Motion Picture Production Code
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral guidelines, applied to most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968. It is popularly known as the Hays Code, after Will H. Hays, the president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America from 1922 to 1945. Under Hays' leadership, the MPPDA known as the Motion Picture Association of America, adopted the Production Code in 1930, began rigidly enforcing it in mid-1934; the Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States. From 1934 to 1954, the code was identified with Joseph Breen, the administrator appointed by Hays to enforce the code in Hollywood; the film industry followed the guidelines set by the code well into the late 1950s, but during this time, the code began to weaken due to the combined impact of television, influence from foreign films, controversial directors pushing boundaries, intervention from the courts, including the Supreme Court.
In 1968, after several years of minimal enforcement, the Production Code was replaced by the MPAA film rating system. In 1922, after several risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder Will H. Hays to rehabilitate Hollywood's image. Hollywood in the 1920s was badgered by a number of widespread scandals, such as the murder of William Desmond Taylor and alleged rape of Virginia Rappe by popular movie star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, which brought widespread condemnation from religious and political organizations. Many felt. Political pressure was increasing, with legislators in 37 states introducing one hundred movie censorship bills in 1921. Faced with the prospect of having to comply with hundreds, thousands, of inconsistent and changed decency laws in order to show their movies, the studios chose self-regulation as the preferable option. Hays was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities".
The move mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in the wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. In 1924, Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula", which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning on making; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before—such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916—little had come of the efforts. New York became the first state to take advantage of the Supreme Court's decision by instituting a censorship board in 1921. Virginia followed suit the following year, with eight individual states having a board by the advent of sound film, but many of these were ineffectual.
By the 1920s, the New York stage—a frequent source of subsequent screen material—had topless shows, performances filled with curse words, mature subject matters, sexually suggestive dialogue. Early in the sound system conversion process, it became apparent that what might be acceptable in New York would not be so in Kansas. Moviemakers were looking at the possibility that many states and cities would adopt their own codes of censorship, requiring a multiplicity of versions of movies made for national distribution. Self-censorship seemed a preferable outcome. In 1927, Hays suggested to studio executives. Irving G. Thalberg of Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Sol Wurtzel of Fox, E. H. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls", based on items that were challenged by local censor boards; this list consisted of eleven subjects best avoided and twenty-six to be handled carefully. The list was approved by the Federal Trade Commission, Hays created the Studio Relations Committee to oversee its implementation.
The controversy surrounding film standards came to a head in 1929. The Code enumerated a number of key points known as the "Don'ts" and "Be Carefuls": Resolved, That those things which are included in the following list shall not appear in pictures produced by the members of this Association, irrespective of the manner in which they are treated: Pointed profanity – by either title or lip – this includes the words "God", "Lord", "Jesus", "Christ", "hell", "damn", "Gawd", every other profane and vulgar expression however it may be spelled.
The Mate of the Sally Ann
The Mate of the Sally Ann is a 1917 American silent comedy drama film directed by Henry King. Captain Ward is an old man living in a ship with his granddaughter Sally. Sally's mother never revealed the identity of her father; that is why Ward is overprotective of Sally, he prays each day for the chance to slay the man who ruined his daughter and left a grandchild without a name. One day, Sally sneaks him into the ship, he runs away and Sally follows him to the mansion of Judge Gordon. There she meets the young friend of the judge, they fall in love. The judge is struck by; when the judge visits the captain, he tells him. Ward becomes angry and tries to kill him, Sally, interfering, is struck by a blow and knocked unconscious; when she awakes, Sally finds out that Judge Gordon is her father, having been secretly married to her mother. She accepts a marriage proposal from Hugh and elopes with him as they sail away along with the captain and judge. Mary Miles Minter as Sally Ann Allan Forrest as Hugh Schuyler George Periolat as Captain Ward Jack Connolly as Judge Gordon Adele Farrington as Mrs. Schuyler The Mate of the Sally Ann on IMDb Lantern slide at mary-miles-minter.com
Louise Dresser was an American actress. She is best known for her roles in the many films in which she played the wife of Will Rogers, including State Fair and David Harum. Louise Josephine Kerlin was born on October 5, 1878 in Evansville, Indiana to Ida Kerlin and William S. Kerlin, a railroad engineer who died when she was 15 years old, she had one sibling, a younger brother, William Lambert Kerlin. Dresser took her professional last name from Paul Dresser, a friend of her father. Upon finding out Louise was William Kerlin's daughter, he launched her as his younger sister and she took on his last name. Many people believed the two were related, when Paul died, Louise was mentioned in his obituary as a surviving relative. Dresser worked as a burlesque dancer and a singer at the Boston Dime museum before making her vaudeville debut in 1900, she formed a team called Louise Dresser and her Picks, a singing act, backed by a chorus of African American children. In 1906, she began to play New York vaudeville stages, that year, she was in the musical About Town with Lew Fields, a hit.
The following year, she was in another hit show, Girl Behind the Counter, which ran for 260 performances. After Vaudeville, Dresser's success continued on Broadway, where she starred with De Wolf Hopper in Matinee Idol, appeared in Broadway to Paris and Perlmutter, Hello Broadway!. Her final Broadway show was Have a Heart, which received good reviews. Dresser made her film debut in The Glory of Clementina, her first starring role was in The City that Never Sleeps. In 1925, she starred in The Eagle, opposite Rudolph Valentino and Vilma Bánky as Catherine the Great, acted as the title role in The Goose Woman alongside Jack Pickford. During the first presentations of the Academy Awards in 1929, Dresser was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for A Ship Comes In. In 1930, she acted as Al Jolson's mother in Mammy, she portrayed Empress Elizabeth in The Scarlet Empress. Dresser's last film was Maid of Salem. On television, she appeared in an episode spotlighting Buster Keaton on Ralph Edwards's program This Is Your Life.
She had known Keaton since he was a small boy with his parents in vaudeville. After retiring in 1937, Dresser worked as a volunteer at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital. In 1950, Dresser attempted to make a comeback, but she was unable to get any screen roles, which she blamed on rumors of her being deaf. Dresser was married twice, her first marriage was to singer/songwriter Jack Norworth, who she married in 1898. The couple performed together in vaudeville, where Dresser earned a reported $1,750 a week, they divorced in 1908. She wed Jack Gardner in 1910, they remained together until his death in 1950. Neither union produced any children. Dresser died in Woodland Hills, after surgery for an intestinal ailment, she had lost much of her fortune trying to establish a racing stable. Her gravesite is at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. Louise Dresser on IMDb Louise Dresser at the Internet Broadway Database Louise Dresser at Find a Grave Louise Dresser photo gallery NYP Library Louise Dresser at Virtual History
Frank Craven was an American stage and film actor and screenwriter, best known for originating the role of the Stage Manager in Thornton Wilder's Our Town. Craven was a character actor who portrayed wry, small-town figures, his first film role was in We Americans, he appeared in State Fair and Sam, Jack London, Son of Dracula, among many others. He wrote numerous screenplays, most notably for the Hardy film Sons of the Desert, his IMDB biography credits him with 2 directing credits. In 1938, Craven played the Stage Manager in Our Town on Broadway, reprised the role in the 1940 film version of the play, his son John Craven starred as George Gibbs in the stage version, a role played by William Holden in the 1940 film. Craven died shortly after finishing his work in Colonel Effingham's Raid. Craven was a Republican who campaigned for Thomas Dewey in 1944. We Americans The Very Idea Handle with Care State Fair City Limits He Was Her Man Let's Talk It Over That's Gratitude Car 99 Vagabond Lady Barbary Coast It's Up To You Small Town Girl The Harvester Blossoms on Broadway You're Only Young Once Penrod and Sam Penrod and His Twin Brother Miracles for Sale Our Neighbors – The Carters City for Conquest Dreaming Out Loud The Lady from Cheyenne The Richest Man In Town Thru Different Eyes In This Our Life Girl Trouble Keeper of the Flame Pittsburgh Harrigan's Kid Dangerous Blondes Son of Dracula Jack London Destiny My Best Gal Destiny Forever Yours Colonel Effingham's Raid Frank Craven on IMDb Frank Craven at AllMovie Frank Craven at the Internet Broadway Database Frank Craven at Find a Grave
Pay Dirt is a 1916 American silent drama film directed by Henry King and starring himself, Marguerite Nichols, Gordon Sackville, Mollie McConnell, Daniel Gilfether, Charles Dudley. The film was released by General Film Company on June 18, 1916. Henry King as The Easterner Marguerite Nichols as Kate Gardner Gordon Sackville as Peter Gardner Mollie McConnell as Moll Daniel Gilfether as Dick Weed Charles Dudley as Oby Philo McCullough as Turner Ruth White as Doris Wendell Bruce Smith as Doris's Father A print of the film survives at the Library of Congress. Pay Dirt on IMDb
Charles Eugene "Pat" Boone is an American singer, actor, television personality, motivational speaker, spokesman. He was a successful pop singer in the United States during early 1960s, he sold more than 45 million records, had 38 top-40 hits, appeared in more than 12 Hollywood films. According to Billboard, Boone was the second-biggest charting artist of the late 1950s, behind only Elvis Presley, was ranked at No. 9 in its listing of the Top 100 Top 40 Artists 1955–1995. Until the 2010s, Boone held the Billboard record for spending 220 consecutive weeks on the charts with one or more songs each week. At the age of 23, he began hosting a half-hour ABC variety television series, The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom, which aired for 115 episodes. Many musical performers, including Edie Adams, Andy Williams, Pearl Bailey, Johnny Mathis, made appearances on the show, his cover versions of rhythm and blues hits had a noticeable effect on the development of the broad popularity of rock and roll. Elvis Presley was the opening act for a 1955 Pat Boone show in Ohio.
As an author, Boone had a number-one bestseller in the 1950s. In the 1960s, he is a member of the Gospel Music Hall of Fame, he continues to perform and speak as a motivational speaker, a television personality, a conservative political commentator. Boone was born on June 1, 1934, in Jacksonville, the son of Margaret Virginia and Archie Altman Boone, he was raised in Nashville, where his family moved when he was two years old. Boone graduated in 1952 from David Lipscomb High School in Nashville, his younger brother, whose professional name is Nick Todd, was a pop singer in the 1950s and is now a church music leader. In a 2007 interview on The 700 Club, Boone claimed that he is the great-great-great-great grandson of the American pioneer Daniel Boone, he is a cousin of two stars of Western television series: Richard Boone of CBS's Have Gun – Will Travel and Randy Boone, of NBC's The Virginian and CBS's Cimarron Strip. In November 1953, when he was 19 years old, Boone married Chicago-born Tennesseean Shirley Lee Foley 19 years old, daughter of country music great Red Foley and his wife, singer Judy Martin.
They had four daughters: Cheryl "Cherry” Lynn, Linda “Lindy” Lee, Deborah "Debby” Ann, Laura “Laury” Gene. Starting in the late 1950s, Boone and his family were residents of New Jersey. Shirley Boone was television personality than her husband, she founded a hunger-relief Christian ministry, Mercy Corps. She died in 2019, aged 84, at her Beverly Hills home from complications from vasculitis, which she had contracted less than a year earlier, he attended David Lipscomb College, Lipscomb University in Nashville. He graduated in 1958 from Columbia University School of General Studies magna cum laude having attended North Texas State University, now known as the University of North Texas, in Denton, Texas. Boone began his career by performing in Nashville's Centennial Park, he began recording in 1954 for Republic Records, by 1955, for Dot Records. His 1955 version of Fats Domino's "Ain't That a Shame" was a hit; this set the stage for the early part of Boone's career, which focused on covering R&B songs by black artists for a white American market.
Randy Wood, the owner of Dot, had issued an R&B single by the Griffin Brothers in 1951 called "Tra La La-a"—a different song from the LaVern Baker one—and he was keen to put out another version after the original had failed. This became the B side of the first Boone single "Two Hearts Two Kisses" by the Charms – whose "Hearts Of Stone" had been covered by the label's Fontane Sisters. Once the Boone version was in the shops, it spawned more covers by the Crew-Cuts, Doris Day, Frank Sinatra. A number-one single in 1956 by Boone was a second cover and a revival of a seven-year-old song "I Almost Lost My Mind", by Ivory Joe Hunter, covered by another black star, Nat King Cole. According to an opinion poll of high-school students in 1957, the singer was nearly the "two-to-one favorite over Elvis Presley among boys and preferred three-to-one by girls..." During the late 1950s, he made regular appearances on ABC-TV's Ozark Jubilee, hosted by his father-in-law. He cultivated a safe, advertiser-friendly image that won him a long-term product endorsement contract from General Motors during the late 1950s, lasting through the 1960s.
He succeeded Dinah Shore singing the praises of the GM product: "See the USA in your Chevrolet... drive your Chevrolet through the USA, America's the greatest land of all!" GM had sponsored The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom. In the 1989 documentary Roger & Me, Boone stated that he first was given a Chevrolet Corvette from the GM product line, but after his wife and he started having children, at one child a year over five years, GM supplied him with a station wagon, as well. Many of Boone's hit singles were covers of hits from black R&B artists; these included: "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino. Boone wrote the lyrics for the instrumental theme song for the movie Exodus, which he titled "This Land Is Mine"; as a conservative Christian, Boone declined certain songs and movie roles that he felt might compromise his beliefs—inc
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On