Premier of the People's Republic of China
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China, the head of government and holds the highest rank in the Civil Service. This position was known as Premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government from 1949, but changed to its current name in 1954; the Premier is formally approved by the National People's Congress upon the nomination of the President. In practice, the candidate is chosen through an informal process within the Communist Party of China. Both the President and the Premier are selected once every five years; the premier is limited to two terms. The Premier has always been a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China; the current Premier is Li Keqiang, who took office on 15 March 2013. He succeeded Wen Jiabao; the Premier is the highest administrative position in the Government of the People's Republic of China.
The Premier is responsible for administering the Chinese civil bureaucracy. For example, the Premier is tasked with planning and implementing national economic, social development and the state budget; this includes overseeing the various ministries, departments and statutory agencies and announcing their candidacies to the National People's Congress for Vice-Premiers, State Councillors and ministerial offices. The Premier's powers and responsibilities are codified into the constitution unlike the Prime Minister from the Westminster system as by convention or traditions; the Premier does not have command authority over the People's Liberation Army, but the Premier is the head of the National Defense Mobilization Commission of China and deputy head of the National Security Commission which are departments of the armed forces. Since the 1980s, there has been a division of responsibilities between the Premier and the General Secretary of the Communist Party wherein the Premier is responsible for the technical details of implementing government policy while the General Secretary gathers the political support necessary for government policy.
In 1989 Premier Li Peng, in cooperation with the Chairman of the Central Military Commission Deng Xiaoping, was able to use the office of the Premier to declare war against Beijing and order the military crackdown of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The Premier has been supported by four Vice-Premiers since Deng Xiaoping's reform in 1983; the First-ranked Vice Premier will act in the premier's capacity in their absence. As of April 2019, there are three living former premiers: List of premiers of China List of premiers of the People's Republic of China List of leaders of the People's Republic of China Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China President of the People's Republic of China Prime Minister of China List of Chinese leaders Paramount leader Political position ranking of PRC Official PRC Government Website
Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician serving as general secretary of the Communist Party of China, president of the People's Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission. Described as China's "paramount leader" since 2012, he received the title of "core leader" from the CPC in 2016; as general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body. Xi is the first general secretary born after the Second World War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China; the son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father's purge during the Cultural Revolution, lived in a cave in the village of Liangjiahe, where he organised communal labourers. After studying at the Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", Xi rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. Xi was governor of Fujian province from 1999 to 2002, governor party secretary of neighbouring Zhejiang province from 2002 to 2007.
Following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to Shanghai as party secretary for a brief period in 2007. He joined the Politburo Standing Committee and central secretariat in October 2007, spending the next five years as Hu Jintao's presumed successor. Xi was vice president from 2008 to 2013 and vice chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2010 to 2012. Since assuming power, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to ensure internal unity, his signature anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Described as a Chinese nationalist, he has tightened restrictions over civil society and ideological discourse, advocating Internet censorship in China as the concept of "internet sovereignty". Xi has called for further socialist market economic reforms, for governing according to the law and for strengthening legal institutions, with an emphasis on individual and national aspirations under the slogan "Chinese Dream".
He has championed a more assertive foreign policy with regard to China–Japan relations, China's claims in the South China Sea, its role as a leading advocate of free trade and globalization. Xi has sought to expand China's African and Eurasian influence through the One Belt One Road Initiative; the 2015 meeting between Xi and Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou marked the first time the political leaders of both sides of the Taiwan Strait have met since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1950. Considered the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, Xi has centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, the Internet. Said to be one of the most powerful leaders in modern Chinese history, Xi's political thoughts have been written into the party and state constitutions, under his leadership the latter was amended to abolish term limits for the presidency.
In 2018, Forbes ranked him as the most powerful and influential person in the world, dethroning Russian President Vladimir Putin who held the accolade for five consecutive years. Xi Jinping was born in Beijing on 15 June 1953, he is the second son of his wife Qi Xin. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 by Mao Zedong, Xi's father held a series of posts, including propaganda chief, vice-premier, vice-chairman of the National People's Congress. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. In 1963, when Xi was age 10, his father was purged from the Party and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. In May 1966, the Cultural Revolution cut short Xi's secondary education when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Student militants ransacked Xi Heping, was killed, his mother was forced to publicly denounce his father, as he was paraded before a crowd as an enemy of the revolution.
Xi was aged 15. Without the protection of his father, Xi was sent to work in Liangjiahe Village, Wen'anyi Town, Yanchuan County, Yan'an, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. After a few months, unable to stand rural life, he ran away to Beijing, he was arrested during a crackdown on deserters from the countryside and sent to a work camp to dig ditches. He became the Party branch secretary of the production team, leaving that post in 1975; when asked about this experience by Chinese state television, Xi recalled, "It was emotional. It was a mood, and when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student". There engineering majors spent about one-fifth of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought, doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army". From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the vice premier and secretary-general of the Central Military Commission.
This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study U. S. agriculture, he stayed in the hom
Liu He (politician)
Liu He is a Chinese economist and politician, a current member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China and the director of the General Office serving the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission of the Communist Party of China, headed by Party General Secretary Xi Jinping. He was named vice-premier on 19 March 2018 and will be heading the Financial Stability and Development Commission. Liu was born in Beijing, he studied together with current Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping at Beijing 101 Middle School. Liu graduated from Renmin University- Beijing Union University with a degree in industrial economics, he studied at Seton Hall University and received his Masters of Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, he has published on macroeconomics, Chinese industrial and economic development policy, new economic theory and the information industry. He worked successively for the National Planning Commission, the State Information Centre, the Development Research Centre of the State Council.
Beginning in 2013, Liu began advising General Secretary Xi Jinping on a series of economic initiatives, was believed to be one of the primary architects of Chinese economic policy at the time. At the 19th Party Congress in 2017, Liu was promoted to the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, he was a member of the Party 18th Central Committee. Liu gave a keynote address to the 2018 World Economic Forum in Davos. In March 2018, Liu was appointed as a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China. In May 2018, Liu, as Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping’s special envoy and vice premier, led a Chinese trade delegation to Washington, D. C. for the second round of trade talks with their U. S. counterparts. This was part of the 2018 China–United States trade war
The Hu–Wen Administration, or Hu–Wen New Administration is the name given to the Chinese leadership that succeeded Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji in 2003. Using the two leaders' surnames, it is abbreviated as Hu–Wen; this phrase is named after the new Party General Secretary and President Hu Jintao and Government Premier Wen Jiabao, who are considered the 4th generation Chinese leaders and are viewed as, at least ostensibly, more reform-oriented and more open-minded and have been praised by political observers. Their dominant political ideology is termed the Scientific Development Concept. Generations of Chinese leadership Xi–Li Administration
Politics of China
The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China, headed by General Secretary. State power within the People's Republic of China is exercised through the Communist Party, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local representation; the Communist Party of China uses Internal Reference to manage and monitor internal disagreements among the citizens of People's Republic of China. Document Number Nine was circulated among the Chinese Communist Party in 2013 by Xi–Li Administration to tighten control of the ideological sphere in China to ensure the supreme leadership of the Communist Party will not be challenged by Western influences; the PRC controls mainland China, Hainan island, Hong Kong and some South China Sea islands. Each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level.
People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. These county level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government, elect members to the Provincial People's Congress; the Provincial People's Congress in turn elects members to the National People's Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing. The ruling Communist Party committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels; the President of China is the titular head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under National People's Congress. The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions; as a one-party state, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China holds ultimate power and authority over state and government. The offices of President, General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission have been held by one individual since 1993, granting the individual de jure and de facto power over the country.
China's population, geographical vastness, social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Economic reform during the 1980s and the devolution of much central government decision making, combined with the strong interest of local Communist Party officials in enriching themselves, has made it difficult for the central government to assert its authority. Political power has become much less personal and more institutionally based than it was during the first forty years of the PRC. For example, Deng Xiaoping was never the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President, or Premier of China, but was the leader of China for a decade. Today the authority of China's leaders is much more tied to their institutional base; the incident of Hong Kong’s Missing Booksellers had alarmed the public that political confrontation of different political cadre in the senior level of the Chinese Communist Party still dominates China's politics. Central government leaders must build consensus for new policies among party members and regional leaders, influential non-party members, the population at large.
However, control is maintained over the larger group through control of information. The Chinese Communist Party considers China to be in the initial stages of socialism. Many Chinese and foreign observers see the PRC as in transition from a system of public ownership to one in which private ownership plays an important role. Privatization of housing and increasing freedom to make choices about education and employment weakened the work unit system, once the basic cell of Communist Party control over society. China's complex political and ideological mosaic, much less uniform beneath the surface than in the idealized story of the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China, resists simple categorization; as the social and political as well as economic consequences of market reform become manifest, tensions between the old—the way of the comrade—and the new—the way of the citizen—are sharpening. Some Chinese scholars such as Zhou Tianyong, the vice director of research of the Central Party School, argue that gradual political reform as well as repression of those pushing for overly rapid change over the next twenty years will be essential if China is to avoid an overly turbulent transition to a middle class dominated polity.
Some Chinese look back to the Cultural Revolution and fear chaos if the Communist Party should lose control due to domestic upheavals and so a robust system of monitoring and control is in place to counter the growing pressure for political change. China practices a form of democracy. Socialist Consultative Democracy is the form of democracy that exists in the People's Republic of China, though at least one source says that this form of democracy was created by the Communist Party of China. According to an article on Qiushi Journal, "Consultative democracy was created by the CPC and the Chinese people as a form of socialist democracy. In this sense, consultative democracy represents the grand product of our efforts to enrich and develop Marxist theories on democracy. Socialist consultative democracy exhibits distinctive features as well as unique advantages. Not only representing a commitment to socialism, it carries forward China’s fine political and cultural traditions. Not only representing a commitment to the organizational principles and leadership mode of democratic centralism, it affirms the role of the general public in democracy.
Not only representing a commitment
Government of China
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs: the legislative branch, the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee the presidency, including the President and the Vice-President the executive branch, the State Council, whose Premier is the head of government the military branch, the People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police, via the Central Military Commission, whose Chairman is the Commander-in-chief the supervisory branch, the National Supervisory Commission the judicial branch, the Supreme People's Court the prosecutorial branch, the Supreme People's Procuratorate The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the PRC Constitution and its position as the supreme political authority in the PRC is realised through its comprehensive control of the state and media. According to a prominent government spokesman:We will never copy the system of Western countries or introduce a system of multiple parties holding office in rotation.
The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress, the President, the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of Vice Premiers, five State Councilors, 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy and the state carrying it out; the attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power. At the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government, it is not unheard of for a sub-national executive to be party secretary. This causes conflict between the chief executive and the party secretary, this conflict is seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful; some special cases are the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau where the Mainland Chinese national laws do not apply at all and the autonomous regions where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and Han Chinese.
Under the Constitution of China, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, the budget, major personnel changes. Most national legislation in the PRC is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. Although the NPC approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, the NPC and its standing committee has asserted its role as the national legislature and has been able to force revisions in some laws. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a fuel tax to finance the construction of expressways; the Politburo Standing Committee, is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. It has been composed of five to nine members, has seven members.
Its mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee; the membership of the PSC is ranked in protocol sequence. The general secretary has been ranked first. Since the 1990s, the general secretary, chairman of the National People's Congress, the chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party's top anti-graft body, the first-ranked secretary of the secretariat have also been members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Power is concentrated in the Paramount leader Xi Jinping, who heads the four most important political and state offices: He is General Secretary of the Communist Party, general secretary of the Central Committee, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, President of the PRC.
Experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount leader's de facto control over the government. The Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954. Before that an interim constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force; the second promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, contained Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, the Presidency was gone; the 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution. The current constitution is the PRC's fourth promulgation. On December 4, 1982, it has served as a stable constitution for 30 years; the roles of the presidency and the courts were normalized, under the constitution, all citizens were equal. Amendments in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2018 recognized private property, safeguarded human righ
Zhongnanhai is a former imperial garden in the Imperial City, adjacent to the Forbidden City. Zhongnanhai houses the office of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China; the term Zhongnanhai is linked with the central government and senior Communist Party officials. It is used as a metonym for the Chinese leadership at large; the state leaders, including Xi Jinping, current General Secretary of the Communist Party, other top CPC and PRC leadership figures carry out many of their day-to-day administrative activities inside the compound, such as meetings with foreign dignitaries. China Central Television shows footage of meetings inside the compound, but limits its coverage to views of the interior of buildings; the name of the Zhongnanhai complex, located west of the Forbidden City, means "central and southern seas/lakes", referring to two lakes located within the compound. These two lakes are part of a series of projects carried out during the construction of the nearby Forbidden City.
Part of the same system is the "Northern Sea", or "Beihai", now a public park. The Northern and Southern Seas are called Taiye Lake together, and the "Shichahai" is connected to Beihai at the north. The Taiye Lake were an imperial garden called Xiyuan, with parklands on the shores, enclosed by a red wall in the west part of the Imperial City, Beijing. Most of the pavilions and temples survive from this period. Whereas the Northern sea had a religious focus, the shores of Central and Southern seas were dotted with a number of palaces. During the Jin dynasty, the Emperor Zhangzong of Jin built the northern lake in 1189; the northern section of Zhongnanhai was the Taiye Lake, with an attached palace called the "Palace of Great Peace". During the Yuan Dynasty, which lasted from 1271 to 1368, Taiye Lake was included within the Imperial City, it was expanded, covering the area occupied by the Northern and Central Seas today. Three palaces were built around the lake. After the Ming dynasty moved its capital to Beijing in 1403 by order of the Yongle Emperor, construction on the existing Imperial Palace began in 1406.
The Ming palace was to the south of the Yuan dynastic palace. As a result, a new Southern Sea was dug to the south of the old lake; the excavated soil, together with that from construction of the moat, was piled up to form Jingshan, a hill to the north of the Forbidden City. At this time, the three lakes were collectively called the Taiye Lake; the three lakes were divided by bridges. The lakes were part of an extensive royal park called Xiyuan to the west of the Imperial Palace. After the Qing dynasty established its capital in Beijing, the government reduced the size of the royal park to within a small walled area around the three lakes. Several successive emperors built pavilions and houses along the lake shores, where they would carry out government duties in the summer. During the reign of the Empress Dowager Cixi, the Empress Dowager and the Emperor would live in the Zhongnanhai compound, travelling to the Forbidden City only for ceremonial duties. During the Boxer Rebellion of 1899 - 1901, the Russian army occupied Zhongnanhai.
All artifacts and decorations in the compound were looted. The Eight-Nation Alliance commander lived in Zhongnanhai; when Puyi was crowned Emperor, his father as the Prince Regent lived for a short time in the compound. Zhongnanhai attained political significance during the Republic of China era, when the Beiyang Government under Yuan Shikai, placed its presidential palace in the Zhongnanhai compound from 1911; this decision was made because the regime wished to house its government close to the historical centre of power, the Forbidden City, but could not use the Forbidden City itself because the abdicated Emperor Puyi still lived there. The current main gate, Xinhua Gate or "Gate of New China", was created by Yuan Shikai; the present "gatehouse" was a pavilion located on the southern shore the Southern Sea, close to the southern wall. Entry to the compound was instead directly from the Forbidden City. Yuan wished to create a new entrance from Chang'an Avenue, independent of the Forbidden City.
Thus the pavilion was modified to become a gatehouse, with nearby walls cut back, resulting in the angled walls near the entrance today. When the Republic of China government moved its capital to Nanjing, the Zhongnanhai compound was opened to the public as a park. Zhongnanhai has served as a government centre again since the early days of the People's Republic of China, founded in 1949; the People's Republic government built many of the structures today seen in the compound. The compound housed the Communist Party of China Central Committee, as well as the State Council. Early leaders, such as Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping lived in the compound. Chinese maps of Beijing show Zhongnanhai as an insignificant green area with a water body. Since Zhongnanhai became the central government compound, it has been inaccessible to the general public; the exception to this was during the years of relative freedom following the end of the Cultural Revolution, when the compound was open to members of