An arboretum in a general sense is a botanical collection composed of trees. More a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum. Other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta; the term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardener's Magazine but the concept was long-established by then. Related collections include a viticetum. Egyptian Pharaohs cared for them. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt returned bearing thirty-one live frankincense trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage, it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, the term has been applied retrospectively as it did not come into use until the eighteenth century.
Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds. Of course there are many tree collections that are much older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world; the most important early proponent of the arboretum in the English-speaking transatlantic world was the prolific landscape gardener and writer, John Claudius Loudon who undertook many gardening commissions and published the Gardener's Magazine, Encyclopaedia of Gardening and other major works. Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, 8 vols. is the most significant work on the subject in British history and included an account of all trees and shrubs that were hardy in the British climate, an international history of arboriculture, an assessment of the cultural and industrial value of trees and four volumes of plates. Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places.
He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the latter part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. Commenting on Loddiges' famous Hackney Botanic Garden arboretum, begun in 1816, a commercial nursery that subsequently opened free to the public, for educational benefit, every Sunday, Loudon wrote: "The arboretum looks better this season than it has done since it was planted... The more lofty trees suffered from the late high winds, but not materially. We walked round the two outer spirals of this coil of shrubs. There is no garden scene about London so interesting". A plan of Loddiges' arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of 1834 edition. Leaves from Loddiges' arboretum and in some instances entire trees, were studiously drawn to illustrate Loudon's encyclopaedic book Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum which incorporated drawings from other early botanic gardens and parklands throughout the United Kingdom. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, near Dubrovnik in Croatia.
The date of its founding is unknown, but it was in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed. The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family, it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, IndiaThe arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees, it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The micro watershed area leading to Ooty lake where the arboretum is now located, had been neglected and the feeder line feeding water to Ooty was contaminated with urban waste and agricultural chemicals; the area is the natural habitats of both indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a footpath, other infrastructure facilities.
Both indigenous and exotic tree species are included. The following tree species were planted: Celtis tetrandra, Dillenia pentagyna, Elaeocarpus ferrugineus, Elaeocarpus oblongus, Evodia lunuankenda, Glochidion neilgherrense, Ligustrum perrotetti, Litsaea ligustrina, Litsaea wightiana, Meliosma arnotiana, Meliosma wightii, Michelia champaca, Michelia nilagirica, Pygeum gardneri, Syzygium amothanum, Syzygium montanum, Alnus nepalensis, Viburnum erubescens, Podocarpus wallichianus, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Rapanea wightiana, Ternstroemia japonica, Microtropis microc
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
Petersburg is a city in Menard County, United States, on the bluffs and part of the floodplain overlooking the Sangamon River. It is part of Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 2,299 at the 2000 census, 2,185 at a 2009 estimate. It is the county seat of Menard County. Petersburg is located two miles north of New Salem, the original settlement where Abraham Lincoln first settled when he came to Illinois; the town began as a planned community organized by real estate speculators Peter Lukins and George Warburton. Abraham Lincoln worked as the surveyor who first mapped and help to divide lots on the land. Petersburg grew, due to an advantageous placement on the river, becoming the county seat in the 1830s and drawing off the population of New Salem, abandoned in 1840. Many of the lush Victorian-era homes built by early wealthy inhabitants still stand on the bluffs of Petersburg; the town itself takes great pride in these structures, which has preserved some of the original cobblestone streets to complement the classical architecture.
Local legend has it that town's name came about when Peter Lukins and George Warburton, two notorious sots, argued over what to call it. The matter was settled over a game of cards, which Lukins is credited as winning. Most versions of the tale claim that Warburton had it in mind to name the village "Georgetown." This story, though told in the area, has not been verified. Petersburg began as a trade center for agriculture in the region and a shipping point, where a railhead met a point in the Sangamon River, both navigable and crossable. In recent decades, the depth of the Sangamon River at Petersburg has become too shallow for navigation, due to silting from local farming and from the diverting of natural runoff into artificial reservoirs such as Lake Petersburg and Lake Springfield; the economy of the area is still derived from agriculture in corn production. Tourism is a steady industry, the town caters to Lincoln enthusiasts as a gateway to New Salem and in housing some relics of Lincoln's early life in Illinois.
There are a growing number of bed and breakfast inns, many of which are located in restored Victorian homes. Recent developments have turned the town into a bedroom community for the state capital of Springfield, some twenty miles to the southeast. William Taylor Davidson, newspaper editor. McKinley, United States Senator from Illinois Ann Rutledge Abraham Lincoln's first love. According to the 2010 census, Petersburg has a total area of all land; the bulk of Petersburg lies on the bluffs overlooking the Sangamon River, though a portion of it, including the downtown/courthouse square area is technically on the floodplain of the river. The town itself is moderately forested, a stark contrast to the flat plains around it; the trees are deciduous maples and oaks, New Salem State Park is home to sizable stand of old growth forest. Petersburg was damaged by an earthquake originating in the New Madrid Fault, on July 18, 1909; the earthquake was felt over most of central Illinois, but Petersburg suffered the most widespread damage.
The portions of Petersburg located below the bluffs suffered major flood damage during the intense flood season of 1993. The city and Menard County have since undertaken a campaign to buy and eliminate the low income housing located in the most flood-prone areas, creating a small series of parks near the Sangamon River. Shortly after 12:30pm on December 31, 2010, an estimated 40 homes were damaged by a tornado which 22 of them were listed as uninhabitable by local officials; the tornado was caused by springlike weather which the temperature was in the 60s across central Illinois. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,299 people, 997 households, 612 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,705.7 people per square mile. There were 1,076 housing units at an average density of 798.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.78% White, 1.09% African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.35% from other races, 0.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population.
There were 997 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,688, the median income for a family was $42,500. Males had a median income of $32,292 versus $22,396 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,718. About 13.8% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, a composition of grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the steppe of Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Lands referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America; the term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of Canada, the United States, Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, hillier land to the east. In the U. S. the area is constituted by most or all of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma, sizable parts of the states of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and western and southern Minnesota. The Palouse of Washington and the Central Valley of California are prairies; the Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba and Alberta. According to Theodore Roosevelt: Prairie is the French word for meadow.
The formation of the North American Prairies started with the uplift of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta. The mountains created a rain shadow; the parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago. The glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain; as the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till. Wind based loess deposits form an important parent material for prairie soils. Tallgrass prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of fire. Native ungulates such as bison and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse grasslands before European colonization of the Americas. For 10,000-20,000 years, native people used fire annually as a tool to assist in hunting and safety. Evidence of ignition sources of fire in the tallgrass prairie are overwhelmingly human as opposed to lightning. Humans, grazing animals, were active participants in the process of prairie formation and the establishment of the diversity of graminoid and forbs species.
Fire has the effect on prairies of removing trees, clearing dead plant matter, changing the availability of certain nutrients in the soil from the ash produced. Fire kills the vascular tissue of trees, but not prairie species, as up to 75% of the total plant biomass is below the soil surface and will re-grow from its deep roots. Without disturbance, trees will encroach on a grassland and cast shade, which suppresses the understory. Prairie and spaced oak trees evolved to coexist in the oak savanna ecosystem. In spite of long recurrent droughts and occasional torrential rains, the grasslands of the Great Plains were not subject to great soil erosion; the root systems of native prairie grasses held the soil in place to prevent run-off of soil. When the plant died, the fungi, bacteria returned its nutrients to the soil; these deep roots help native prairie plants reach water in the driest conditions. Native grasses suffer much less damage from dry conditions than many farm crops grown. Prairie in North America is split into three groups: wet and dry.
They are characterized by tallgrass prairie, mixed, or shortgrass prairie, depending on the quality of soil and rainfall. In wet prairies, the soil is very moist, including during most of the growing season, because of poor water drainage; the resulting stagnant water is conducive to the formation of fens. Wet prairies have excellent farming soil; the average precipitation is 10–30 inches a year. Mesic prairie good soil during the growing season; this type of prairie is the most converted for agricultural usage. Dry prairie has somewhat wet to dry soil during the growing season because of good drainage in the soil; this prairie can be found on uplands or slopes. Dry soil doesn't get much vegetation due to lack of rain; this is the dominant biome in the Southern Canadian agricultural and climatic region known as Palliser's Triangle. Once thought to be unarable, the Triangle is now one of the most important agricultural regions in Canada thanks to advances in irrigation technology. In addition to its high local importance to Canada, Palliser's Triangle is now one of the most important sources of wheat in the world as a result of these improved methods of watering wheat fields.
Despite these advances in farming technology, the area is still prone to extended periods of drought, which can be disastrous for the industry if it is prolonged. An infamous example of this is the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, which hit much of the United States great plains ecoregion - contributing to the Great Depression. Nomadic hunting has been the main human activity on the prairies for the majority of the archaeological record; this once included many now-extinct species of megafauna. After the other extinction, the main hunted animal on the prairies was the plains bison. Using loud noises and waving large signals, Native peoples would drive bison in fenced pens called to be killed with bows and arrows or spears, or drive them off a cliff, to kill or injure the bison en masse. Th
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, medicinal purposes, or for fragrances. Culinary use distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant, while spices are dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark and fruits. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between medicinal herbs; the word "herb" is pronounced in Commonwealth English, but is common among North American English speakers and those from other regions where h-dropping occurs. In botany, the word "herb" is used as a synonym for "herbaceous plant". In botany, the term herb refers to a herbaceous plant, defined as a small, seed-bearing plant without a woody stem in which all aerial parts die back to the ground at the end of each growing season; the term refers to perennials, although herbaceous plants can be annuals, or biennials.
This term is in contrast to trees which possess a woody stem. Shrubs and trees are defined in terms of size, where shrubs are less than 10 meters tall, trees may grow over 10 meters; the word herbaceous is derived from Latin herbāceus meaning "grassy", from herba "grass, herb". Another sense of the term herb can refer to a much larger range of plants, with culinary, therapeutic or other uses. For example, some of the most described herbs such as Sage and Lavender would be excluded from the botanical definition of a herb as they do not die down each year, they possess woody stems. In the wider sense, herbs may be herbaceous perennials but trees, shrubs, lianas, mosses, algae and fungi. Herbalism can utilize not just stems and leaves but fruit, roots and gums; therefore one suggested definition of a herb is a plant, of use to humans, although this definition is problematic since it could cover a great many plants that are not described as herbs. Ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus divided the plant world into trees and herbs.
Herbs came to be considered in namely pot herbs, sweet herbs and salad herbs. During the seventeenth century as selective breeding changed the plants size and flavor away from the wild plant, pot herbs began to be referred to as vegetables as they were no longer considered only suitable for the pot. Culinary herbs are distinguished from vegetables in that, like spices, they are used in small amounts and provide flavor rather than substance to food. Herbs can be perennials such as thyme, sage or lavender, biennials such as parsley, or annuals like basil. Perennial herbs can be shrubs such as rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, or trees such as bay laurel, Laurus nobilis – this contrasts with botanical herbs, which by definition cannot be woody plants; some plants are used as both herbs and spices, such as dill weed and dill seed or coriander leaves and seeds. There are some herbs, such as those in the mint family, that are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Emperor Charlemagne compiled a list of 74 different herbs.
The connection between herbs and health is important in the European Middle Ages--The Forme of Cury promotes extensive use of herbs, including in salads, claims in its preface "the assent and advisement of the masters of physic and philosophy in the King's Court". Some herbs can be infused in boiling water to make herbal teas; the dried leaves, flowers or seeds are used, or fresh herbs are used. Herbal teas tend to made from aromatic herbs, may not contain tannins or caffeine, are not mixed with milk. Common examples include mint tea. Herbal teas are used as a source of relaxation or can be associated with rituals. Herbs were used in prehistoric medicine; as far back as 5000 BCE, evidence that Sumerians used herbs in medicine was inscribed on cuneiform. In 162 CE, the physician Galen was known for concocting complicated herbal remedies that contained up to 100 ingredients; some plants contain phytochemicals. There may be some effects when consumed in the small levels that typify culinary "spicing", some herbs are toxic in larger quantities.
For instance, some types of herbal extract, such as the extract of St. John's-wort or of kava can be used for medical purposes to relieve depression and stress. However, large amounts of these herbs may lead to toxic overload that may involve complications, some of a serious nature, should be used with caution. Complications can arise when being taken with some prescription medicines. Herbs have long been used as the basis of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, with usage dating as far back as the first century CE and far before. In India, the Ayurveda medicinal system is based on herbs. Medicinal use of herbs in Western cultures has its roots in the Hippocratic elemental healing system, based on a quaternary elemental healing metaphor. Famous herbalist of the Western tradition include Avicenna, Paracelsus and the botanically inclined Eclectic physicians of 19th
Illinois College is a private liberal arts college in Jacksonville, Illinois. It is affiliated with the United Church of the Presbyterian Church, it was the second college the first to grant a degree. It was founded in 1829 by the Illinois Band, students from Yale University who traveled westward to found new colleges, it served as the state's first medical school, from 1843 to 1848, became co-educational in 1903. The Rev. John M. Ellis, a Presbyterian missionary in the East, saw the need for a “seminary of learning” in the new state of Illinois, his plans drew the attention of Congregational students at Yale University, seven of them, in one of the famous “Yale Bands,” came westward to help found the College. The first president of Illinois College was Edward Beecher who left his position at the Park Street Church in Boston and imbued the new College with New England traditions and academic foundations, his sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe, was the author of the influential anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin and a visitor to the campus.
His brother, Henry Ward Beecher and lectured at the college as well. Beecher Hall, named in honor of president Beecher, was the first building constructed on the Illinois College campus, remains the oldest college building in the state of Illinois; the first two college graduates in the state of Illinois, Richard Yates and Jonathan E. Spilman, received their degrees from Illinois College in 1835. Yates became the Civil War governor of Illinois and a U. S. senator. A program at Illinois College for first generation college students was named The Yates Fellowship Program in his honor. Jonathan Edwards Spilman composed the familiar music to Robert Burns’ poem “Flow Gently, Sweet Afton.” William Jennings Bryan, a member of the class of 1881, is one of the most prominent alumni of Illinois College. He was a United States Congressman from Nebraska, the US Secretary of State, the Democratic Party's presidential nominee in 1896, 1900, 1908. Many Illinois College graduates have gone on to have influential careers in public service.
Two graduates became U. S. senators, 20 became congressmen, six were state governors and two serve as federal judges. Among the visitors and lecturers on campus during the early years were Abraham Lincoln, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Amos Bronson Alcott, Mark Twain, Horace Greeley, Oscar Wilde and Wendell Phillips. Many speakers, including Lincoln, were sponsored by the college’s literary societies which still exist today. Illinois College was a center of the abolitionist movement due to its Northern location near the Mississippi River and outspoken campus leaders such as President Edward Beecher and Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner. In the mid 1800s, a group of students at the college were indicted by a grand jury for harboring runaway slaves. Two campus buildings have ties to the abolitionist movement; the College became co-educational in 1903 by incorporating the Jacksonville Female Academy, in 1906 IC awarded degrees to its first four female graduates. Illinois Conservatory of Music was absorbed in 1903.
In 1932 the Phi Beta Kappa Society established a chapter at Illinois College, it remains one of only 11 chapters in the state. Illinois College is a nationally ranked liberal arts college with an enrollment of 1010 students. Over 80 different programs and majors are offered at the school, including Combined Degree Programs in Biology with Medical Technology, Biology with Occupational Therapy and Physics with Engineering; the most popular programs among students tend to be science, or business related. The student to faculty ratio is around 11:1, with a current average class size of 16 students. Illinois College has been accredited by The Higher Learning Commission since 1913; the College’s Epsilon Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa national honor society is one of only eleven in the state, was established in 1932. All degrees awarded by Illinois College are undergraduate bachelor's degrees with the exception of a newer Master of Arts in Education; the M. A. Ed. is a 32 credit hour on-campus degree program, designed to accommodate the professional development needs of in-service teachers Starhill Forest Arboretum is located 45 miles northeast of the Illinois College campus in the town of Petersburg.
In 2008, Illinois College entered into a partnership with the arboretum. Since the partnership, Starhill has been a location for Illinois College students to visit and participate in internships; the Whipple Hall on the college campus houses the Paul Findley Congressional Office Museum, dedicated to former congressman and alumni, Paul Findley. Findley graduated from Illinois College in 1943 and served as a member of the House of Representatives from 1961 to 1983, it contains artifacts related to Findley's political career, his interest in Abraham Lincoln, his involvement in human rights and Middle East issues. Items on display include Lincoln's 1837 law office sofa, Findley's congressional desk, WWI and campaign memorabilia, gifts from seven U. S. presidents and international leaders. The museum is open to visits by appointment, it was renovated in 2007 thanks to a donation by Mohammed Al Habtoor. The college is home to the Khalaf Al Habtoor Archives, located in Schewe Library; the collection is home to many documents and artifacts associated with Illinois College and its long history.