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State Council of the People's Republic of China

The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments; the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councillors, 25 additional ministers in charge of the Council's constituent departments. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army; the State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China. The State Council meets every six months. Between meetings it is guided by a Standing Committee; the standing committee includes the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, five other state councilors.

The vice-premiers and state councilors are nominated by the premier, appointed by the president with National People's Congress' approval. Incumbents may serve two successive five-year terms; each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration. Each State Councilor performs duties as designated by the Premier; the secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council. The secretary-general has little power and should not be confused with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China; each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries. In addition to the 25 ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council; the heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.

In practice, the vice premiers and State Councilors assume responsibility for one or more sectors or issues, remain in contact with the various bodies responsible for policy related to that area. This allows the Standing Committee to oversee a wide range of government functions; the State Council, like all other governmental bodies, is nominally responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee in conducting a wide range of government functions both at the national and at the local levels, nominally acts by virtue of the NPC's authority. In practice, the NPC had done little more than ratify decisions made by the State Council. More however, the NPC has taken on a more independent role. There has been at least one case where the NPC has outright rejected an initiative of the State Council and a few cases where the State Council has withdrawn or modified a proposal in response to NPC opposition; the State Council and the Communist Party of China are tightly interlocked. With rare exceptions, State Councilors are high-ranking members of the CPC.

Although, as Party members, they are supposed to follow Party instructions, because they tend to be senior members of the Party they have substantial influence over what those instructions are. This results in a system, unlike the Soviet practice in which the Party controlled the State. Rather, the Party and State are fused at this level of government; the members of the State Council derive their authority from being members of the state, while as members of the Party they coordinate their activities and determine key decisions such as the naming of personnel. There were attempts to separate the party and state in the late 1980s under Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang and have the Party in charge of formulating policy and the State Council executing policy, but these efforts were abandoned in the early 1990s; as the chief administrative organ of government, its main functions are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, monitor their implementation. The State Council is the functional center of state power and clearinghouse for government initiatives at all levels.

With the government's emphasis on economic modernization, the State Council acquired additional importance and influence. The State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, instead controlled by the Central Military Commission; the Plenary Meeting of State Council is hosted by the Premier, joined by Vice Premiers, State Councilor, Ministers, the Governor of People's Bank, the Auditor-General and the Secretary General. It runs bi-annually and when necessary, non-members can be invited to participate. Secretary-General of the State Council Deputy Secretary-Generals of the State Council State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, established in 2003 General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China State Administration of Taxation State Administration for Market Regulation National Radio and Television Administration General Administration of Sport National Bureau of Statistics (

Dodge T-, V-, W-Series

In 1939 Dodge presented a new designed line of pickups and trucks. Formally the T series for 1939, V series for 1940, the W series from 1941 through 1947, the trucks became known as the Dodge Job-Rated trucks. With streamlined, Art Deco styled front sheetmetal, introducing the concept of "Job-Rated" truck configurations, Dodge tried to offer customers the truck that fit the job they were buying it for; as a result, the 1939 to 1947 Dodge pickup / truck range was offered in a bewilderingly large number of available variants and model codes. Six different payload classes, a wide range of bodies, more than twenty different wheelbase-lengths were manufactured, fitted with different sized versions of the Chrysler-sourced inline six-cylinder side-valve engines — from the half-ton TC pickup on a 116-inch wheelbase to three-ton tractor cabs. Mechanically, the trucks were all similar, with solid axles front and rear and leaf springs at all four corners. With World War II taking up most of production capacity from 1942 to 1945, the 1939 styling continued unchanged through 1947, as engineering and production became the main focus.

The Dodge trucks enjoyed some popularity before the war, the last of them built in 1942, before Dodge turned to military production, had progressed to the W-series model name. When they resumed sales post-war, they continued as the 1946 Dodge W-series. Historic author on Dodge trucks, Don Bunn, noted that the 1939 to 1947 Job-Rated trucks represent a significant segment in Dodge history, they were the first to be mass-produced in the huge Warren truck plant. The Job-Rated trucks formed the basis for Dodge's first light-duty military four-wheel drives, the 1940 half-ton Dodge VC series, which in turn further developed into the world's first factory 4WD commercial pickups: the Dodge Power Wagon, and lastly, Dodge was the first of the Big Three U. S. auto manufacturers to offer a diesel powered truck — all the more exceptional, given that Chrysler engineered and built their heavy-duty diesel engines all in-house. Today, this series is the most popular pickups with Dodge truck collectors. After Dodge joined forces with Graham Brothers trucks from 1925 onwards and Graham trucks, marketed through Dodge's vast dealer network, were offered in various capacities, ranging from a half ton to three tons.

In May of 1928 Power Wagon magazine computed a "truly impressive" 1,842 possible configuration combinations, of available models, payload ratings and other options. For 1939, Dodge rolled out a striking, modern design, new from the ground up, except for the updated drivetrains – and, as before, offering an exceptionally large number of available variants. In the 1930s, streamlined styling had become a virtual requirement for anything from appliances, boats, planes — trucks and architecture; the new,'Job-Rated' Dodge trucks followed suit, were representative of the'Streamline Moderne', Art Deco based style, inspired by aerodynamic design, characterized by elongated horizontal lines and curving forms, to give the impression of sleekness and modernity. The all new, all-steel cabs featured a front-end design with a barrel-shaped base, a sharp V-shaped grille; the headlamps were mounted in bullet-shaped pods. From the half-tons to the three-ton models, the new trucks all featured the same distinctive design – the heavy-duty models only stood out taller, on larger wheels and tires.

The unique styling of the trucks, was only changed in 1940, when Dodge trucks began using sealed-beam headlamps and were equipped with marker lights mounted on the headlamp housing. For the most part, after 1940, year-to-year appearance changes were minimal; the grille design was changed again in 1941, this style continued through 1947, except for the lower chrome strips, which were omitted post war. The Job-Rated trucks had stronger frames than previous Dodge trucks, using steel with a higher tensile strength, the frame-rails extended further forward past the engine than before, such that the truck's beefy, channel-type bumpers tied the rails together, reinforcing the frame. After World War II, several changes were made to production truck chassis parts, based on reliability experience gained during military service – for instance stronger differentials and larger axle shafts were used in post-war trucks, steering boxes were beefed up as well. Introduced as the T-Series for the 1939 model year, the line evolved into the V-series for 1940, W-series for 1941, but the'W' was retained until the end of sales in 1947.

The bottom of the range TC, its successors VC and WC, were ​1⁄2-ton rated, on a 116 in wheelbase. As the second letter in the model code progressed in the alphabet, the payload rating also went up, however this was not implemented consistently. Although the TD-15, VD-15 and WD-15 were ​3⁄4-ton rated, the TD-20 and -21 and its VD and WD versions were one-tonners; the -15s and the -20s had a 120 in wheelbase, but the 1-ton could be had with 133 in. Second letter'E' models only existed in the form of the 1939 TE versions. TF-, VF-, WF-models were either 1-ton or ​1 1⁄2-ton, ranging in wheelbase from 126–190 in. Second letter G- and H-models were ​1 1⁄2-ton and 2-ton rated ranging in wheelbase from 136–220 in; the ​2 1⁄2-ton rated J-models weren't introduced until the 1946 WJ-55 through WJ-59, ranging from 136–235 in in wheelbase. The K-lettere

Russia at the 2019 European Games

Russia competed at the 2019 European Games, in Minsk, Belarus from 21 to 30 June 2019. Russia had competed at the 2015 European Games in Baku, where it won 164 medals, including 79 golds. A total of 218 sportsmen competed in 15 sports. RecurveCompound Track eventsField eventsTeam event Team roster Summary Team rosterMaksim Chuzhkov Yuri Krasheninnikov Nikolai Kryshanov Viktor Kryshanov Aleksey Makarov Ivan Ostrovskii Artur Paporotnyi Vladimir Raskin Kirill Romanov Dmitry Shishin Anton Shkarin Fedor ZemskovSummary MenWomen MenWomen MenWomen SprintTeam sprintTeam pursuitKeirinOmniumMadisonTime trialIndividual pursuitEndurance Mixed Mixed MenWomen IndividualGroup MenWomenMixed team Kumite Men Key: ML – Minimal advantage by last technical evaluation MT – Minimal advantage by technical points VH – Total victory – painful hold VO – Victory by technical points – the loser without technical points VP – Victory by technical points – the loser with technical points VS – Total victory by decisive superiority VT – Total victory – total throwMenWomen MenWomenMixed team Key: VFA – Victory by fall VFO – Victory by forfeit VIN – Victory by injury VPO – Victory by points – the loser without technical points VPO1 – Victory by points – the loser with technical points VSU – Victory by technical superiority – the loser without technical points and a margin of victory of at least 8 or 10 points VSU1 – Victory by technical superiority – the loser with technical points and a margin of victory of at least 8 or 10 pointsMen's freestyleMen's Greco-RomanWomen's freestyle