Arsenio Hall is an American comedian, talk show host, actor and producer. He is best known for hosting The Arsenio Hall Show, a late-night talk show that ran from 1989 until 1994, again from 2013 to 2014. Other television shows and films Hall has appeared in are Martial Law, Star Search, Coming to America, Harlem Nights. Hall is known for his appearance as Alan Thicke's sidekick on the talk show Thicke of the Night. In 2012, Hall won NBC's reality-competition game show Celebrity Apprentice 5. Hall was born in Cleveland, the son of Fred and Annie Hall, his father is a Baptist minister. Hall performed as a magician, he graduated from Warrensville Heights High School in Warrensville Heights, Ohio in 1973, after he attended John F. Kennedy High School, he attended college at Kent State University. Hall moved to Chicago, Los Angeles, to pursue a career in comedy, making a couple of appearances on Soul Train. In 1984, he was the announcer/sidekick for Alan Thicke during the short-lived talk show Thicke of the Night.
He was the original voice of Winston Zeddemore in the cartoon The Real Ghostbusters from 1986 to 1987. In 1988, he co-starred in the comedy film Coming to America with Eddie Murphy. In 1986, the Fox network introduced The Late Show Starring Joan Rivers, created to directly challenge The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. After a moderate start, ratings for the show sagged. Behind-the-scenes relations between Rivers and network executives at Fox eroded, Rivers left in 1987; the series was subsequently renamed The Late Show, featured several hosts, including Ross Shafer, Suzanne Somers, Richard Belzer and Robert Townsend before it was cancelled in 1988. Hall was chosen to host the show in the fall of 1987, his stint proved to be immensely popular, developing a cult following which led to Hall landing his own show in syndication. From January 2, 1989 until May 27, 1994, he had a Paramount contract to host a nationwide syndicated late night talk show, The Arsenio Hall Show; the show became a breakout, late-night success rating high among the coveted younger demographic and known for its audience's distinctive alternative to applause in chanting, "Roo, Roo!," while pumping their fists.
The practice soon became such a ritual that by 1991 had become a "pop culture stamp of approval" — one that Hall said had become "so popular it's getting on people's nerves." The gesture was so well known that it appeared in films such as The Hard Way. He had a rivalry with Jay Leno after the latter was named host of The Tonight Show, during which Hall said that he would "kick Jay's ass" in ratings. Hall used his fame during this period to help fight worldwide prejudice against HIV/AIDS after Magic Johnson contracted the virus. Hall and Johnson filmed a PSA about the disease. Between 1988 and 1991, Hall hosted the MTV Video Music Awards. Over the years, he has appeared as a guest on numerous talk shows, in special features, as a voice actor, on game shows and other award shows. Since The Arsenio Hall Show ended, Hall had a leading role on television shows such as the short-lived sitcom Arsenio and Martial Law with Sammo Hung, as well as hosted the revival of Star Search. While hosting Star Search, he popularized the catchphrase "Hit me with the digits!".
Hall appeared as himself in Chappelle's Show in March 2004, when Chappelle was imagining "what Arsenio is doing right now" in a dinner scene. Hall has guest co-hosted Wednesday evenings on The Tim Conway Jr. Show on KLSX 97.1 FM radio. Hall hosted MyNetworkTV's comedic web video show The World's Funniest Moments and TV One's 100 Greatest Black Power Moves. Hall appeared on Real Time with Bill Maher in May 2012, in a discussion commemorating the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Hall had a small part as a police officer on the Golden Girls season 1 Hall was considered to be the host of the syndicated version of Deal or No Deal and filmed a pilot. However, by the time the syndicated series began on September 8, 2008, Howie Mandel was chosen as the host, he appeared on The Jay Leno Show, was a guest on Lopez Tonight. George Lopez credits Arsenio for being the reason. Lopez requested Hall be a co-host on Lopez Tonight since he regarded Hall as his inspiration and the first "late night party show host". Hall has filled-in as guest host for NBC's Access Hollywood Live and CNN's evening talk/interview program Piers Morgan Tonight in 2012.
In 2012, Hall was a contestant on the fifth edition of The Celebrity Apprentice, which began airing February 19, 2012. Hall represented his charity, the Magic Johnson Foundation, dedicated to advancing economic and social equality by engaging minorities in every aspect of their communities. While Hall clashed with Aubrey O'Day, he befriended a majority of the cast. On May 20, 2012, in the live season finale, Hall was chosen as the Celebrity Apprentice winner, being "hired" by billionaire real estate investor and future President of the United States Donald Trump over the other celebrity finalist, singer Clay Aiken. For winning The Celebrity Apprentice, Hall won the $250,000 grand prize for his charity, in addition to any money he won for his charity for tasks he and his team won when he was a team leader on the show. A revival of Hall's syndicated late-nigh
Benjamin Jeremy Stein is a conservative American writer, lawyer and commentator on political and economic issues. A graduate of Columbia University, Stein began his career in law, graduating as valedictorian from Yale Law School, he attained early success as a speechwriter for U. S. presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He entered the entertainment field and became an actor and Emmy Award-winning game show host, he is most well-known on screen as the economics teacher in Ferris Bueller's Day Off and as Dr. Arthur Neuman in The Mask and Son of the Mask. Stein is a filmmaker, he co-wrote and starred in the 2008 documentary Expelled, which portrays intelligent design as a scientifically valid alternative to Darwinian evolution and alleges a scientific conspiracy against those promoting intelligent design in laboratories and classrooms. Stein said that his aim was to expose "people out there who want to keep science in a little box where it can’t touch God."Stein has written commentaries on economic and social issues, along with financial advice to individual investors.
He is the son of economist and writer Herbert Stein, who worked at the White House under President Nixon. His sister, Rachel, is a writer. While as a character actor he is well known for his droning, monotonous delivery, in real life he is a public speaker on a wide range of economic and social issues. In comedy, he is known for his deadpan delivery. Stein was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Mildred, a homemaker, Herbert Stein, a writer and presidential adviser. He grew up in the Woodside Forest neighborhood of Silver Spring, Maryland. Stein graduated from Montgomery Blair High School in 1962 along with classmate journalist Carl Bernstein. Actor Sylvester Stallone was a schoolmate at Montgomery Hills Junior High School, he went on to major in economics at Columbia University's Columbia College, where he was a member of Alpha Delta Phi and the Philolexian Society. After graduating with honors from Columbia in 1966, Stein went to Yale Law School, graduating as valedictorian in June 1970, he was first a poverty lawyer in New Haven and Washington, D.
C. before becoming a trial lawyer for the Federal Trade Commission. Stein's first teaching stint was as an adjunct professor, teaching about the political and social content of mass culture at American University in Washington, D. C, he subsequently taught classes at University of California, Santa Cruz on political and civil rights under the United States Constitution. At Pepperdine University in Malibu, CA, Stein taught libel law and United States securities law and its ethical aspects, he was a professor of law at Pepperdine University Law School, from about 1990 to 1997. Stein writes on a variety of topics, including politics and economics, he writes a regular column in the conservative magazines The American Newsmax. He has written for numerous publications including The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, New York Magazine, Los Angeles Magazine, Barron's Magazine, where his discussion of the Michael Milken Drexel Burnham Lambert junk bond situation, as well as the ethical dimensions of management buyouts, attracted heavy US national attention in the 1980s and 1990s.
He wrote a regular biweekly column for Yahoo! Finance online, with his last article dated August 7, 2009, his bestselling books include Yes, You Can Retire Comfortably, Can America Survive?, Yes, You Can Time the Market. In 2009, he published a collection of The Real Stars. Stein was fired from his position as a Sunday Business columnist at The New York Times in August 2009, due to a policy prohibiting writers from performing product endorsements or advertising. Stein had become an advertising spokesman for credit information company Freescore.com, according to a Times statement, had assumed there would be no conflict provided that he did not discuss credit scoring in general or FreeScore.com itself in his column. However, the publication felt that it would be inappropriate for him to write for them while he was involved in advertising, terminated his contract. Writing in The Spectator, Stein states his belief that the real reasons for his firing were budget cuts at the Times, his criticism of President Obama, pressure from those critical of Expelled, who "bamboozled some of the high pooh-bahs at the Times into thinking there was a conflict of interest".
Stein is an in-house journalist at Newsmax Magazine, a magazine by the conservative media group Newsmax Media. Stein began his political career as a speechwriter and lawyer for President Richard Nixon, for President Gerald Ford. On May 3, 1976, Time magazine speculated on the possibility of Stein having been Deep Throat. Stein responded over the years by not only denying he was Deep Throat, but by going further and accusing journalist Bob Woodward of falsifying the famous secret source. In the May 14–21, 1998 edition of the Philadelphia City Paper, Stein is quoted saying, "Oh, I don't think there was a Deep Throat; that was a fake. I think there were several different sources and some they just made up." After Mark Felt's identity as Deep Throat was revealed, Stein stated that Richard Nixon would have prevented the rise to power of the Khmer Rouge if he had not been forced to resign. For his actions leading to that resignation, Stein said: If there is such a thing as karma, if there is such a thing as justice in this life or the next, Mark Felt has bought himself the worst future of any man on this earth.
And Bob Woodward
Nickelodeon on Sunset
Nickelodeon on Sunset, built by showman Earl Carroll in 1938 as the Earl Carroll Theatre, is a stage facility located at 6230 Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, California. It housed the West Coast production of live-action original series produced for the Nickelodeon cable channel from 1997 until 2017; the theater will be preserved as part of a new development under construction, but a new operator has not yet been named. The Earl Carroll Theatre opened on December 26, 1938, with a lavish revue, “Broadway to Hollywood”, which featured sixty showgirls ascending 100 treads of stairs to a height of 135 feet. Many Hollywood celebrities were in attendance including Marlene Dietrich, Dolores del Rio, the J. L. Warners, Richard Barthelmess, Sally Eilers, Edgar Bergen, Claudette Colbert, Constance Bennett, Errol Flynn, Lili Damita, William Gargan, Jackie Coogan, Betty Grable, Mary Livingstone, Phil Harris, Conrad Nagel, Mary Brian, Darryl Zanuck, David O. Selznick, Norman Krasna; the $1,000 membership fee guaranteed a lifetime cover charge and a reserved seat.:40The building was designed in the Moderne style by architect Gordon Kaufmann.
The interior design is attributed to both Count Alexis de Sakhnoffsky and Frank Don Riha.:37 As he had done at his New York theater, Carroll emblazoned over the entrance the words "Through these portals pass the most beautiful girls in the world". The theater-restaurant accommodated 1,200 diners:39 and offered shows on a massive stage with a 60-foot wide double revolving turntable and staircase and swings that could be lowered from the ceiling; the building's façade was adorned by what at the time was one of Hollywood's most famous landmarks: a 20-foot-high neon head portrait of entertainer Beryl Wallace, one of Earl Carroll's "most beautiful girls in the world", who became his devoted companion. The sign survived several changes of ownership and venue name but was removed during major decorative overhauling in 1968. A re-creation made from photos is today on display at Universal CityWalk, at Universal City, as part of the collection of historic neon signs from the Museum of Neon Art. Another prominent exterior feature was the "Wall of Fame", on which were mounted more than a hundred individual concrete blocks autographed by Hollywood celebrities, including some of the biggest stars of the 1930s and 1940s.
The Moderne-style interior was lavishly decorated with zeon tube lighting and artwork, some of which remains extant. In 1939, Life magazine described the new building: “exhibits an ultramodern, super-streamlined interior with a patent-leather ceiling, 10,000 colored zeon lights, a 15-ft. Statue, an acre of burgundy carpet...” The centerpiece of the foyer was the Goddess of Light, a 15-foot-tall aluminum-covered plaster statue designed by Martin Deutsch. With hands lifted to the ceiling, the statute held a fifty-foot zeon tube that wound its way to the ceiling; the columns in the lobby bar were filled with zeon lamps and zeon stalactites hung from the ceiling in the cabaret. A large painting of Carroll painted by the artist Strandanees hung near the main entrance.:39Later achieving various degrees of fame in films and on television, Jean Spangler, Mara Corday, Yvonne De Carlo, Phyllis Coates, Maila Nurmi, Gloria Pall, Tyra Vaughn, Mamie Van Doren were some of the showgirls who performed there.
The facility was a popular night spot for many of Hollywood's most glamorous stars and powerful film industry moguls such as Darryl Zanuck and Walter Wanger, who sat on the Earl Carroll Theatre's board of governors. The theater was sold following the 1948 deaths of Earl Carroll and Beryl Wallace in the crash of United Airlines Flight 624, it continued to operate but by the early 1950s it was falling on hard times. In 1953, Las Vegas showman Frank Sennes reopened the theater as a nightclub under the name Moulin Rouge; the popular TV contest show Queen for a Day was broadcast from the Moulin Rouge during part of the show's 1956–1964 run. In late 1965 it became the Hullabaloo, a minors-welcome rock and roll club, capitalizing on the popularity of the television variety show Hullabaloo. For several months in 1968 it was the Kaleidoscope and featured many top West Coast rock acts, with an emphasis on local bands such as The Doors. In 1968, the venue was redecorated in the psychedelic art style, renamed the Aquarius Theater, rededicated as the home of a long-running Los Angeles production of the Broadway musical Hair.
It was still sometimes used for rock concerts on Mondays, when the Hair company had its day off, as a result the Aquarius is famous as the place where The Doors performed on July 21 & 22, 1969, making live recordings that were issued commercially. In 1977 it was known as the Longhorn Theatre and has been called the Sunset Boulevard Theatre. In 1983, the Pick-Vanoff Company purchased the property and converted it into a state-of-the-art television theater that for nine years was the taping site of Star Search; the Pick-Vanoff Company owned Sunset-Gower Studios the home of Columbia Pictures. For many years, it was used for the annual Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon. In the fall of 1993, the theater was the venue for Fox Network's The Chevy Chase Show under the name The Chevy Chase Theater; the talk show was cancelled after five weeks. In the mid-1990s, Nickelodeon decided to move production of some live-action series to the West Coast from Nickelodeon Studios in Orlando, Florida at Universal Studios. After scouting soundstages for a year, the network's headlining mover All That spent a year at Paramount Pictures before Nickelodeon obtained a lease for the 6238 Sunset Blvd facility, acquiring the soundstage and rebranding it Nickelodeon on
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Simon Phillip Cowell is an English television music and talent competition judge, businessman, A&R executive, talent manager, television producer. He has judged on the British TV talent competition series Pop Idol, The X Factor and Britain's Got Talent, the American TV talent competition shows American Idol, The X Factor and America's Got Talent. Cowell is the principal and chief executive of the British entertainment company Syco. Cowell makes blunt and controversial comments as a television show judge, including insults and wisecracks about contestants and their singing abilities, he combines activities in music industries. Cowell has produced and promoted singles and albums for various singers whom he has taken under his wing, he is popularly known for signing successful boybands such as Westlife, One Direction and CNCO. In 2004 and 2010, Time named Cowell one of the 100 most influential people in the world. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph ranked him sixth in their list of the "100 most powerful people in British culture".
Simon Phillip Cowell was born on 7 October 1959 in Lambeth and raised in Elstree, Hertfordshire. His mother, Julie Brett, was a ballet dancer and socialite, his father, Eric Selig Phillip Cowell, was an estate agent, property developer, music industry executive. Cowell's paternal grandmother was a Polish immigrant, his father was from a Jewish family, though he did not discuss his background with his children, his mother was from a Christian background. He has Nicholas Cowell. Cowell attended Radlett Preparatory School and the independent Dover College, as did his brother, but left after taking GCE O levels, he passed English Language and Literature, attended Windsor Technical College, where he gained another GCE in Sociology. Cowell took a few menial jobs—including, according to his brother Tony, working as a runner on Stanley Kubrick's 1980 horror film The Shining—but did not get along well with colleagues and bosses, until his father, an executive at EMI Music Publishing, managed to get him a job in the mail room.
However, after failing to get a promotion, he left to try out other jobs before returning to EMI. In the early 1980s, he left EMI to form E&S Music with his former boss at EMI, but quit in 1983, he formed Fanfare Records with Iain Burton selling exercise videos, music from acts such as the Italian orchestra Rondò Veneziano. He had his first hit song in 1986 with "So Macho" by Sinitta; some of Cowell's early success came through Stock Aitken Waterman, who produced a number of hits in the 1980s. However, in 1989, the company went under and he nearly became bankrupt, he found a job with BMG as an A&R consultant, set up S Records under BMG. He restarted his career in the music business by creating novelty records with acts such as the puppets Zig and Zag, Power Rangers, World Wrestling Federation. In 1995, through his persistence, he persuaded two actors, Robson Green and Jerome Flynn from the UK television drama series Soldier Soldier, to sign with him and record the song "Unchained Melody", which they had performed on the show.
The recording by the duo, now named Robson & Jerome reached number 1 in the UK, staying at the top of the chart for seven weeks. It became the best selling single of 1995, their self-titled album released in the year became the best-selling album of 1995, they released a further album and 2 more singles before disbanding, sold 7 million albums and 5 million singles in total. According to Cowell, they made him his first million. Acts he signed included Five and Teletubbies. Westlife are an Irish boy band that formed in Dublin in July 1998, they have sold over 50 million records worldwide, a total that includes studio albums, video releases, compilation albums. The group have had 14 number-one singles in the United Kingdom, they have had a total of 26 UK top ten singles over their fourteen-year career. In 2001, Cowell was given the role of judge on the first series of Pop Idol, a show that he and the show creator Simon Fuller pitched to ITV Controller of Entertainment Claudia Rosencrantz. Cowell's S Records signed the top two finishers of the first season of Pop Idol, Will Young and Gareth Gates, both of whom went on to have No 1 UK hits, which were the top 2 best-selling singles of 2002 and the decade of 2000s.
He became a judge on the first season of American Idol in 2002. With his notoriously critical reputation, Cowell has been likened to TV personalities such as Judith Sheindlin, Anne Robinson of her show. Cowell's prominence grew, fed by his signature phrase, "I don't mean to be rude, but..." followed by an unsparingly blunt appraisal of the contestant's talents, personality, or physical appearance. A lot of these one-liners were the product of coaching that Cowell received from noted publicist Max Clifford. Cowell appeared on the one-off World Idol programme in 2003, where it became clear that each country's version of the Idol had attempted to come up with its own "Simon Cowell" type personality. In 2003, Cowell placed No 33 on Channel 4's list of the all-time 100 Worst Britons. Cowell formed a new company Syco, divided into three units: Syco Music, Syco TV and Syco Film. Cowell returned to music with his latest brainchild signed to Syco, the internationally successful operatic pop group Il Divo, consisting of three opera singers and one pop singer of four different nationalities.
Inspired by the success of Il Divo, Simon created a child version
Interactive television is a form of media convergence, adding data services to traditional television technology. Throughout its history, these have included on-demand delivery of content, as well as new uses such as online shopping, so forth. Interactive TV is a concrete example of how new information technology can be integrated vertically rather than laterally. Interactive television represents a continuum from low to moderate interactivity and high interactivity in which, for example, an audience member affects the program being watched; the most obvious example of this would be any kind of real-time voting on the screen, in which audience votes create decisions that are reflected in how the show continues. A return path to the program provider is not necessary to have an interactive program experience. Once a movie is downloaded, for example, controls may all be local; the link was needed to download the program, but texts and software which can be executed locally at the set-top box or IRD may occur automatically, once the viewer enters the channel.
The first patent of interactive connected TV was registered in 1994, carried on 1995 in the United States. It expose this new interactive technology with content feeding and feedback through global networking. User identification allows purchasing; the viewer must be able to return information to the broadcaster. This "return path," return channel or "back channel" can be by telephone, mobile SMS, digital subscriber lines or cable. Cable TV viewers receive their programs via a cable, in the integrated cable return path enabled platforms, they use the same cable as a return path. Satellite viewers return information to the broadcaster via their regular telephone lines, they are charged for this service on their regular telephone bill. An Internet connection via ADSL, or other, data communications technology, is being used. Interactive TV can be delivered via a terrestrial aerial. In this case, there is no'return path' as such - so data cannot be sent back to the broadcaster. However, interactivity is still possible as there is still the opportunity to interact with an application, broadcast and downloaded to the set-top box.
The return path is becoming a broadband IP connection, some hybrid receivers are now capable of displaying video from either the IP connection or from traditional tuners. Some devices are now dedicated to displaying video only from the IP channel, which has given rise to IPTV - Internet Protocol Television; the rise of the "broadband return path" has given new relevance to Interactive TV, as it opens up the need to interact with Video on Demand servers and website operators. The term "interactive television" is used to refer to a variety of rather different kinds of interactivity, this can lead to considerable misunderstanding. At least three different levels are important: The simplest, Interactivity with a TV set is very common, starting with the use of the remote control to enable channel surfing behaviors, evolving to include video-on-demand, VCR-like pause and fast forward, DVRs, commercial skipping and the like, it does not change any content or its inherent linearity, only how users control the viewing of that content.
DVRs allow users to time shift content in a way, impractical with VHS. Though this form of interactive TV is not insignificant, critics claim that saying that using a remote control to turn TV sets on and off makes television interactive is like saying turning the pages of a book makes the book interactive. In the not too distant future, the questioning of what is real interaction with the TV will be difficult. Panasonic has face recognition technology implemented its prototype Panasonic Life Wall; the Life Wall is a wall in your house that doubles as a screen. Panasonic uses their face recognition technology to follow the viewer around the room, adjusting its screen size according to the viewers distance from the wall, its goal is to give the viewer the best seat in the house, regardless of location. The concept was released at Panasonic Consumer Electronics Show in 2008, its anticipated release date is unknown, but it can be assumed technology like this will not remain hidden for long. In its deepest sense, Interactivity with normal TV program content is the one, "interactive TV", but it is the most challenging to produce.
This is the idea that the program, might change based on viewer input. Advanced forms, which still have uncertain prospect for becoming mainstream, include dramas where viewers get to choose or influence plot details and endings; as an example, in Accidental Lovers viewers can send mobile text messages to the broadcast and the plot transforms on the basis of the keywords picked from the messages. Global Television Network offers a multi-monitor interactive game for Big Brother 8 "'In The House'" which allows viewers to predict who will win each compe
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an