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Star Wars (film)

Star Wars is a 1977 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing, Alec Guinness, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker and Peter Mayhew, it is the first installment of the original Star Wars trilogy, the first of the franchise to be produced, the fourth episode of the "Skywalker Saga". Lucas had the idea for a science-fiction film in the vein of Flash Gordon around the time he completed his first film, THX 1138, began working on a treatment after the release of American Graffiti. Star Wars focuses on the journey of Luke Skywalker, who along with Han Solo and the wizened Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi, attempt to free Rebellion leader Princess Leia from the clutches of the Galactic Empire and the Sith lord Darth Vader; the heroes, in league with the Rebel Alliance, attempt to destroy the Empire's planet-destroying space station, the Death Star.

Star Wars was released in a limited number of theaters in the United States on May 25, 1977, became a blockbuster hit, leading to it being expanded to a much wider release. The film opened to critical acclaim, most notably for its groundbreaking visual effects, it grossed a total of $775 million, surpassing Jaws to become the highest-grossing film at the time until the release of E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial. When adjusted for inflation, Star Wars is the second-highest-grossing film in North America and the fourth-highest-grossing film in the world, it received ten Oscar nominations. In 1989, it became one of the first films to be selected as part of the U. S. Library of Congress's National Film Registry as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." At the time, it was the most recent film in the only one chosen from the 1970s. In 2004, its soundtrack was added to the U. S. National Recording Registry. Today, it is regarded as one of the most important films in the history of motion pictures.

The film has been reissued multiple times with Lucas's support—most with its 20th-anniversary theatrical "Special Edition"—incorporating many changes including modified computer-generated effects, altered dialogue, re-edited shots, remixed soundtracks and added scenes. It launched an industry of tie-in products, including novels, video games, amusement park attractions, merchandise including toys, games and many other spin-off works; the film's success led to two critically and commercially successful sequels, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, to a prequel trilogy, a sequel trilogy, two anthology films and various spin-off TV series. The galaxy is in a period of civil war. Rebel spies have stolen plans to the Galactic Empire's Death Star, a moon-sized space station capable of destroying an entire planet. Princess Leia, secretly one of the Rebellion's leaders, has obtained its schematics, but her starship is captured by an Imperial Star Destroyer under the command of the ruthless Sith Lord Darth Vader.

Before she is captured, Leia hides the plans in the memory of astromech droid R2-D2, along with protocol droid C-3PO, flees in an escape pod to the desert planet Tatooine. The droids are captured by Jawa traders, who sell them to moisture farmers Owen and Beru Lars and their nephew Luke Skywalker. While cleaning R2-D2, Luke accidentally triggers part of a holographic recording of Leia, in which she requests help from Obi-Wan Kenobi; the only Kenobi Luke knows is "an elderly hermit. He asks his uncle if he knows anything; the next morning, Luke finds R2-D2 missing, while searching for him, encounters Old Ben. Ben, who reveals his true name to be Obi-Wan, tells Luke of his days as one of the Jedi Knights, former peacekeepers of the Galactic Republic who derived their power from an energy field called the Force until they were wiped out by the Galactic Empire. Contrary to what his uncle has told him, Luke learns that his father fought alongside Obi-Wan as a Jedi Knight until Vader, a former pupil of Obi-Wan's, turned to the dark side of the Force and murdered him.

Obi-Wan presents Luke with a lightsaber. R2-D2 plays Leia's message for Obi-Wan, in which she begs him to take the Death Star plans to her home planet of Alderaan and give them to her father for analysis. Obi-Wan invites Luke to accompany him to Alderaan and learn the ways of the Force, but Luke declines, saying his aunt and uncle need him. Returning home, however, he and Ben find Imperial stormtroopers have killed his aunt and uncle and destroyed their farm in their search for the droids, leaving Luke no choice but to accept Obi-Wan's plea, they travel to a cantina in Mos Eisley, where they meet smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca. After negotiations, Han is intercepted by bounty hunter Greedo, who reminds Han that he is indebted to local mobster Jabba the Hutt. Han kills Greedo in the cantina. Obi-Wan, Luke, R2-D2 and C-3PO join forces aboard the Millennium Falcon. Death Star commander Grand Moff Tarkin orders the destruction of Alderaan, Leia's home planet, via the Death Star's superlaser as a show of force.

The Falcon crew discovers the planet's remains and is captured by the Death Star's tractor beam, which Obi-Wan goes to disable. Luke discovers that Leia is imprisoned and scheduled to be executed on the Death Star, rescues her with the help of Han and Chewbacca in a swashbuckling series of escapes. Obi-Wan sacrifices himself in a lightsaber duel with Darth Vader after seei

Shorncliffe Redoubt

Shorncliffe Redoubt is a British Napoleonic earthwork fort. The site is 300 feet by 300 feet and is situated on the Kentish Coast in Sandgate, Kent. In 1793, the French revolution reached climax when the Revolutionary Government issued orders to execute King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Two weeks on 1 February, the French republic declared war on Great Britain, which braced itself for invasion. At that time British land-based defences were woefully inadequate as Great Britain had always relied on the Royal Navy for its defence. To prepare for invasion in 1794 British Parliament purchased a large piece of land at Shorncliffe, the obvious place for initial fortifications to be built as it was just 20 miles away from the French coast, so close, in fact, that the locals could see the smoke from the camp fires of Napoleon's waiting army. Further defences were added to the Kent Coast including the 28-mile-long Royal Military Canal, started in October 1804 and finished in June 1805, which stretches from Cliffend to Seabrook.

Martello Towers were built between 1805 and 1808 to bolster the defences. Colonel William Twiss, a military engineer, designed the redoubt. Once built, the site became home to the 43rd Regiment of Foot, 52nd Light Infantry Regiment, the 95th Rifles, the light infantry brigades who Sir John Moore trained when he was stationed there in 1802; the units stationed here during the Napoleonic wars affected military history form this point onward. The light infantry trained at Shorncliffe were a new breed of soldier more akin to the soldiers of the modern British Army than their contemporaries. Using the "Shorncliffe Method", devised by Lt-Col Kenneth Mackenzie, the soldiers were taught to think for themselves and act on initiative. A high proportion of them were literate, unusual for the time. Moreover, in an age when many officers received no training, the light infantry officers drilled with the men, their battlefield tactics were the embryonic emergence of current military manoeuvres fighting in skirmish formation ahead of the British main battle line.

In the Victorian era the Redoubt was converted to a dwelling for the camp Commandant. Many of the bricks used in the construction of the house were reused from the original Redoubt building. There have been many different maps of the Redoubt through the ages as the site was reshaped and redesigned for different functions and changing military tactics; the one aspect that has always remained the same is the earthwork outer walls. The only slight change made to these was on the seaward side during the Victorian era where the wall was lowered so that the Commandant and his wife could look out to sea; the method of construction of the earthwork walls was different from that of earlier earthworks. In earlier walls the earth was dug out and piled so that the wall would be formed; this would lead to the topsoil being at the stonier substrate being at the top. This method of construction was optimal before the widespread use of cannon; the design of the Shorncliffe walls was different, showed careful forethought and engineering.

The turf was put to one side, followed by the topsoil. The stony substrate was used to create the core of the wall, a layer of top soil was placed over it and compacted. A further layer of stony substrate was added with another layer of top soil to cover it, it is surmised that the turfs were placed at the bottom of the mound to create extra stability and to promote growth of the grass for protection from the weather. This method of construction leads to a wall with strong foundations better able to withstand cannon fire than previous earthworks; the defensive ditches dug around. With the earthen ramparts beyond, the Redoubt was well defended; some maps show fortified magazines, but archaeological digs have failed to find them. It turns out that the maps were more guidelines for the construction of a much larger star fort, never built due to the change of infantry tactics brought forward by Colonel Coote Manningham and Sir John Moore. Shorncliffe Army Camp is still in use; the Redoubt itself has fallen into a state of disrepair.

Al Johnson made a recording of The Shorncliffe Camp Song, sung by the recruits at Shorncliffe during World War I. It was called Down in Shorncliffe Camp and sung to the tune of "Back Home in Tennessee" written by W. M. Jerome & Walter Donaldson, 1915. Shorncliffe is mentioned several times in the Sharpe novels of Bernard Cornwell as it was the base of the 95th Regiment of Foot to which fictional soldier Richard Sharpe belonged; the popular Channel 4 archaeology program Time Team featured a dig conducted on the site. The programme was first screened on 1 May 2007; the Shorncliffe Trust Coast of Conflict

Michel-Esdras Bernier

Michel Esdras Bernier, was a Canadian politician. Born in St-Hyacinthe, Canada East, he was a notary and businessman before being elected to the House of Commons of Canada for the riding of St. Hyacinthe in 1882. A Liberal, he was re-elected in 1887, 1891, 1896, 1900. From 1900 to 1904, he was the Minister of Inland Revenue. From 1904 to 1914, he was the Deputy Commissioner of the Board of Railway Commissioners and Transport Commissioners. Michel-Esdras Bernier – Parliament of Canada biography