Miles O'Brien (Star Trek)
Miles Edward O'Brien is a character in the fictional Star Trek franchise. He appears sporadically in all seven seasons of Star Trek: The Next Generation and is a main cast member of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. O'Brien was the transporter chief of the USS Enterprise-D, he was promoted to Chief of Operations of Deep Space Nine. O'Brien is the only major Star Trek character described as both ethnically Irish and born in Ireland. O'Brien is portrayed by actor Colm Meaney. According to Colm Meaney, at first O'Brien "was just there, not established as a character, that went on for a bit." He can be seen as the battle bridge's conn operator in the first TNG episode, "Encounter at Farpoint." Appearing on and off in more TNG episodes, it wasn't until the second season episode "Unnatural Selection" that Meaney's character was named, the second episode of season 4, "Family," before the character was given a first name. However, Meaney came to like the arrangement of being hired on an episode-by-episode basis, was hesitant to sign on as a regular on DS9.
Along with Worf, Miles O'Brien is one of the two characters that moved from TNG to be a main character on DS9. They are reunited in "The Way of the Warrior" and O'Brien meets him as he comes in from the DS9 docking port airlock, he claims descent from the famous Ard Rí, or High King of Ireland. His father, Michael O'Brien, wanted him to play the cello, so he pursued this and was accepted into the Aldebaran Music Academy. However, a few days before he was scheduled to start classes there, he enlisted in Starfleet. O'Brien can be seen playing the cello as part of Data's string quartet early in the TNG episode "The Ensigns of Command". In the DS9 episode "Invasive Procedures", it is revealed; the TNG episode "The Wounded" establishes that O'Brien served as tactical officer aboard the USS Rutledge during the Cardassian War and that he was scarred by the Cardassians' massacre of hundreds of civilians on Setlik III. O'Brien does not remember. In that episode, it is clear that the classic Irish tune "The Minstrel Boy" plays a major part of his journey as a character: an innocent man thrown into the destructive nature of war.
He sings the song in this episode, much in the final episode of DS9 "What You Leave Behind". "The Minstrel Boy" is the first musical theme to be heard in the flashback sequence. In the DS9 episode "Bar Association", O'Brien jokingly claims to be a direct descendant of real-life Irish High King Brian Boru, he speaks more of fictional ancestor Sean Aloysius O'Brien, a major player in one of the first United States workers' unions, who participated in the Coal Strike of 1902 in Pennsylvania and was shot dumped into the Allegheny River. In the episode "Rules of Engagement", it is revealed that during O'Brien's 22 years in Starfleet, he had fought in 235 separate battles and had been decorated by Starfleet on 15 occasions, was considered to be an expert in starship combat. O'Brien's first appearance in Star Trek: The Next Generation as the battle bridge flight controller in The Next Generation premiere episode "Encounter at Farpoint", with his only other appearance in the first season being as a security guard in the episode "Lonely Among Us".
Starting with the second season premiere, "The Child", O'Brien began his regular role as the ship's transporter operator, a position, filled by the since-departed Tasha Yar in the first season. In the following episode, "Where Silence Has Lease", when Riker and Worf prepare to beam to the USS Yamato, Riker refers to him as a lieutenant and the character is wearing lieutenant collar pips, he still wears lieutenant pips in "Sarek", but in episodes, the collar symbol has changed and O'Brien is referred to as Chief.. In 2367, he confronted Capt. Benjamin Maxwell, his former commanding officer on the USS Rutledge, when Maxwell attacked Cardassian ships and outposts without authorisation and threatened the peace between the Federation and the Cardassian Union. During the Klingon Civil War, O'Brien is assigned to the bridge as tactical officer due to Worf's resignation from Starfleet and the temporary reassignment of officers to other ships in a fleet led by Capt. Picard. O'Brien marries Keiko Ishikawa aboard the USS Enterprise-D in the TNG episode "Data's Day".
They have a daughter, delivered by Worf in "Disaster". O'Brian appears in over 50 episodes of Star Trek The Next Generation: "Encounter at Farpoint" "Lonely Among Us" "The Child" "Where Silence Has Lease" "Loud As A Whisper" "Unnatural Selection" "A Matter Of Honor" "The Measure Of A Man" "The Dauphin" "Contagion" "The Royale" "Time Squared" "The Icarus Factor" "Pen Pals" "Q Who" "Up The Long Ladder" "Manhunt" "The Emissary" "Shades of Gray" "The Ensigns of Command" "The Bonding" "Booby Trap" "The Enemy" "The Hunted" "A Matter of Perspective" "Tin Man" "Hollow Pursuits" "The Most Toys" "Sarek" "Transfigurations" "The Best of Both Worlds" "Family" "Brothers" "Remember Me" "Legacy"
Benjamin Lafayette Sisko is a fictional character in the Star Trek franchise. He appears in the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, he is portrayed by actor Avery Brooks. The character was featured prominently on the television show between 1993 and 1999, which aired on syndicated television in the United States, he was the lead in the third major Star Trek live-action television series after Star Trek and Star Trek: The Next Generation. The character has been utilized in various books and video games of the Star Trek franchise. Born in 2332 in New Orleans, Benjamin is the son of Joseph Sisko, the chef and owner of the restaurant "Sisko's Creole Kitchen," or "Sisko's" for short, his birth mother was a human woman named Sarah. However, Sarah was possessed by one of the Bajoran Prophets, manipulated into marrying Joseph in order to conceive Benjamin. Sarah and Joseph were married until Sarah disappeared two days after Ben's first birthday, when the life-form left her body, she died in an accident several years later.
Joseph met and married another woman, who went on to raise Benjamin as her own son. Benjamin remained unaware of these events until well into his adulthood and long after he had otherwise made contact with the Bajoran Prophets. Ben has a sister named Judith, at least two brothers. Sisko entered Starfleet Academy in 2350. During his sophomore year, he was in a field-study assignment on Starbase 137, he met a woman named Jennifer in Babylon, New York, on Gilgo Beach, shortly after graduating from the Academy. The two wed and had a son named Jake; as a Starfleet officer coming up through the ranks, Sisko was mentored by Curzon Dax, a joined Trill serving as United Federation of Planets ambassador to the Klingon Empire, when the two were stationed aboard the USS Livingston early in Sisko's career. The symbiotic nature of the joined Trill becomes a significant aspect to Sisko's relationships with his science officer Jadzia Dax and counselor Ezri Dax. Sisko served aboard the USS Okinawa under Captain Leyton, who saw command potential in the young officer.
It was during this assignment that Sisko and Leyton fought in the war between the Federation and the Tzenkethi. Sisko transferred to the USS Saratoga as its first officer. In early 2367, the Saratoga was one of the 40 Starfleet vessels involved in the Battle of Wolf 359 against the Borg. In an attempt to gain knowledge about Starfleet defenses, the Borg assimilated Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the U. S. S. Enterprise, creating a Borg drone known as Locutus. In the ensuing battle, all of the starships at Wolf 359 were destroyed, an estimated 11,000 people were lost. Afterward, Sisko took a position at the Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards on Mars, overseeing the development of new ships, including the USS Defiant, which were created to contend with the Borg threat. Sisko is promoted to Captain on Stardate 48959 during the episode "The Adversary". In 2369 Sisko is assigned to the Bajoran sector to command Deep Space Nine and to help Bajor's recovery from the concluded Cardassian occupation, shepherding them toward possible membership in the Federation.
Sisko and his son Jake reluctantly take up residence on the station. Recognizing that the assignment on DS9 is not an "ideal environment" in which to raise a son, Sisko contemplates resigning his commission. Adding to Sisko's discomfort is the presence of Captain Picard, who briefs him on his mission. Sisko continues to harbor deep resentment toward Picard for his role, however unwilling, in the death of his wife. Upon Sisko's first visit to Bajor, the Kai, Opaka Sulan, labels him "the Emissary of the Prophets" and gives him one of the Bajoran Orbs, that comes from Bajor's Prophets. By studying the orb and nearby stellar phenomenon, Jadzia Dax finds a location of unusual activity in the nearby Denorios Belt. Traveling there and Sisko discover the first known stable wormhole. During their return trip through the wormhole and Dax encounter the mysterious entities living within it; the devoutly spiritual Bajorans believe the wormhole to be the "Celestial Temple" and the entities to be the Prophets, respectively.
These entities exist outside linear time. Sisko's first contact with the entities is difficult for both parties. After leaving the wormhole, Sisko embraces the opportunity to move forward and command Deep Space Nine and adopts a less hostile attitude towards Picard before his departure. After the station is moved to the mouth of the wormhole to claim it for Bajor, it becomes a new hub of scientific and political activity. Sisko at first clashes with Major Kira Nerys and on more than one occasion has to rein her in by asserting his authority. However, as time passed, the two came to have great trust in each other, their relationship reached a new level of personal comfort when Sisko was injured during a battle with the Dominion and Kira did her best to care for him. During this, she realized that Sisko had kept her at a certain professional distance because of his role as the Emissary but this softened after this event. Sisko's assignment to the station saw him reunited with an old friend in a new form.
Jadzia, a female Trill and the current host to Dax had been assigned as the scie
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions; as the most electronegative element, it is reactive, as it reacts with all other elements, except for helium and neon. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking.
The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite, which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Molecules containing a Carbon–fluorine bond have high chemical and thermal stability. Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine contain C-F bonds, the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals. Fluorine atoms have nine electrons, one fewer than neon, electron configuration 1s22s22p5: two electrons in a filled inner shell and seven in an outer shell requiring one more to be filled; the outer electrons are ineffective at nuclear shielding, experience a high effective nuclear charge of 9 − 2 = 7.
Fluorine's first ionization energy is third-highest among all elements, behind helium and neon, which complicates the removal of electrons from neutral fluorine atoms. It has a high electron affinity, second only to chlorine, tends to capture an electron to become isoelectronic with the noble gas neon. Fluorine atoms have a small covalent radius of around 60 picometers, similar to those of its period neighbors oxygen and neon; the bond energy of difluorine is much lower than that of either Cl2 or Br2 and similar to the cleaved peroxide bond. Conversely, bonds to other atoms are strong because of fluorine's high electronegativity. Unreactive substances like powdered steel, glass fragments, asbestos fibers react with cold fluorine gas. Reactions of elemental fluorine with metals require varying conditions. Alkali metals cause; some solid nonmetals react vigorously in liquid air temperature fluorine. Hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide combine with fluorine, the latter sometimes explosively. Hydrogen, like some of the alkali metals, reacts explosively with fluorine.
Carbon, as lamp black, reacts at room temperature to yield fluoromethane. Graphite combines with fluorine above 400 °C to produce non-stoichiometric carbon monofluoride. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide react at or just above room temperature, whereas paraffins and other organic chemicals generate strong reactions: fully substituted haloalkanes such as carbon tetrachloride incombustible, may explode. Although nitrogen trifluoride is stable, nitrogen requires an electric discharge at elevated temperatures for reaction with fluorine to occur, due to the strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen. Oxygen does not combine with fluorine under ambient conditions, but can be made to react using electric discharge at low temperatures and pressures. Heavier halogens react with fluorine as does the noble gas radon. At room temperature, fluorine is a gas of diatomic molecules, pale yellow, it has a characteristic halogen-like biting odor detectable at 20 ppb. Fluorine condenses into a bright yellow liquid at −188 °C, a transition temperature similar to those of oxygen and nitrogen.
Fluorine has two solid forms, α- and β-fluorine. The latter crystallizes at −220 °C and is transparent and sof
Julian Subatoi Bashir, MD is a fictional character from the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, portrayed by Alexander Siddig. Bashir is the Chief Medical Officer of the USS Defiant; as a child, Julian Bashir fell behind in school, was evaluated as having learning difficulties. Because of this, his parents and Amsha Bashir, had him subjected to genetic engineering; the procedure made him mentally superior to most humans, enhanced his physical abilities. However, because human genetic engineering is illegal in the United Federation of Planets and his parents kept his procedure a secret throughout most of his adult life. Bashir graduated second in his class at Starfleet Medical Academy, having intentionally missed a question on his final exam, he had his choice of assignments anywhere in the fleet, so chose Deep Space Nine for the opportunity to practice "real-life frontier medicine". He holds the rank of Lieutenant at the time of the series pilot, Lieutenant from the fourth season premiere until the series finale.
Early on, his overly enthusiastic and self-important nature made some members of the crew, such as Miles O'Brien and Kira Nerys, reluctant to spend time with him. However, he becomes friends with O'Brien, Jadzia Dax, Elim Garak. Bashir flirts with Jadzia, who goes on to marry Worf. After her death, Bashir joins Worf on a dangerous mission to ensure Jadzia's soul a place in Sto-Vo-Kor. Bashir's closest friend is O'Brien, they are shown playing games or visiting the holodeck for the recreation of one of several historical battles such as the Alamo or the Battle of Britain, he is close friends with Elim Garak, with whom he shares lunch in the Replimat. During pre-Dominion war tensions, Bashir is kidnapped and sent to a Dominion prison camp and replaced with a shapeshifter, his replacement attempts to destroy the Bajoran sun, with the goal of wiping out Bajor, DS9, a fleet of Federation and Romulan ships. The DS9 crew foil the plan, the real Bashir, along with his fellow captives, shortly thereafter free themselves.
The experience began a slow personality change over the course of the series into a much more somber, dark character. Bashir attempts to integrate several other genetically engineered individuals into Federation culture, with mixed success; the covert operations group Section 31 becomes interested in him and tries twice, unsuccessfully, to "recruit" him. As depicted in the series finale "What You Leave Behind", Bashir remains aboard Deep Space Nine, begins a romantic relationship with Ezri Dax. In the Mirror Universe, the alternate Bashir is a freedom fighter in the Terran Rebellion, it is unknown whether he was given the genetic enhancements his counterpart was. Unlike the regular Bashir, friendly and personable, alternate Bashir is an angry, unkempt former slave who joins the rebellion against the Klingon/Cardassian Alliance; the character of Julian Bashir sparked fan criticism. Alexander Siddig expressed his enthusiasm for the fact that he, with his English accent, unusual screen name at time of casting, North African heritage was a main character on a prominent television show despite being not as racially identifiable to audiences as many other actors and characters were on TV at the time.
Alexander Siddig played his role of Dr. Julian Bashir in the Star Trek: The Next Generation season six episode "Birthright, Part I", a season concurrent to DS9's first season. Julian Bashir at Memory Alpha Julian Bashir at Memory Alpha Julius Eaton at Memory Alpha Julian Bashir at StarTrek.com
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states. It is a form of regulation of foreign trade and a policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or protect domestic industry; the tariff is used to protect infant industries and to allow import substitution industrialization. Paul Bairoch argues that until the early 1960s, developed countries' international trade was characterized by an era of protectionism rather than a "golden era" of free trade, that in fact, periods of economic growth in the Western world were linked to protectionist policy, he explained that during the 19th century, European countries that were subject to higher tariffs had experienced faster growth. According to Paul Bairoch, the industrialized world of 1913 is similar to that of 1815: "An ocean of protectionism surrounding a few liberal islets", with the exception of a short free trade interlude in Europe between 1860 and 1892. Only two islands of liberalism emerged in the developed part: the Netherlands.
On the other hand, "the Third World was an ocean of liberalism", with Western countries imposing so-called "unequal" treaties on colonized and politically independent countries that required the lowering of customs barriers. Bairoch write that the "Third World" has in fact become underdeveloped because of the imposition of free trade while North America and Western Europe have been able to develop because they have rejected trade liberalism in their history, he notes that:in history, free trade is the exception and protectionism the rule. Trade liberalisation in the United Kingdom from 1846 onwards was the first example of large-scale liberalisation after the Industrial Revolution and was initiated by the dominant economy. However, it is the only country where over a specific period, free trade coincided with an increase in growth. Bairoch explains this by the fact that the country had a significant lead over the other countries in 1846, given that the country had emerged from at least half a century of protectionism.
It was in 1860 that free trade made a real breakthrough in continental Europe with the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty signed by Napoleon III. The agreement was considered in France as a coup d'état, since the parliament was opposed to it, the agreement was established by means of secret negotiations between Napoleon Ill's envoy Michel Chevalier and Britain's Richard Cobden; that agreement was the first of a series which Britain would establish with several European countries, known as the "Cobden agreements": the Franco-Belgian treaty was signed in 1861 and between 1861 and 1866 all European countries joined the Cobden treaty. Only a few countries on the continent had adopted a liberal trade policy before 1860: the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland and Belgium; the decades that followed were not a period of growth and prosperity, but on the contrary they were likened to "the Great Depression". Paul Bairoch notes in Myths and Paradoxes of Economic History that the Great European Depression began around 1870-1872 at the height of free trade in Europe between 1866 and 1877 and ended with the return to protectionism around 1892: The important point is not only that the crisis started at the height of free trade, but that it ended around 1892-1894, just as the return to protectionism became effective in continental EuropeIt is certain that free trade coincided with the depression for which it was the cause, while protectionism was at the origin of growth and development in most of the current developed countrie.
In Europe, the slowdown in GNP growth was the result of the decline in agricultural production growth. This agricultural crisis in continental Europe can be explained exclusively by the influx of foreign cereals, which became possible thanks to the abolition of tariff protection on cereals in continental Europe between 1866 and 1872, it was the farmers who suffered because cheap imports led to the collapse of agricultural commodity prices. But it affected overall demand for industrial goods and the construction sector. In France, an agrarian economy, wheat imports, which reached 0.3% of national production in 1851/1860, rose to 19% in 1888/1892. In Belgium, this percentage rose from 6% around 1850 to more than 100% around 1890. During the 1870s and 1880s, the United States was Europe's largest supplier of cereals. There was an increasing trade imbalance between Europe and the United States until the 1900s, given that the United States had higher tariffs. In the early 1860s, Europe and the United States pursued different trade policies.
The 1860s were a period of growing protectionism in the United States, while the European free trade phase lasted from 1860 to 1892. The tariff average rate on imports of manufactured goods was in 1875 from 40% to 50% in the United States against 9% to 12% in continental Europe at the height of free trade, it experienced a period of strong growth. Around 1870, Europe's trade deficit with America represented 5% to 6% of the region's imports, it reached 32% in 1890 and 59% around 1900. Germany was the first major European country to change its trade policy by adopting a new tariff in July 1879; this new German tariff meant the end of the period of free trade on the continent. Thus, the period 1879-1892 saw the gradual return of protectionism
"Rejoined" is the 78th episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, the sixth of the fourth season. It aired on October 30, 1995, in broadcast syndication; the episode received a record volume of feedback from viewers for the series, both positive and negative, as it marked one of the first televised lesbian kisses. Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures on Deep Space Nine, a space station located near a stable wormhole between the Alpha and Gamma quadrants of the Milky Way Galaxy; the plot of "Rejoined" expands on the Trill species. They are formed of a host and a symbiont, with the symbiont passed from host to host as the previous one dies. In the episode, Dax is reunited with the ex-wife of one of its former hosts; the two struggle with their feelings for one another because of the taboo in their species against reuniting with loved ones of former hosts as they work together to experiment on wormholes. The episode was the first that writers Ronald D. Moore and René Echevarria wrote together, it was directed by main cast member Avery Brooks.
In the first draft, Dax's former partner was written as male, but after this was changed, the story was cleared through studio executives. The Trill taboo was intended to be an allegory for homophobia. "Rejoined" received a Nielsen rating of seven percent on the first broadcast in syndication. Reviews have been positive towards the episode because of its message, but there was criticism that the plot was not exciting enough and there was a negative reaction from some viewers. Captain Benjamin Sisko notifies Lieutenant Commander Jadzia Dax that a group of Trill scientists will be arriving soon at Deep Space Nine to perform experiments related to wormhole physics; the Trill are a species formed of both a humanoid host and a symbiont, which are implanted into them. The symbionts live far longer than the hosts, are moved into a new host when the old one dies. Jadzia is the eighth host of the Dax symbiont. Sisko tells Dax that the head scientist is Lenara Kahn, offers to grant Dax a leave of absence while the Trill scientists are aboard, but she turns it down.
Upon Dax and Kahn's first meeting, Major Kira Nerys notices that they are familiar with each other. Dr. Julian Bashir informs Kira about the non-association rules that Trill follow regarding the family and friends of former hosts, says that hosts of the Dax and Kahn symbionts have been married to each other. A party is held for the team, Dax and Kahn warm to one another's company once more. Afterward, they begin to socialize as they work together on Kahn's wormhole experiment aboard USS Defiant, they agree to have dinner, but to bring Bashir along as a chaperone. At the dinner, Bashir feels out of place and is ignored by the two Trills. Returning to the tests, Kahn creates the first artificial wormhole in history and Dax hugs her in celebration. Kahn's brother Bejal, on the science team, speaks to her separately and highlights his concerns regarding her contact with Dax. Despite this, Kahn goes to a discussion between the two leads to a kiss. Dax confides in Sisko, he tells her that Trill customs mean that if they resumed their relationship they would be exiled from their homeworld and their symbionts would never be joined with a new host, but that she will have his support either way.
Kahn and Dax continue to work on the experiment, but it goes wrong and Defiant is damaged. Kahn is injured in the explosion, but Dax rigs a force field across a plasma fire that allows her to reach Kahn, coming to the realization that the relationship is worth exile. After returning to the station, Kahn recuperates from her injuries, she decides against resuming her relationship with Dax, and—with the experiments complete—departs with the science team, leaving Dax heartbroken. "Rejoined" marked the first time that longtime Star Trek writers Ronald D. Moore and René Echevarria wrote a script together, they had been hired by executive producer Michael Piller following separate unsolicited manuscripts submitted during the third season of Star Trek: The Next Generation, had remained on the staff of the franchise since. In Echevarria's first draft of the story, there was no lesbian element as Dax's former lover was male; the Trill taboo against reuniting relationships from past hosts was suggested by Piller early on in the creation of Deep Space Nine, in order for the society to prevent an "aristocracy of the joined", where joined hosts never met anyone that they did not know.
It was Moore's suggestion to make Dax's former partner a woman in order to tackle the taboo against homosexuality by way of the on-screen taboo against re-association. At that stage, they intended to make no reference in the script to any characters having a concern about Dax's relationship with a woman so as to focus the story. Clearance was sought for the plot, first from showrunner Ira Steven Behr executive producer Rick Berman, from the studio executives. Moore explained that they agreed to the idea, saying that Star Trek stood for making statements like those in "Rejoined". Terry Farrell was happy with the story line, saying that it made sense for Dax to have this issue because the symbiont had been in both male and female hosts, adding that "Gender wasn't the issue. For the worm/symbiont, it was a matter of the being it was embodied in." She was pleased to be able to "stand up" for the LGBT community. A similar story had been approached during
Star Trek is an American space opera media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on NBC, it followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century; the Star Trek canon includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, further adaptations in several media. In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, Westerns such as the television series Wagon Train; these adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Five other television series were produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation follows the crew of a new starship Enterprise, set a century after the original series.
The most recent Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery, aired on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or "Kelvin Timeline," entitled Star Trek; this film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show. Its sequel, Star Trek Beyond, was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary. Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkers; the franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, novels and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world; the series has Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions; as of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is noted for its progressive civil rights stances; the Original Series included. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park; as early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale. Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets; the protagonists have altruistic values, must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas. Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegories of contemporary cultural realities.
Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, imperialism, class warfare, racism, human rights, sexism and the role of technology. Roddenberry stated: " a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, Vietnam and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and they all got by the network." "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they never caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage, they would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most by ending violence.
An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations, his efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g. they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew. The central trio of Kirk, McCoy from Star Trek: The Original Series was modeled on classical mythological storytelling. There is a mythological component with science fiction. It's people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it's a hopeful visio