Wayne County, Nebraska
Wayne County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,595, its county seat is Wayne. In the Nebraska license plate system, Wayne County is represented by the prefix 27. Wayne County was organized by a proclamation of Governor David Butler in the fall of 1870; as the county was settled, precincts were formed and boundaries defined. Precincts were named for officials, early settlers, neighborhood creeks. There are 13 precincts in Wayne County. Wayne County, like the City of Wayne, was named for Revolutionary War General Anthony Wayne; the terrain of Wayne County consists of low rolling hills. The ground slopes to the east-northeast. A small drainage, South Logan Creek, flows east-northeastward through the central part of the county and exits flowing northeastward; the county has a total area of 443 square miles, of which 443 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles is water. Sioux Strip State Wildlife Management Area As of the 2000 United States Census there were 9,851 people, 3,437 households, 2,206 families in the county.
The population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 3,662 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.78% White, 0.94% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. 1.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 57.5 % were of 6.0 % Irish and 5.9 % Swedish ancestry. There were 3,437 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.80% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.02. The county population contains 21.60% under the age of 18, 25.40% from 18 to 24, 21.20% from 25 to 44, 18.00% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 92.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,366, the median income for a family was $43,840. Males had a median income of $27,848 versus $20,376 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,644. About 7.40% of families and 14.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.60% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. Several towns in Wayne County's early history no longer exist. LaPorte had nearly 300 citizens at one time and was home to a temporary courthouse until the railroad chose a different route. Towns such as Taffe, Logan City, Melvin and Spring Branch no longer exist. There are 13 precincts in Wayne County, they were named for early settlers or neighborhood creeks. Brenna - named for the sister of F. E. Moses, the first settler in the precinct. Chapin - named for early settler Arthur T. Chapin. Deer Creek - named for the deer horns found on the prairies in early days.
Garfield - named for US President James A. Garfield. Hancock - named for Civil War Brigadier General Winfield Scott Hancock. Hoskins - first named Spring Branch. Hunter - named for early settler Cyrus E. Hunter, from Lee County IL. Logan - named for John A. Logan, the vice presidential candidate with presidential candidate James G. Blaine. Leslie - either named for a pinoeer-days judge, or for a post office. Plum Creek - named for wild plums seen along the creek in early days. Sherman - named for Civil War General. Strahan - named for J. M. Strahan, an early settler. Wilbur - named for Russell H. Wilbur, a pioneer in the precinct. Wayne County voters have been Republican for many decades, voting for the Republican candidate in every presidential election except for three from 1900 onward. In addition, no Democratic presidential candidate has won the county since 1936. National Register of Historic Places listings in Wayne County, Nebraska
U.S. Route 275
U. S. Route 275 is a north–south United States highway, it is a branch of US 75 terminating at that route in Council Bluffs, Iowa. The highway's northern terminus is in O'Neill, Nebraska, at an intersection with U. S. Highway 20 and U. S. Highway 281, its southern terminus is near Rock Port, Missouri, at an intersection with U. S. Highway 136. U. S. 275 is signed north -- south in Iowa, while in Nebraska, it is signed east -- west. U. S. Route 275 begins at an intersection with U. S. Route 136 1 mile west of Rock Port, it travels to the northwest through Atchison County for 16 miles. U. S. Route 275 crosses into Iowa 1 1⁄2 miles south of Hamburg, it enters Hamburg and intersects Iowa Highway 333, which connects to Interstate 29 1 1⁄2 miles to the west. North of Hamburg, it intersects Iowa 2, the two routes share 5 miles of road. US 275 and Iowa 2 bypass Sidney on its east side, east of Sidney, US 275 and Iowa 2 separate. From east of Sidney, US 275 continues north for 20 miles through Tabor until it intersects U.
S. Route 34 east of Glenwood. US 275 and US 34 overlap for 8 miles bypassing Glenwood. West of Glenwood, US 34 and US 275 split at an interchange with I-29. For 13 miles, US 275 overlaps I-29, ending at an interchange with Iowa 92 in southern Council Bluffs. Turning west, US 275 / Iowa 92 travel together for 5 miles in Iowa and cross the new South Omaha Veterans Memorial Bridge over the Missouri River. US 275 enters Nebraska in Omaha in the South Omaha neighborhood paired with Nebraska Highway 92, it goes through Omaha as a four-lane highway until meeting Nebraska Highway 31. The street designations for US 275 in Omaha are, from east to west, Missouri Avenue, L Street, Industrial Road and West Center Road, it crosses the Elkhorn River, which it will follow for most of the rest of the route separates from NE 92. It becomes freeway until Fremont, it meets U. S. Route 30 and they are paired together around Fremont until meeting U. S. Route 77. US 275 meets Nebraska Highway 91 and separates from US 77 near Winslow.
It turns northwest with NE 91 and they separate near Scribner, Nebraska. US 275 goes north through West Point, turns northwest through Wisner, turns west. At Norfolk it meets U. S. Route 81, it continues west-northwest, meets U. S. Route 20 near Inman and the two routes overlap until US 275 ends at an intersection with U. S. Route 281 in downtown O'Neill. At its creation in 1932, US 275 ran from Council Bluffs to Missouri. In 1939 the route was extended northwest into Nebraska. In 1963 US 275 was truncated to its current end in northwestern Missouri. Prior to 1963, US 275 extended south to St. Joseph; the route followed current U. S. Route 136 east from Rock Port to its intersection with U. S. Route 59 near Tarkio south with US 59 to St. Joseph. Before November 2001, US 275 ran alongside the Union Pacific tracks between Waterloo and Fremont, Nebraska; this routing was replaced by a new freeway segment built as part of a project to connect Fremont via freeway to Omaha. This segment is called Reichmuth Road in Douglas County and Bell Street in Fremont.
Prior to July 1, 2003, US 275 followed a winding two-lane road between Council Bluffs and Glenwood, Iowa. The segment moved to a concurrency with U. S. Route Interstate 29 that day as part of a mass decommissioning of highways in Iowa; this road is now Mills County and Pottawattamie County Road L35. Mileposts reset at state line crossings. In Nebraska, US 275 is considered an east–west highway, its mileposts run from west to east U. S. Route 75 U. S. Route 175 U. S. Route 275 Business - Fremont, Nebraska Endpoints of US highway 275 Nebraska Transportation On New Bridge
Platte County, Nebraska
Platte County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 32,237, its county seat is Columbus. The county was created in 1855. Platte County comprises NE Micropolitan Statistical Area. In the Nebraska license plate system, Platte County is represented by the prefix 10; the Platte River flows eastward along the south line of Platte County. The Loup River flows eastward and east-southeastward through the lower section of the county, discharging into the Platte River near Columbus; the Platte County terrain consists of low rolling hills devoted to agriculture, sloping to the east-southeast. The county has an area of 685 square miles, of which 674 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. George Syas State Wildlife Management Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 31,662 people, 12,076 households, 8,465 families in the county; the population density was 47 people per square mile. There were 12,916 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.29% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.49% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 6.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,076 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.14. The county population contained 29.00% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,359, the median income for a family was $47,776.
Males had a median income of $30,672 versus $21,842 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,064. About 5.40% of families and 7.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.00% of those under age 18 and 6.80% of those age 65 or over. Columbus Humphrey Newman Grove Lakeview James Keogh, executive editor of Time magazine and the head of the White House speechwriting staff under Richard M. Nixon Platte County voters have been reliably Republican for decades. In only one election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Platte County, Nebraska
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Colfax County, Nebraska
Colfax County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,515, its county seat is Schuyler. The county and its seat are named after US Vice President Schuyler Colfax. In the Nebraska license plate system, Colfax County is represented by the prefix 43. Colfax County was established by the Nebraska legislature in 1869, as part of the division of Platte County into three parts; the new county was named for Schuyler Colfax the Vice-President of the United States. The site of Shell Creek Station on the Union Pacific Railroad was chosen as the county seat, renamed Schuyler after Colfax. Schuyler was incorporated in 1870, the county's first courthouse was constructed in 1872. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 417 square miles, of which 412 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 10,441 people, 3,682 households, 2,592 families in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile.
There were 4,088 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.73% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 15.94% from other races, 1.73% from two or more races. 26.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.8% were of German and 24.2% Czech ancestry. There were 3,682 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 7.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.31. The county population contained 28.90% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 18.70% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 106.40 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,849, the median income for a family was $40,936. Males had a median income of $25,656 versus $20,485 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,148. About 7.20% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. Colfax County voters are reliably Republican. In only one national election since 1936 did the county select the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Colfax County, Nebraska