Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales. Under the microscope, they appear spherical, form in grape-like clusters. Staphylococcus species are facultative anaerobic organisms; the name was coined in 1880 by Scottish surgeon and bacteriologist Alexander Ogston, following the pattern established five years earlier with the naming of Streptococcus. It combines the prefix "staphylo-", suffixed by the Modern Latin: coccus, lit.'spherical bacterium'. Staphylococcus includes at least 40 species. Of these, nine have two subspecies, one has three subspecies, one has four subspecies. Most are harmless and reside on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Staphylococcus has been found to be a nectar-inhabiting microbe. Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora; the taxonomy is based on 16s rRNA sequences, most of the staphylococcal species fall into 11 clusters: S. aureus group – S. argenteus, S. aureus, S. schweitzeri, S. simiae S. auricularis group – S. auricularis S. carnosus group – S. carnosus, S. condimenti, S. debuckii, S. massiliensis, S. piscifermentans, S. simulans S. epidermidis group – S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. saccharolyticus S. haemolyticus group – S. devriesei, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis S. hyicus-intermedius group – S. agnetis, S. chromogenes, S. cornubiensis, S. felis, S. delphini, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, S. lutrae, S. microti, S. muscae, S. pseudintermedius, S. rostri, S. schleiferi S. lugdunensis group – S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus group – S. arlettae, S. caeli, S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. gallinarum, S. kloosii, S. leei, S. nepalensis, S. saprophyticus, S. succinus, S. xylosus S. sciuri group – S. fleurettii, S. lentus, S. sciuri, S. stepanovicii, S. vitulinus S. simulans group – S. simulans S. warneri group – S. pasteuri, S. warneriA 12th group – that of S. caseolyticus – has now been removed to a new genus, the species of which are the closest known relatives of Staphylococcus.
Two species were described in 2015 - Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus schweitzeri - both of which were considered variants of S. aureus. A new coagulase negative species - Staphylococcus edaphicus - has been isolated from Antarctica; this species is a member of the S. saprophyticus group. S. aureus subsp. AureusS. Aureus subsp. Anaerobius S. capitis subsp. CapitisS. Capitis subsp. Urealyticus S. carnosus subsp. CarnosusS. Carnosus subsp. Utilis S. cohnii subsp. CohniiS. Cohnii subsp. Urealyticus S. equorum subsp. EquorumS. Equorum subsp. Linens S. hominis subsp. HominisS. Hominis subsp. Novobiosepticus S petrasii subsp. CroceilyticusS petrasii subsp. JettensisS petrasii subsp. PetrasiiS petrasii subsp. Pragensis S. saprophyticus subsp. BovisS. Saprophyticus subsp. Saprophyticus S. schleiferi subsp. CoagulansS. Schleiferi subsp. Schleiferi S. sciuri subsp. CarnaticusS. Sciuri subsp. RodentiumS. Sciuri subsp. Sciuri S. succinus subsp. CaseiS. Succinus subsp. Succinus Based on an analysis of orthologous gene content three groups have been proposed.
Group A includes S. aureus, S. capitis, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. pettenkoferi, S. simiae and S. warneri. Group B includes S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus. Group C includes S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius. The S. saprophyticus and S. sciuri groups are novobiocin-resistant, as is S. hominis subsp. Novobiosepticus. Members of the S. sciuri group are oxidase-positive due to their possession of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. This group is the only clade within the staphylococci to possess this gene; the S. sciuri group appears to be the closest relations to the genus Macrococcus. S. pulvereri has been shown to be a junior synonym of S. vitulinus. Within these clades, the S. haemolyticus and S. simulans groups appear to be related, as do the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. S. Lugdunensis appears to be related to the S. haemolyticus group. S. petrasii may be related to S. haemolyticus. The taxonomic position of S. lyticans, S. pettenkoferi, S. petrasii, S. pseudolugdunensis has yet to be clarified.
The published descriptions of these species do not appear to have been validly published. Assignment of a strain to the genus Staphylococcus requires it to be a Gram-positive coccus that forms clusters, has an appropriate cell wall structure and G + C content of DNA in a range of 30–40 mol%. Staphylococcus species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci by several simple tests. Staphylococcus species are facultative anaerobes. All species grow in the presence of bile salts. All species of Staphylococcus aureus were once thought to be coagulase-positive, but this has since been disproven. Growth can occur in a 6.5% NaCl solution. On Baird Parker medium, Staphylococcus species grow fermentatively, except for S. saprophyticus, which grows oxidatively. Staphylococcus species are susceptible to furazolidone. Further biochemical testing is needed to identify to the species level; when these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes. This is as opposed to streptococci.
One of the most i
Huang Qi is a Chinese webmaster and human rights activist. He is the co-founder of Tianwang Center for Missing Persons, along with his wife Zeng Li; the mission of the organization was to help counter human trafficking that had become a swelling problem in the late 1990s, but it was expanded to include campaign against human rights abuse. Huang is the owner and webmaster of 64tianwang.com, a website intended to release news about people who had disappeared in the People's Republic of China. Huang was imprisoned by the government from June 2000 to June 2005 and again arrested in July 2008 for "illegal possession of state secrets" after he helped the victims of the Sichuan earthquake. In November 2009 he was sentenced to three years of imprisonment, he was subsequently described as a political prisoner. Huang was sentenced to twelve years in prison in July 2019 for leaking state secrets to foreigners. Huang and his wife, Zeng Li, from Chengdu in Sichuan, set up the website www.64tianwang.com in June 1998 to track cases of human trafficking by posting information about missing people.
Huang managed the site, helped to decide on its content, investigated cases aiding in the rescue of several trafficked girls. He continued to post articles exposing cases of people exploited by government officials until late 2000; the police tried to shut down his website, but Huang moved his website to servers in the United States. Huang was arrested in late 2000 under the charges of "inciting subversion" and sentenced to five years in prison. Soon after his release in 2005, he resumed posting similar content on his website as he did before the arrest, until June 2008, when he was arrested again under the charges of "illegal possession of state secrets" after he posted an article on behalf of parents of school children who had died in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, demanding an investigation into the schools’ construction. Reporters Without Borders awarded its Cyber-Freedom Prize to Huang Qi in 2004. Huang was arrested on June 3, 2000—the day before the 11th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests of 1989—accused of posting on his website articles about the protests written by dissidents living abroad.
The website was used by the independence movement in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region and the Falun Gong. He was jailed in July 2000 at the Detention Center No. 1 in Chengdu. Former cellmates said he was beaten and denied medicine he needed. Huang was tried for "subversion" in August 2001, he was charged under articles 103, 105, 55 and 56 of the Criminal Law and tried in secret by the Chengdu Intermediate Court in August 2001. He was detained without sentencing until May 2003, when he was sentenced to five years in prison. Amnesty International named him a prisoner of conscience "imprisoned for the peaceful exercise of his right to freedom of expression and association" and called for his immediate release. On June 4, 2005, Huang Qi was released from jail after completing his sentence, he told Radio Free Asia that he wanted to resume his web site dedicated to the memory of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown. "I will do my best to resume the Tianwang Web site. When it was first created it was for few people.
But I now realize that there are many like-minded people," he said. After the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, he assisted in relief work and responded to some parents' requests for assistance in their questions and complaints concerning the collapse of school buildings. Huang posted their demands as an article on his website. A week on June 10, plain-clothed policemen arrested him in Chengdu and held him "on suspicion of illegally possessing state secrets", an ill-defined charge used by the Chinese government to clamp down on dissent. A formal announcement of his arrest was made on July 18, 2008, he was sentenced to three years of imprisonment in November 2009 based on the discovery of two city-level documents in his house. The court was guarded by police with only Huang's wife and mother allowed to enter, Huang's lawyers were unable to attend because of short notice given. Huang has been refused bail. Human Rights organizations condemned "inhumane treatment" of Huang in prison. Amnesty International alleges that during his detention Huang was interrogated for long periods and subject to sleep deprivation.
Huang's family have said that his health has deteriorated in detention and that he has not received adequate medical care. One of his lawyers has stated that he has been diagnosed with two tumours, one in the stomach and one in the chest, during his period in detention. Earlier on November 7, the U. S. House of Representatives had passed a near-unanimous resolution seeking freedom of activists Huang Qi and Tan Zuoren. Following Huang's imprisonment, fellow human rights activist and pundit Liu Dan authored a piece on Huang's Tianwang website condemning Chinese President Hu Jintao's Harmonious Society ideology, saying that it was a "sham" in the face of Huang Qi's sentencing. Liu wrote that Hu's administration silences anyone whose opinions differ from the party line, whether that opinion is coming from external elements, foreign elements, or within the Chinese political system itself. Huang was released in 2011 after completing his sentence. On November 28, 2016, Huang was
Ezequiel Carlos Maggiolo is a retired Argentine football forward. He is the assistant coach of Tigre. Maggiolo started his career in the Argentine 3rd division in 1996, in 1998 the club were promoted to the 2nd division. In 1999 Maggiolo moved to Ecuador to play for LDU Quito. In 2000 Maggiolo returned to Argentina to play for newly promoted side Club Atlético Los Andes, but the 2000-2001 season did not progress well and Los Andes finished bottom of the table to be relegated back to the 2nd division. Maggiolo left Los Andes in the summer to join Estudiantes for his first spell with the club, he played for them between 2001 and 2005 before moving to Olimpo de Bahía Blanca for the 2005-2006 season. At the end of the season Olimpo finished 18th in the table necessitating a playoff with Belgrano de Córdoba, Olimpo lost the tie and Maggiolo experienced relegation from the Primera for the 2nd time in his career. In 2006, Maggiolo was re–signed by the new Estudiantes manager Diego Simeone, he helped the club to win their first league title in 23 years, when it won the championship decider against Boca Juniors to claim the Apertura 2006 championship.
Maggiolo made 12 appearances during the championship season, including a 20-minute substitute appearance in the 2-1 victory over Boca Juniors. As of October 2007 19 of Maggiolo's 29 appearances have been as a substitute, thus distorting his goals per game average quite dramatically. Argentine Primera statistics at Fútbol XXI