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A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth; the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations; the observable Universe contains an estimated 1×1024 stars, but most are invisible to the naked eye from Earth, including all stars outside our galaxy, the Milky Way. For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star's interior and radiates into outer space. All occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the star's lifetime, for some stars by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes.

Near the end of its life, a star can contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its luminosity, spectrum respectively; the total mass of a star is the main factor. Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities produces a plot known as a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. Plotting a particular star on that diagram allows the age and evolutionary state of that star to be determined. A star's life begins with the gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material composed of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements; when the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective heat transfer processes.

The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. A star with mass greater than 0.4 times the Sun's will expand to become a red giant when the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. In some cases, it will fuse heavier elements in shells around the core; as the star expands it throws a part of its mass, enriched with those heavier elements, into the interstellar environment, to be recycled as new stars. Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or, if it is sufficiently massive, a black hole. Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound and move around each other in stable orbits; when two such stars have a close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a star cluster or a galaxy. Stars have been important to civilizations throughout the world, they have used for celestial navigation and orientation.

Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere and that they were immutable. By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and used them to track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Sun; the motion of the Sun against the background stars was used to create calendars, which could be used to regulate agricultural practices. The Gregorian calendar used nearly everywhere in the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its local star, the Sun; the oldest dated star chart was the result of ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC. The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period; the first star catalogue in Greek astronomy was created by Aristillus in 300 BC, with the help of Timocharis. The star catalog of Hipparchus included 1020 stars, was used to assemble Ptolemy's star catalogue.

Hipparchus is known for the discovery of the first recorded nova. Many of the constellations and star names in use today derive from Greek astronomy. In spite of the apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear. In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about a supernova, now known as the SN 185; the brightest stellar event in recorded history was the SN 1006 supernova, observed in 1006 and written about by the Egyptian astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and several Chinese astronomers. The SN 1054 supernova, which gave birth to the Crab Nebula, was observed by Chinese and Islamic astronomers. Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars that are still used today and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars, they built the first large observatory research institutes for the purpose of producing Zij star catalogues. Among these, the Book of Fixed Stars was written by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, who observed a number of stars, star clusters and galaxies.

According to A. Zahoor, in the 11th century, the Persian polymath scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Milky Way galaxy

Lefter Millo

Lefter Millo was an Albanian football midfielder part of the Greek minority. He made his senior debut for Luftëtari on 19 February 1984 against Skënderbeu and played for Partizani Tirana from 1986 to 1990, he was one in the first wave of Albanian footballers to leave the country for Greece following the fall of communism when he joined Larissa in 1991. He played for Iraklis Thessaloniki, he made his debut for Albania in an August 1988 friendly match at home against Cuba and earned a total of 20 caps, scoring no goals. His final international was an October 1996 FIFA World Cup qualification match against Portugal. Source: He was killed in a car accident in Giannouli, near Larissa in 1997, when he was only 30 years old. 13 Years a statue of him would be placed in his native village with an official ceremony. Albanian Superliga: 11987 Lefter Millo at

Surprise Moriri

Surprise Mohlomolleng Moriri is a South African professional footballer who plays as a midfielder or striker for Highlands Park. He has represented South Africa internationally and has amassed 34 caps since his debut in 2003. Moriri is a free-scoring midfielder, chosen as South Africa’s PSL Player of the Season in 2005–06, he plays as a second striker or behind the striker as a supporting striker. He can be deployed on the right side of midfield, he scored 12 goals in all competitions to be Sundowns’ top scorer and help the'Brazilians' to their first league title since 2000. In the 2006–07 season he eclipsed that amount, with again 11 league goals and three in the CAF Champions League; the 2007–08 season saw him less prolific in the league only managing three league goals but in the process scoring two Nedbank Cup goals, one MTN 8 goal, one Tekom Knockout goal and four CAF Champions League, giving him a total of 11 goals. On 18 June 2007, Sundowns played a friendly against FC Barcelona in South Africa.

Moriri scored within one minute and 30 seconds to make it 1–0. After many missed chances from both teams, Barcelona went on to win the game 2–1 after two late goals from substitutes Santiago Ezquerro and Marc Crosas Luque. Moriri made his debut in a friendly match against Lesotho on 8 October 2003, he scored his first goal for South Africa in their 3–0 win over Chad in the MTN Africa Cup of Nations qualifiers. He was in the South African squad for the 2008 African Nations Cup, he was part of the Bafana Bafana squad for the 2010 World Cup. Surprise Moriri at

2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines

2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines is a light infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Known as "The Warlords", it consists of 1300 Marines and Sailors and falls under the command of the 2nd Marine Regiment and the 2nd Marine Division; the battalion returned home November 2008 from Iraq, returned from Afghanistan in May 2010, returned home March 2012 after deploying for 11 months with the 22d Marine Expeditionary Unit as Battalion Landing Team 2/2 supporting NATO Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR. The unit deployed in April 2013, in support of both BSRF and Operation Enduring Freedom. Fox Company returned again from Afghanistan October 2013, while the rest of the battalion returned home August 2013 from the Black Sea Rotational Force. Again in August 2014, the battalion deployed in support of the SPMAGTF-CR Africa. Returning in January 2015, the unit next deployed to the Pacific region on a UDP, going to Okinawa, Japan; the unit is now slated to deploy again in the near future.

Headquarters & Services Company Easy Company Fox Company Golf Company Weapons Company The Second Battalion, Second Marines was activated at Cap Haitien, Haiti on July 1, 1925, assigned to 1st Brigade serving at the time with Garde d’Haiti. Throughout 1925 and 1926, Marines of the Battalion were employed to quell political disturbances in Haiti. During the period 1929 through 1933, the Battalion assisted in building roads and schools, improving sanitary conditions and training the native Haitian constabulary. Second Battalion was deactivated on January 1, 1933. Second Battalion was reactivated on January 14, 1941. On August 9, 1942, the Battle of Guadalcanal began with Marines landing on the Tulagi Island Complex, Guadalcanal. On October 10, elements of the 2nd Battalion conducted a two-day raid on the villages of Koilotamaria and Garabaus, Guadalcanal. During January 1943, 2d Battalion participated in the final assault to clear Guadalcanal of the remaining Japanese resistance. For its participation in the battle, it was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation.

As part of the 2nd Marine Division, 2/2 deployed and was one of three battalions spearheading the attack on Tarawa. The Japanese resistance was fierce, the initial losses to the battalion were heavy; the battalion commander, Lt. Col. Herbert R. Amey, Jr. was killed by Japanese machine gun fire before reaching the beach. Throughout the battle, Marines of the Battalion distinguished themselves: there were two Navy Cross winners and numerous lesser medals awarded for individual actions; the Battalion was again awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for its heroic assault at Tarawa. The 2nd Battalion conducted similar operations during Saipan and Okinawa Campaigns of World War II. In September 1945, the Battalion deployed to Nagasaki, Japan as part of the U. S. occupation forces. During June and July 1946, the Battalion relocated back to Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, as part of the post-war reduction of forces; the Battalion was deactivated on November 18, 1947. With the birth of NATO, the Marine Corps was assigned a new mission and 2/2 was reactivated October 20, 1949.

Since its reactivation, the Battalion has seen extensive service in joint and combined operations and exercises. On July 15, 1958, as part of Landing Force Sixth Fleet, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines landed in Beirut, Lebanon in order to secure Beirut International Airport. Having accomplished its mission, the Battalion redeployed on August 14, 1958. In October 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the 2nd Battalion deployed to the waters off the coast of Cuba as part of a task force of 40 ships and 20,000 Marines and Sailors; when the successful blockade terminated on December 3, 1962, the Battalion returned to Camp Lejeune. Service in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, Okinawa was routine for the 2nd Battalion during the intervening years between 1963 and 1977. In February 1979, elements of the Battalion deployed to the Azores on standby alert to reinforce the American Embassy, Iran; the unit was recalled. On December 4, 1979, in the face of terrorist attacks on United States citizens at the Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, they deployed once again to reinforce the Marine Barracks.

They were withdrawn in April 1980. The eighties were a decade of standard deployments to the Four Corners of the world. In December 1990, attached to 6th Marine Regiment, the unit deployed to Southwest Asia for participation in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm; the Battalion returned from Southwest Asia in April 1991. In May 1992, as part of Landing Force Sixth Fleet, 2nd Battalion supported Operation Provide Promise off the coast of the former republics of Yugoslavia. In August 1994, the Battalion departed for the Caribbean and Haitian waters for Operation Support Democracy. 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines once again landed in Cap Haitian, Haiti on September 20, 1994. Participation in Operation Uphold Democracy lasted until October 1994. A squad from Echo Company Engaged in a fire fight with the Haitian police/ military coup. Fourteen Marines led by Lt Polumbo where engaged and prevailed despite superior numbers and superior cover by the Haitians. One Navy interpreter was wounded and several Haitians lost their lives.

In April 1996, 2/2 was attached to the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit and reinforced an American Embassy in Monrovia, Liberia in support of Operation Assured Response and the American Embassy in Bangui, Central African Republic in support of Operation Quick Response. During February 1997, elements of t

FBC Melgar

Foot Ball Club Melgar, known as FBC Melgar or Melgar, is a Peruvian football club based in Arequipa, Peru. It is one of Peru's oldest football teams, founded on March 25, 1915 by a group of football enthusiasts from Arequipa; the team first participated in the Peruvian football league in 1919 in Lima and was invited to the first true National football league, the Torneo Descentralizado, in 1966, when four teams from the provinces were invited to join the league. Joining them were Atlético Grau from Piura, Club Octavio Espinoza from Ica and Alfonso Ugarte from Trujillo. Only teams from Lima and Callao had been allowed to compete for the national championship. Due to a low finish the first year, Melgar was dropped from the league after the first year. After winning the Copa Perú they returned to the First Division where they have remained to this day. Melgar won the Torneo Descentralizado for the first time in 1981. In the 1983 season the club finished first in the First Stage and at the end the top six teams played a play-off tournament to determine the year's champion, which Melgar finished in second.

FBC Melgar plays its home games at the Estadio Mariano Melgar, but since the Estadio de la UNSA was built in 1990 with a capacity of 40,000, it has used both. The club won nine cups in the departament of Arequipa, won the Copa Perú in 1971; this championship allowed them to return to the First Division Campeonato Descentralizado where they remain. Melgar won the National Championship in 1981, Melgar was the runner-up of the national championship in 1983. In both these years this qualified them to play in the Copa Libertadores. In 2014, Juan Reynoso, who come from México, was appointed as the new manager, he signed players like Piero Alva, Nelinho Quina, Minzum Quina, Luis Hernández, Alejandro Hohberg, Lampros Kontogiannis and Edgar Villamarín to make an impressive campaign where Melgar was the best team during the whole season finishing 1st in the accumulated table, but due to some bad results in the final matches and the poor organization of the tournament they weren't able to dispute the Play-off for the championship and only qualified for the Copa Sudamericana.

In 2015, year of Melgar's centenary, still with Reynoso as the manager, the team signed important players like Raúl Ruidíaz, Carlos Ascues, Johnnier Montaño, Rainer Torres and Daniel Ferreyra to make an impressive team and fight for the title. This year, Melgar won the national championship, besting Sporting Cristal with a score in the final minute by Bernardo Cuesta. FBC Melgar has had a long-standing rivalry with Sportivo Huracán, Aurora and Piérola. Peruvian Primera División:Winners: 1981, 2015 Runner-up: 1983, 2016Torneo Apertura:Runner-up: 2014, 2015Torneo Clausura:Winners: 2015, 2018Torneo de Verano:Winners: 2017Copa Perú:Winners: 1971 Runner up: 1969, 1970 Torneo de Promoción y Reserva:Winners: 2014-II, 2015-II Runner-up: 2015-I Liga Departamental de Arequipa:Winners: 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971Liga Distrital de Arequipa:Winners: 1928, 1929, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970 A = appearances, P = matches played, W = won, D = drawn, L = lost, GF = goals for, GA = goals against.

As of 18 February 2020Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Arequipa Mariano Melgar List of Peruvian Stadiums Peru national football team Official Melgar fans site

Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa

Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa Al-Hassan was a Sudanese politician, ambassador and an elite educator, who served as the 5th Prime Minister of Sudan. Famous for his great legacy in education and founding prints for Ministry of Education in Sudan, as the executive Prime Minister in the October Regime. Al-Khalifa was born in Ed Dueim to Nafisa Al-Fakki Alabead. Descending from the Al Jalain tribe, his father migrated from Shendi to Ed Dueim and was appointed as khalifa of Al-Khatmiya. In the early 1920s he attained his primary education at Ed Dueim Rural School and Berber Intermediate School. In 1937 he graduated from Gordon Memorial College studying Teachers Education. Al-Khalifa became a teacher at Bakht Arrida from 1938 till 1944, until he moved to Great Britain to continue his education. In 1944 Al-Khalifa furthered his education by attending Exeter University of Oxford. In 1946 he returned to Sudan to resume his teaching job at Bakht Arrida. In 1950, after the abandonment of the Southern Policy, a colonial policy that isolated Southern Sudan from education and economic development, Al-Khalifa was appointed as a Provincial Education Officer at Equatoria Province in Juba.

After seven years of success at the job, he was promoted to become Assistant Director of Education for Southern Provinces, the highest educational position in the region. During this time, he increased the number of schools and introduced the Arabic language in the region. Spending 10 years in South Sudan, spreading education and relating to the once-totally-closed South, he became a favorable and respected character in the whole of Sudan and North. In 1962, Al-Khalifa was appointed as a dean of Khartoum Technical Institute, he spent two years at the job, was nicknamed "Father of Technical Education" in Sudan, since he devoted great effort and time for this newly established technical school. In 1964, the Abbud regime was facing numerous instabilities that led to a major strike from the different working sectors of the society; the strike, known as the October Revolution, led to rioting and numerous deaths and forced President Abbud to dissolve the government and prepare for civilian rule. Al-Khalifa was nominated by the Umma Party as prime minister for a transitional government to prepare for civilian rule.

Many agreed upon the nominee, others including the Sudanese Communist Party disagreed due to his political inexperience and their nominees including Abdin Ismail and Jaafar Karrar. After several meetings between the different parties, Al-Khalifa was appointed as prime minister for the transitional government; the Al-Khalifa regime was eager to address and find peaceful solutions for the southern problem. With party members holding few positions, Southern politicians were allowed positions that were deemed as Northern. Clement Mboro became the first Southern to hold the position of Minister of Interior. Al-Khalifa called upon establishing the Round Table Conference with the presence of 24 Southern politicians and 18 Northern party representatives to address the problem of the South; the conference was scheduled in Juba between 16–29 March 1965. "Gentlemen, a basic attribute of the majority of the population of this country and of many African countries besides, is not a racial concept which unites members of a certain racial group.

It is a religious and nonracial link that binds together numerous races, black and brown. Had Arabism been anything else but this, most modern Arabs, whether African or Asian, including the entire population of the Northern Sudan, would cease to be Arab at all." However, the conference reached a deadlock and was concluded with the establishment of Twelve-Men Committee, consisting of the participating political parties. Al-Khalifa was forced to resign and the government promised to schedule elections by June 1965. With a rushed elections conducted in the North excluding the South for security reasons, this ended the transitional government of Al-Khalifa and started the second democratic phase of Sudan under Mohamed Ahmed Mahjub. Al-Khalifa was appointed as ambassador to Italy in 1966. In March 1968, he was transferred to become ambassador to Britain. On 25 May 1969, when Gaafar Nimeiry seized power, Al-Khalifa was bluntly informed about his end of service and stripped of his diplomatic passport.

He had to report to Khartoum. Some believe that this blunt telex was a reply from Babiker Awadallah, former chief justice and the new prime minister, Nimeiry’s regime to Al-Khalifa’s betrayal of the October Revolution by rushing the 1965 elections thus handing power to Umma-PDP parties. After performing the diplomatic farewell to the Queen, Al-Khalifa returned to Khartoum in the beginning of June 1969. In 1973 Nimeiry appointed Al-Khalifa as Minister of Education, he assumed this position for two years, when he was appointed in 1982 as President Advisor on Educational Affairs until the end of Nimeiry’s era in 1985. The day after his death, Al-Khalifa's burial at Al-Bakri Cemetery on 19 February 2006, was attended by thousands of his colleagues, politicians and students. Succeeded by his son Hassan, four daughters Nafisa, Sulafa and Sawsan He inaugurated and was the first to pitch a ball in Al Merreikh Stadium in 1965, he was a fan of Ahmed Al-Mustafa, post Haqeeba singer He was one of the authors of the famous geography books in Sudan primary school syllabus, Sobol Kasb Al-ayash fe es Sudan.

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