William Warham was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1503 to his death. Warham was the son of Robert Warham of Malshanger in Hampshire, he was educated at New College, Oxford. After graduating, Warham taught law both in London and Oxford, his father was a tenant farmer, but his brother, Sir Hugh Warham, acquired an estate at Croydon, which passed to his daughter Agnes, who married Sir Anthony St Leger. Warham took holy orders, held two livings and became Master of the Rolls in 1494. Henry VII found him a clever diplomatist, he helped to arrange the marriage between Henry's son, Prince of Wales, Catherine of Aragon. He went to Scotland with Richard Foxe bishop of Durham, in 1497, he was responsible for several commercial and other treaties with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Count of Flanders and Regent Duke of Burgundy, on behalf of his son Philip IV of Burgundy. In 1502, he was consecrated Bishop of London and became Keeper of the Great Seal, but his tenure of both offices was short, as in 1504, he became Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury.
In 1506, he became Chancellor of a role he held until his death. In 1509, he presided over the wedding of and crowned Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. On 28 September 1511, he made a visit to the hospital at Faversham; as archbishop, Warham seems to have been somewhat arbitrary. That made him withdraw into the background after the coronation, he resigned the office of Lord Chancellor in 1515 and was succeeded by Thomas Wolsey, whom he had consecrated as bishop of Lincoln in the previous year. His resignation was because of his dislike of Henry's foreign policy. Warham was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520 and assisted Wolsey as assessor during the secret inquiry into the validity of Henry's marriage with Catherine in 1527. Throughout the divorce proceedings, Warham's position was that of an old and weary man, he was named as one of the counsellors to assist the queen, fearing to incur the king's displeasure and using his favourite phrase ira principis mors est, he gave her little help and signed the letter to Pope Clement VII that urged the pope to assent to Henry's wish.
It was proposed that the archbishop himself should try the case, but the suggestion came to nothing. Warham presided over the Convocation of 1531, when the clergy of the Province of Canterbury voted £100,000 to the king to avoid the penalties of praemunire and accepted Henry as supreme head of the church with the face-saving clause "so far as the Law of Christ allows". In Warham's concluding years, the archbishop showed rather more independence. In February 1532, he protested against all acts concerning the church passed by the parliament that met in 1529, but that did not prevent the important proceedings which secured the complete submission of the church to the state in the same year. Against this further compliance with Henry's wishes, Warham drew up a protest in which he likened the action of Henry VIII to that of Henry II and urged Magna Carta in defence of the liberties of the church, he attempted in vain to strike a compromise during the Submission of the Clergy. Having been munificent in his public and moderate in his private life, he died on a visit to his nephew William Warham.
He was buried in the Martyrdom transept of Canterbury Cathedral. List of The Tudors episodes, season 1, episode 8 John Sherren Brewer, Reign of Henry VIII James Gairdner, Sidney, ed.. "Warham, William". Dictionary of National Biography. 58. London: Smith, Elder & Co. James Gairdner, The English Church in the 16th Century W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury A. F. Pollard, Henry VIII This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Warham, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Burton, Edwin Hubert. "William Warham". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Scarisbrick, J. J. "Warham, William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28741. "Archival material relating to William Warham". UK National Archives. Portraits of William Warham at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying a thin coating of gold to solid surfaces such as metal, porcelain, or stone. A gilded object is described as "gilt". Where metal is gilded, it was traditionally silver in the West, to make silver-gilt objects, but gilt-bronze is used in China, called ormolu if it is Western. Methods of gilding include hand application and gluing of gold leaf, chemical gilding, electroplating, the last called gold plating. Parcel-gilt objects are only gilded over part of their surfaces; this may mean that all of the inside, none of the outside, of a chalice or similar vessel is gilded, or that patterns or images are made up by using a combination of gilt and ungilted areas. Gilding gives an object a gold appearance at a fraction of the cost of creating a solid gold object. In addition, a solid gold piece would be too soft or too heavy for practical use. A gilt surface does not tarnish as silver does. Herodotus mentions that the Egyptians gilded wood and metals, many such objects have been excavated.
Certain Ancient Greek statues of great prestige were chryselephantine, i.e. made of ivory. Extensive ornamental gilding was used in the ceiling coffers of the Propylaea. Pliny the Elder informs us that the first gilding seen at Rome was after the destruction of Carthage, under the censorship of Lucius Mummius, when the Romans began to gild the ceilings of their temples and palaces, the Capitol being the first place on which this process was used, but he adds that luxury advanced on them so that in little time you might see all private and poor people, gild the walls and other parts of their dwellings. Owing to the comparative thickness of the gold leaf used in ancient gilding, the traces of it that remain are remarkably brilliant and solid. Fire-gilding of metal goes back at least to the 4th century BC, was known to Pliny, Vitruvius and in the Early Mediaeval period to Theophilus. In Europe, silver-gilt has always been more common than gilt-bronze, but in China the opposite has been the case.
The ancient Chinese developed the gilding of porcelain, taken up by the French and other European potters. Modern gilding is applied by various processes. More traditional techniques still form an important part of framemaking and are sometimes still employed in general woodworking, cabinet-work, decorative painting and interior decoration and ornamental leather work, in the decoration of pottery and glass. Mechanical gilding includes all the operations in which gold leaf is prepared, the processes to mechanically attach the gold onto surfaces; the techniques include burnishing, water gilding and oil-gilding used by wood gilders. "Overlaying" or folding or hammering on gold foil or gold leaf is the simplest and most ancient method, is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey and the Old Testament. The Ram in a Thicket of about 2600–2400 BCE from Ur uses this technique on wood, with a thin layer of bitumen underneath to help adhesion; the next advances involved two simple processes. The first involves gold leaf, gold, hammered or cut into thin sheets.
Gold leaf is thinner than standard paper today, when held to the light is semi-transparent. In ancient times it was about ten times thicker than today, half that in the Middle Ages. If gilding on canvas or on wood, the surface was first coated with gesso. "Gesso" is a substance made of chalk mixed with glue. Once the coating of gesso had been applied, allowed to dry, smoothed, it was re-wet with a sizing made of rabbit-skin glue and water or boiled linseed oil mixed with litharge and the gold leaf was layered on using a gilder's tip and left to dry before being burnished with a piece of polished agate; those gilding on canvas and parchment sometimes employed stiffly-beaten egg whites, and/or Armenian bole as sizing, though egg whites and gum both become brittle over time, causing the gold leaf to crack and detach, so honey was sometimes added to make them more flexible. Other gilding processes involved using the gold as pigment in paint: the artist ground the gold into a fine powder and mixed it with a binder such as gum arabic.
The resulting gold paint, called shell gold, was applied in the same way as with any paint. Sometimes, after either gold-leafing or gold-painting, the artist would heat the piece enough to melt the gold ensuring an coat; these techniques remained the only alternatives for materials like wood, the vellum pages of illuminated manuscripts, gilt-edged stock. Chemical gilding embraces those processes in which the gold is at some stage of chemical combination; these include: In this process the gold is obtained in a state of fine division, applied by mechanical means. Cold gilding on silver is performed by a solution of gold in aqua regia, applied by dipping a linen rag into the solution, burning it, rubbing the black and heavy ashes on the silver with the finger or a piece of leather or cork. Wet gilding is effected by means of a dilute solution of gold chloride in aqua regia with twice its quantity of ether
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status are the wealthiest members of society, wield the greatest political power. According to this view, the upper class is distinguished by immense wealth, passed on from generation to generation. Prior to the 20th century, the emphasis was on aristocracy, which emphasized generations of inherited noble status, not just recent wealth; because the upper classes of a society may no longer rule the society in which they are living, they are referred to as the old upper classes and they are culturally distinct from the newly rich middle classes that tend to dominate public life in modern social democracies. According to the latter view held by the traditional upper classes, no amount of individual wealth or fame would make a person from an undistinguished background into a member of the upper class as one must be born into a family of that class and raised in a particular manner so as to understand and share upper class values and cultural norms.
The term is used in conjunction with terms like upper-middle class, middle class, working class as part of a model of social stratification. In some cultures, members of an upper class did not have to work for a living, as they were supported by earned or inherited investments, although members of the upper class may have had less actual money than merchants. Upper-class status derived from the social position of one's family and not from one's own achievements or wealth. Much of the population that composed the upper class consisted of aristocrats, ruling families, titled people, religious hierarchs; these people were born into their status and there was not much movement across class boundaries. In many countries, the term "upper class" was intimately associated with hereditary land ownership. Political power was in the hands of the landowners in many pre-industrial societies despite there being no legal barriers to land ownership for other social classes. Upper-class landowners in Europe were also members of the titled nobility, though not necessarily: the prevalence of titles of nobility varied from country to country.
Some upper classes were entirely untitled, for example, the Szlachta of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In England, Wales and Ireland, the "upper class" traditionally comprised the landed gentry and the aristocracy of noble families with hereditary titles; the vast majority of post-medieval aristocratic families originated in the merchant class and were ennobled between the 14th and 19th centuries while intermarrying with the old nobility and gentry. Since the Second World War, the term has come to encompass rich and powerful members of the managerial and professional classes as well. In the United States, the upper class, as distinguished from the rich, is considered to consist of those families that have for many generations enjoyed top social status based on their leadership in society. In this respect, the US differs little from countries such as the UK where membership of the'upper class' is dependent on other factors. In the United Kingdom, it has been said that class is relative to where you have come from, similar to the United States where class is more defined by who as opposed to how much.
The American upper class is estimated to constitute less than 1% of the population. By self-identification, according to this 2001–2012 Gallup Poll data, 98% of Americans identify with the 5 other class terms used, 48–50% identifying as "middle class"; the main distinguishing feature of the upper class is its ability to derive enormous incomes from wealth through techniques such as money management and investing, rather than engaging in wage-labor or salaried employment. Successful entrepreneurs, CEOs, investment bankers, venture capitalists, heirs to fortunes, some lawyers, top-flight physicians, celebrities are considered members of this class by contemporary sociologists, such as James Henslin or Dennis Gilbert. There may be prestige differences between different upper-class households. An A-list actor, for example, might not be accorded as much prestige as a former U. S. President, yet all members of this class are so influential and wealthy as to be considered members of the upper class.
At the pinnacle of U. S wealth, 2004 saw a dramatic increase in the numbers of billionaires. According to Forbes Magazine, there are now 374 U. S. billionaires. The growth in billionaires took a dramatic leap since the early 1980s, when the average net worth of the individuals on the Forbes 400 list was $400 million. Today, the average net worth is $2.8 billion. Wal-Mart Walton family now has 771,287 times more than the median U. S household. Upper-class families... dominate corporate America and have a disproportionate influence over the nation's political, educational and other institutions. Of all social classes, members of the upper class have a strong sense of solidarity and'consciousness of kind' that stretches across the nation and the globe. Since the 1970s income inequality in the United States has been increasing, with the top 1% experiencing larger gains in income than the rest of society. Alan Greenspan, former chair of the Federal Reserve, sees it as a problem for society, calling it a "very disturbing trend".
According to the book Who Rules America? by William Domhoff, the distribution of wealth in America is the primary highlight of the influence of the upper class. The top 1% of Americans own around 34% of the wealth in the U. S. while the bottom 80% own only 16% of the wealth. This
Letter and spirit of the law
The letter of the law versus the spirit of the law is an idiomatic antithesis. When one obeys the letter of the law but not the spirit, one is obeying the literal interpretation of the words of the law, but not the intent of those who wrote the law. Conversely, when one obeys the spirit of the law but not the letter, one is doing what the authors of the law intended, though not adhering to the literal wording. "Law" referred to legislative statute, but in the idiom may refer to any kind of rule. Intentionally following the letter of the law but not the spirit may be accomplished through exploiting technicalities and ambiguous language. William Shakespeare wrote numerous plays dealing with the letter versus spirit antithesis always coming down on the side of "spirit" forcing villains to make concessions and remedy. In one of the best known examples, The Merchant of Venice, he introduces the quibble as a plot device to save both the spirit and the letter of the law; the moneylender Shylock has made an agreement with Antonio that if he cannot repay a loan, he will have a pound of flesh from him.
When the debt is not repaid in time Portia at first pleads for mercy in a famous speech: "The quality of mercy is not strain'd, It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest: It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.". When Shylock refuses, she saves Antonio by pointing out that Shylock's agreement with him mentioned no blood, therefore Shylock can have his pound of flesh only if he sheds no blood. Interpretations of the U. S. Constitution have divided on the "Letter versus Spirit" debate. For example, at the founding, the Federalist Party argued for a looser interpretation of the Constitution, granting Congress broad powers in keeping with the spirit of the broader purpose of some founders; the Federalists would have represented the "spirit" aspect. In contrast, the Democratic-Republicans, who favored a limited federal government, argued for the strict interpretation of the Constitution, arguing that the federal government was granted only those powers enumerated in the Constitution, nothing not explicitly stated.
Modern Constitutional interpretation divides on these lines. Living Constitution scholars advocate a "spirit"-esque interpretative strategy, although one grounded in a spirit that reflects broad powers. Originalist or Textualist scholars advocate a more "letter"-based approach, arguing that the Amendment process of the Constitution forecloses broader interpretations that can be accomplished by passing an amendment; the Christian Bible references the letter and the spirit of the law in 2 Cor 3:6 NASB. Though it is not quoted directly, the principle is applied using the words "spirit" and "letter" in context with the legalistic view of the Hebrew Bible; this is the first recorded use of the phrase. In the New Testament, Pharisees are seen as people. Thus, "Pharisee" has entered the language as a pejorative for one. Pharisees are depicted as being lawless or corrupt. However, the Hebrew word "Perushim" from which "Pharisee" is derived means "separatists", referencing their focus on spiritual needs versus worldly pleasures.
In the Gospels, Jesus is shown as being critical of Pharisees. He is more like the Essenes than the other Jewish groups of the time, they advocated prayer and fasting as spiritual practices. The Pharisees were those. Not all Pharisees, nor all Jews of that time, were legalistic. Though modern language has used the word Pharisee in the pejorative to describe someone, legalistic and rigid, it is not an accurate description of all Pharisees; the argument over the "Spirit of the Law" vs. the "Letter of the Law" was part of early Jewish dialogue as well. The Parable of the Good Samaritan is one of the New Testament texts to address this theme; the passage concerns a dialogue between Jesus and an "expert in the law" or "lawyer". As described in verse 25, the intent of the dialogue was to trap Jesus into making statements contrary to the law. Jesus responds by posing the question back to the lawyer, as having knowledge of the law, The lawyer quotes Deuteronomy 6:5 "You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, with all your mind and your neighbor as yourself.", NKJV) and Leviticus 19:18.
The question "Who is my neighbor?", that follows in verse 29, is described as being asked with the goal of self-justification. It is that Jesus responds with the story of a man beaten by robbers, ignored by a Priest and a Levite, but rescued and compassionately cared for by a Samaritan. Priests and Levites were Israelites whose qualifications and duties were meticulously set forth in Mosaic law, while Samaritans were descended from Israelites who had intermarried wi
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons