Starved Rock State Park

Starved Rock State Park is a state park in the U. S. state of Illinois, characterized by the many canyons within its 2,630 acres. Located just southeast of the village of Utica, in Deer Park Township, LaSalle County, along the south bank of the Illinois River, the park hosts over two million visitors annually, the most for any Illinois state park. Before European contact, the area was home to Native Americans the Kaskaskia who lived in the Grand Village of the Illinois across the river. Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette were the first Europeans recorded as exploring the region, by 1683, the French had established Fort St. Louis on a large sandstone butte overlooking the river, they called Le Rocher. After the French had moved on, according to a local legend, a group of Native Americans of the Illinois Confederation pursued by the Ottawa and Potawatomi fled to the butte in the late 18th century. In the legend, around 1769 the Ottawa and Potawatomi besieged the butte until all of the Illiniwek had starved, the butte became known as "Starved Rock".

The area around The Rock was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960. The park region has been the subject of several archeological studies concerning both native and European settlements, various other archeological sites associated with the park were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. In the late 19th century, parkland was developed as a vacation resort; the resort was acquired by the State of Illinois in 1911 for a state park. Facilities in the park were built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, which have gained historic designation. A flood from a melting glacier, known as the Kankakee Torrent, which took place 14,000-19,000 years ago led to the topography of the site and its exposed rock canyons. Diverse forest plant life exists in the park and the area supports several wild animal species. Of particular interest has been sport fishing species. A catastrophic flood known as the Kankakee Torrent, which took place somewhere between 14,000 and 17,000 years ago, before humans occupied the area, helped create the park's signature geology and features, which are unusual for the central plains.

The park is on the south bank of the Illinois River, a major tributary of the Mississippi River, between the Fox and Vermilion Rivers. The Vermilion created large sandbars at the junction of the Illinois, preventing practical navigation farther upriver. Rapids were found at the base of the butte before the construction of Dam. Starved Rock is known for its outcrops of St. Peter Sandstone; the sandstone buried, is exposed in this area due to an anticline, a convex fold in underlying strata. This creates cliffs when streams cut across the anticline; the sandstone is poorly cemented, making it workable with a pick or shovel. A similar geologic feature is found by near the Rock River between Dixon and Oregon, Illinois within Castle Rock State Park. Clovis points unearthed in the park indicate occupation by people of the Clovis Culture, widespread by about 11,000 BC. Clovis hunters specialized in hunting the large Pleistocene mammals, but a variety of other plants and animals were exploited. Archeological surveys have located Archaic period settlements along the Illinois River.

These prehistoric indigenous peoples thrived by hunting a variety of wild foods. They made pottery and domesticated plants; the growth of agriculture and maize surpluses supported the development of the complex Mississippian culture. Its peoples established permanent settlements in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, they harvested maize and pumpkins, were noted for their copper ornaments. The first interaction with other tribes occurred during this period: artifacts from the major regional chiefdom and urban complex of Cahokia, at present-day Collinsville, have been recovered at Illinois River sites; the earliest group of inhabitants recorded by the colonial French in the region were the historical Kaskaskia, whose large settlement on the north side of the Illinois River was known as the Grand Village of the Illinois. The Kaskaskia were members of the Illinois Confederation, who inhabited the region in the 16th through the 18th centuries, they lived in wigwams made of light-weight material.

The natives could dismantle these structures when they traveled to hunt bison twice a year. The women gathered tubers from nearby swamps as a secondary source of food. Small bands of aggressive Iroquois settlers arrived in northern Illinois in 1660 in search of new hunting grounds for beaver, stimulating intertribal warfare; the Kaskaskia struggled with the Iroquois, who were armed with guns seized from or traded by Europeans in the eastern United States. In 1673 Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette were the first known Europeans to explore the northern portion of the Mississippi River. On their return, they navigated the Illinois River, which they found to be a convenient route to Lake Michigan. Along the river, they found seventy-three cabins in the Grand Village, whose population expanded in the next several years. Marquette returned to the village in 1675 to set up the Mission of the Immaculate Conception, the first Christian mission in modern-day Illinois. Marquette was joined by fellow Jesuit priest Claude-Jean Allouez in 1677.

By 1680, the Grand Village was home to a large population. In 1680 the Iroquois temporarily drove the Kaskaskia out of the settlement during the Beaver Wars, as they were trying to expand

Explosives safety

Explosives safety originated as a formal program in the United States in the aftermath of World War I when several ammunition storage areas were destroyed in a series of mishaps. The most serious occurred at Picatinny Arsenal Ammunition Storage Depot, New Jersey, in July, 1926 when an electrical storm led to fires that caused explosions and widespread destruction; the severe property damage and 19 fatalities led Congress to empower a board of Army and Naval officers to investigate the Picatinny Arsenal disaster and determine if similar conditions existed at other ammunition depots. The board reported in its findings that this mishap could recur, prompting Congress to establish a permanent board of colonels to develop explosives safety standards and ensure compliance beginning in 1928; this organization evolved into the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board and is chartered in Title 10 of the US Code. The DDESB authors Defense Explosives Safety Regulation 6055.9 which establishes the explosives safety standards for the Department of Defense.

The DDESB evaluates scientific data which may adjust those standards and approves all explosives site plans for new construction, conducts worldwide visits to locations containing US title munitions. The cardinal principle of explosives safety is expose the minimum number of people for the minimum time to the minimum amount of explosives; the United States Air Force counterpart to the DDESB is the Air Force Safety Center. Similar safety functions are found at major command headquarters, intermediate command headquarters, installation weapons safety offices, culminating with unit-level explosives safety programs; the current Air Force regulation governing explosives safety is Air Force Manual 91-201. AFMAN 91-201 was developed using DESR 6055.09 as a parent regulation, in most cases follows the limitations set forth in the DESR. The Air Force deviates from DESR 6055.9 as long as the risks of doing so are assessed and accepted at the appropriate level. The United States Army counterpart to the DDESB is the U.

S. Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety; the USATCES is located with the Defense Ammunition Center on McAlester Army Ammunition Plant, near McAlester, Oklahoma. USATCES is responsible for providing ammunition and explosives safety worldwide by acting as the field office of the Department of Army Safety responsible for A&E safety; the USATCES acts as the Army agency having safety oversight of clean-up of Former Used Defense Sites and Former Toxic Chemical Agent Sites where munitions from all branches of service disposed of A&E by burial or dumping up until the end of the Vietnam War. The USATCES acts as the Army's safety watchdog for disposal of chemical ammunition at the Army's Chemical Disposal Facilities; as part of Army's Ordnance Corps under TRADOC Specially trained Civilian Explosives Safety Personnel and Safety Specialist that have received specialized training in A&E Safety) from the USATCES are deployed worldwide, wherever the U. S. Army has A&E, their mission is to provide A&E safety to the soldier, the public, the environment making sure the Army's A&E is not only stored safely but ready and lethal when the U.

S. military needs it. The net explosives weight is the total weight of all explosives substances in a single item. NEW is used to calculate safe separation distances. NEW for a specific explosive may be adjusted by its TNT equivalence, the weight of trinitrotoluene required to produce a shockwave of equal magnitude as that produced by one pound of the explosive in question. For example, C-4 has a TNT equivalency for overpressure of 1.37. Quantity-Distance is the foundation of DOD explosives safety standards, it defines levels of protection from blast based on relationships between the quantity of explosive material and distance. The relationships are based on levels of risk considered acceptable for specific exposures but they do not provide absolute safety or protection. Exposures are expressed by a "K-factor". K328 equates to a blast overpressure of 0.0655 psi. A Blast Wave Phenomenon is an incident involving the violent release of energy created by detonation of an explosive device; the sudden and intense pressure disturbance is termed the “blast wave.”

The blast wave is characterized by an instantaneous rise from ambient pressure to a peak incident pressure. This pressure increase or “shock front,” travels radially outward from the detonation point, with a diminishing velocity, always in excess of the speed of sound in that medium. Gas molecules making up the front move at lower velocities; this velocity, called the “particle velocity,” is associated with the “dynamic pressure,” or the pressure formed by the winds produced by the shock front. As the shock front expands into larger volumes of the medium, the incident pressure decreases and the duration of the pressure-pulse increase. If the shock wave strikes a rigid surface at an angle to the direction of the wave's propagation, a reflected pressure is developed on the surface and this pressure rises to a value that exceeds the incident pressure; this reflected pressure is a function of the incident wave's pressure and the angle formed between the rigid surface and the plane of the shock front.

An important consideration in the analysis of the hazards associated with an explosion is the effect of any fragments produced. Although fragmentation most commo

Heinrich August Meissner

Heinrich August Meissner was a German engineer, responsible for the railway network in the Ottoman Empire, helped manage the network in Turkey. He attained the title of pasha in the empire. Meissner was born in Leipzig in 1862, he studied at the Dresden University of Technology. Interested in the public works being planned in Turkey, he studied the Turkish language, at the age of 24 moved to the Ottoman Empire. Meissner died in 1940 in Istanbul. Starting in 1886, Meissner served in a number of important posts related to civil engineering in the Ottoman Empire, he worked on railways in southern Bulgaria, Macedonia and Thrace. Meissner was invited to manage the construction of the Hejaz Railway, the largest public works undertaking in the empire. In the eight years from 1900 to 1908, he was able to build the main section, from Damascus to Medina, including the Jezreel Valley railway. In 1904 he received the title of pasha from the Sultan for his work on the railway, stretching only from Damascus to Ma'an at the time.

After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the Hejaz Railway project was abandoned, Meissner moved on to the Baghdad Railway project, funded by the German Empire. In 1910 Meissner was chosen to manage the Aleppo section of the railway, moved on to Mesopotamia for the Baghdad section. In World War I, Meissner served under Djemal Pasha, his personal friend from their time in Mesopotamia, he helped build the Ottoman military railway system in Palestine in the war. After the war he went back to Germany. In 1924 Meissner was invited by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk to continue his railway work, he oversaw the reconstruction and maintenance of many railway lines in Turkey and taught at the Istanbul Technical University. Naor, Mordecai; the Valley Railway Line Revisited. Yehuda Dekel Library – Israel Society for the Preservation of Heritage Sites. Retrieved August 6, 2016. Fik, Pinhas. "Meissner Pasha: The Railway Pioneer in the Land of Israel and its Neighbors". Cathedra. Yad Ben Zvi. Retrieved August 6, 2016