchison Grant from the Royal Geographical Society, "for her ethnographical and geographical work in Northern Siberia." In spite of this triumph, her financial future was still insecure. Her three-year fellowship at Oxford having expired in 1919, she obtained a temporary teaching position in anthropology in the Department of Anatomy at the University of Bristol.
In 1921, she failed to obtain the Albert Kahn Travelling Fellowship which she had hoped for, in May of that year she poisoned herself. The University of Bristol Senate expressed its regret and "appreciation of the loss to the University of so distinguished a member of its staff". Czaplicka is buried in the Wolvercote Cemetery in Oxford. In a will written months before she died, Czaplicka left her notes and reports to her colleague Henry Usher Hall. Although she never married, questions have been raised about the relationship between Hall and Czaplicka, whether she had feelings for him. Hall had married in the US at about the same time of Czaplicka's suicide. After Hall died in 1944, some of Czaplicka's early papers were donated to the University of Pennsylvania Museum, but at least one report and a partial manuscript may be lost, her primary papers are archived at Oxford. Polish museums hold a few private letters of Czaplicka to Malinowski and Władysław Orkan, one of the most prominent Polish poets of the time.
Upon her death in 1971, Barbara Aitkin, a student of Marett and friend of Czaplicka's, memorialised Czaplicka with a fund at Somerville College. In 2015, the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford held a small exhibition entitled "My Siberian Year, 1914–1915" to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Czaplicka's expedition to Siberia. Aboriginal Siberia: A Study in Social Anthropology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914; the Influence of Environment upon the Religious Ideas and Practices of the Aborigines of Northern Asia. Folklore. 25. Pp. 34–54. 1914. "The Life and Work of N. N. Miklubo-Macklay". Man. 14. Pp. 198–203, 1914. My Siberian Year. London and Boon, 1916. "Tribes of the Yenisei. The Oxford Expedition". Times Russian Supplement. 13. P. 6. 18 September 1915. Siberia and some Siberians Journal of the Manchester Geographical Soc. 32. Pp. 27–42. 1916. The Siberian Colonist or Sibiriak In W. Stephens ed; the Soul of Russia. London: Macmillan. 1916 On the track of the Tungus. Scottish Geographical Magazine. 33. Pp. 289–303. 1917. "Ostyaks".
Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics. Volum
Christopher Keene was an American conductor. Keene was born in 1946 in Berkeley, the son of Yvonne and Jim Keene, his mother was of Acadian and Scottish descent. His parents divorced in 1953 and his mother remarried to Jim San Jule in 1954 until their divorce in 1970, he has three siblings: Philip Keene, Elodie Keene, Tamsen Calhoon. His mother remarried to biochemist Daniel E. Koshland Jr. in 2000, of the Haas family, the owners of Levi Strauss & Co. Keene studied at the University of Berkeley. Associated with the Spoleto Festival from 1968, he was co-founder of the Spoleto Festival USA, where he was Music Director from 1977 to 1980. From 1969 to 1971 he was Music Director of Eliot Feld's American Ballet Company. In 1969, Keene joined the staff of the New York City Opera, where he debuted the following year with Ginastera's Don Rodrigo, he was to conduct a great array of operas at that theatre, including the world premiere of Menotti's The Most Important Man, as well as La traviata, Le nozze di Figaro, The Makropoulos Case, Tosca, Beatrix Cenci, Die Zauberflöte, L'incoronazione di Poppea, Ariadne auf Naxos, Médée, I puritani, Salome, A Village Romeo and Juliet, La fanciulla del West, Andrea Chénier, L'amour des trois oranges, The Turn of the Screw, Jay Reise's Rasputin, Schoenberg's Moses und Aron, Zimmermann's Die Soldaten, Stewart Wallace's Harvey Milk.
In 1976 Keene conducted the world premiere of Gian Carlo Menotti's The Hero for the Opera Company of Philadelphia. He conducted at the Metropolitan Opera during a single season, a double-bill of Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci in 1971. From 1974 to 1989, he was Music Director of the Artpark Festival in Buffalo, from 1975 to 1984 held the same post at the Syracuse Symphony Orchestra, he was Founder of the Long Island Philharmonic in 1979, directed it until 1990. In 1976, he led the world premiere of Carlisle Floyd's Bilby's Doll at the Houston Grand Opera. At the City Opera, Sills named him Music Director from 1982 to 1986, he succeeded her as General Director in 1989, a position he held until his death. Keene had undergone treatment for alcoholism at the Betty Ford Center, died of lymphoma resulting from AIDS, at New York Hospital, his last performance, at the City Opera, was of Hindemith's Mathis der Maler. He was seen over PBS conducting The Consul and Vanessa from Spoleto USA, Frank Corsaro's City Opera productions of Madama Butterfly and Carmen.
Keene's discography includes the first recording of Philip Glass' Satyagraha, John Corigliano's score to Ken Russell's film, Altered States. With the Syracuse Symphony, Keene conducted and recorded "The Celestial Hawk", a piano concerto written and performed by Keith Jarrett. "Christopher Keene Is Dead. Christopher Keene conducting an excerpt from Carmen on YouTube Christopher Keene interview by Bruce Duffie, October 17, 1987
The Fiji Commerce Commission is a statutory organisation responsible for fair trade and consumer protection regulation in the Fiji Islands. It was established in 1998 under the Commerce Act 1998; the Commission is an independent statutory body that seeks to protect consumers and businesses from restrictive and unfair trade practices. When it was established, the Commission was principally responsible for enforcing Fiji's competition policies and laws, it was modelled on Consumer Commission. In 2010 the Fiji government passed the Commerce Commission Act 2010 which saw the Commission taken on extra responsibilities that notably included price control. Two of Fiji's regulatory agencies, the Department of Fair Trading & Consumer Affairs and the Prices & Incomes Board ceased to exist as separate entities following this new law; the functions and staff of the two agencies are now merged into the Commerce Commission. The Commission is tasked with: the maintenance of a register of access agreements. If sought and assist consumers and businesses on matters affecting or to affect their interests whether in a negotiation or the acquisition of goods or services.
The Commission works with the Consumer Council of Fiji on matters affecting consumers rights. With the introduction of the Commerce Commission Act in 1998, the Fiji government established a four-member Commerce Commission in October of the same year; the Commission was dissolved by the Fiji Labour Party government in 1999. Following the 2000 Fijian coup d'état, a new Commission was appointed in October 2000 by the interim government. In March 2004 the Commission set up its main office at the Garden City Complex in Suva expanding in 2010 to Lautoka, Labasa; the Commission Secretariat is headed by the Chief Executive Officer Mr Joel Abraham, who holds a Double Masters, he holds a Post graduate Diploma in Climate Change. The current commissioners include: the Chairman, Joann Young, a consultant with the UN.
Elections to the French National Assembly were held in Gabon and Moyen Congo as part of the wider French elections election on 10 November 1946. The electorate of French colonies in Africa was divided into two segments, one elected by common law citizens and one elected by citizens of professional stature. In the Gabon-Moyen-Congo constituency for a single first college seat, there were 4,148 registered voters, whilst the two second college seats had 26,530 registered voters in Gabon and 23,119 in Moyen Congo respectively. In French West Africa the setting up of two separate electoral colleges had caused an uproar, there were few reactions from in French Equatorial Africa; the Congolese member of the National Assembly, Jean-Félix Tchicaya, was the sole voice from the AEF to condemn the separate electoral college system during the debates in the National Assembly in the run-up to the elections. Electoral participation was 67.7 % in Moyen-Congo. In the second college, Jean-Félix Tchicaya was elected from Moyen-Congo and Jean-Hilaire Aubame was elected from Gabon.
Aubame got 7,069 votes, out of 12,528 votes cast. Barthélemy Boganda of the Popular Republican Movement was elected from Oubangui-Chari. Maurice Bayrou was elected from the first college Gabon–Moyen Congo seat, he contested the election as an'independent socialist', supported by the local French administration. His main rival was the SFIO candidate Henri Seignon. Bayrou got 55.1% of the votes and Seignon 39%. After the elections, Bayrou joined the Gaullist Rally of the French People
Mahindra World City, Chennai is India's first operational Special Economic Zone and India's first integrated business city. It is a public–private partnership promoted by the Mahindra Group and TIDCO. Mahindra World City is located outside Chennai city and was inaugurated on 21 September 2002 by the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu J. Jayalalitha. Built on the model of sustainable urbanisation Mahindra World City grew from a bed of business and sustainable practices before evolving into a integrated city within a decade of its inauguration. Situated on the NH 45, Mahindra World City is located 50 km from Chennai city, it is one of the largest integrated business cities on the Golden Quadrilateral spread over 1,500 acres. It is surrounded by a reserve forest and natural lakes. Several engineering colleges and technical institutions are located along this corridor around MWC, Chennai; the core purpose of the city was building a source of livelihood from which social infrastructure and residential would evolve.
It has drawn businesses from different parts of the globe to set up facilities in India. Mahindra World City is now a mature business district with leading companies such as Infosys, BMW, Braun, TTK Group, Njmestronics, Renault-Nissan, Tech Mahindra, Wabco, NTN, Lincoln Electric, Timken, cyber vole and TVS Group, parker among others having set up within its premises. Being one of the largest IT parks in the area along with a host of other industries, more than 25,000 employees have found employment in this zone. BMW's latest vehicle the 3 Series Gran Turismo was rolled out of their plant in MWC Chennai; the layout of the city is broken up in to Zones by the utility of the land. There are 3 sector-specific Special Economic Zones - IT, Auto Ancillaries and Apparel and Fashion Accessories, a Domestic Tariff Area and a Residential / Social zone. Spread across 285 acres, the Residential zone has been planned to provide living spaces supported by modern social infrastructure to over 6,000 families across diverse segments.
The MWC administration operates as the municipal corporation for the city with responsibility for the provision and maintenance of the infrastructure and other facilities. Mahindra World City is well connected by both road and rail links, with Paranur railway station on site, it is 35 km away from 55 km from Chennai Seaport. Paranur railway station is a public private partnership initiative between Mahindra World City and Southern Railways, it is the first railway station to be maintained by the corporate sector. Mahindra World School opened in June 2008; the coeducational school based on the CBSE syllabus is functional from classes kindergarten to standard Xll, with 843 students and 65 teachers. The school will cater both to the schooling needs of the children of Mahindra World City employees/residents as well as of those residing in surrounding areas. Designed by the architect, the school is spread over a 5-acre campus nestled amidst sylvan surroundings; the school has received the National School Sanitation Award in 2012.
Mahindra Research Valley, the key research wing of the Mahindra Group is housed on 125 acres at the Mahindra World City, Chennai, MRV has been designed by Padma Vibhushan, Shri Charles Correa. It is home to over 2500 engineers and designers working in one of the most modern automobile and tractor R&D facilities in India. There is a mosque constructed by United Islamic Welfare Association inside Mahindra city situated in Blossom avenue besides Downtown stay in the road opposite to Canopy; this mosque is called as Mahindra City Mosque or Masjid-E-Mubarak. The Mahindra Group has plans to replicate this model of an integrated business city with industrial and social infrastructure at Gummidipoondi in north part of Chennai; the Gummidipoondi facility will cover 1,000 acres abutting NH5 will focus on Domestic Tariff Area. It will have a logistics park and a residential park