The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Corp Australia, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format, its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's eastern suburbs. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory; the history of The Courier-Mail is through four mastheads. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier the Brisbane Courier and since 1933 The Courier-Mail; the Moreton Bay Courier was established as a weekly paper in June 1846. Issue frequency increased to bi-weekly in January 1858, tri-weekly in December 1859 daily under the editorship of Theophilus Parsons Pugh from 14 May 1861; the recognised founder and first editor was Arthur Sidney Lyon, assisted by its printer, James Swan, the mayor of Brisbane and member of Queensland Legislative Council. Lyon referred to as the "father of the Press" in the colony of Queensland, had served as a writer and journalist in Melbourne, moved on to found and edit journals such as Moreton Bay Free Press, North Australian and Darling Downs Gazette.
Lyon was encouraged to emigrate by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang and arrived in Brisbane from Sydney in early 1846 to establish a newspaper, he persuaded a printer of Lang's Sydney newspaper The Colonialist to join him. Lyon and Swan established themselves on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street, Brisbane, in a garret of a building known as the North Star Hotel; the first issue of the Moreton Bay Courier, consisting of 4 pages, appeared weekly on Saturday 20 June 1846, with Lyon as editor and Swan as publisher. After some 18 months and Swan disagreed on many aspects of editorial policy, including transportation of convicts and squatting. Lyon took over sole control in late 1847, but had money problems, gave sole control to Swan. Swan sold out to Thomas Blacket Stephens in about November 1859; the Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, the Brisbane Courier in 1864. In June–July 1868, Stephens floated a new company, transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to "The Brisbane Newspaper Company".
He was the managing director. The Journal was, from November 1873 to December 1880, managed by one of the new part owners, the Tasmanian-born former public servant Gresley Lukin. Although called'managing editor', actual writing and editing was by William Augustine O'Carroll. Most prominent of the various editors and sub-editors of the Queenslander'literary staff' were William Henry Traill NSW politician and editor of the famed Sydney journal'The Bulletin', Carl Adolph Feilberg, Danish born but from the age of six educated in England and in France. Carl Feilberg followed William Henry Trail in the role of political commentator and the de facto editor of the Queenslander to January 1881, he succeeded William O'Carroll as Courier editor-in-chief from September 1883 to his death in October 1887. Lukin's roles as part owner-editor changed on 21 December 1880. Charles Hardie Buzacott, former'Postmaster General' in the first McIlwraith government, had been a staff journalist. John James Knight was editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier 1906–16 managing director chairman of all the company's publications.
The first edition of The Courier-Mail was published on 28 August 1933, after Keith Murdoch's Herald and Weekly Times acquired and merged the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail. In 1987, Rupert Murdoch's News Limited acquired newspaper control, outstanding shares of Queensland Newspapers Pty Ltd; the Courier-Mail was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2015. The Courier-Mail is a right leaning newspaper with four editorial endorsements for the coalition to one for Labor in the period 1996–2007; the Courier-Mail supports free market economic policies and the process of globalisation. It supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq; the Courier-Mail has the fourth-highest circulation of any daily newspaper in Australia. Its average Monday-Friday net paid print sales were 172,801 between January and March 2013, having fallen 8.0 per cent compared to the previous year. Its average Saturday net paid print sales were 228,650 between January and March 2013, down 10.5 per cent compared to the previous year.
The paper's Monday-Friday readership was 488,000 in March 2013, having fallen 11.6 per cent compared to the previous year. Its Saturday readership was 616,000 in March 2013, down 13.8 per cent compared to the previous year. Around three-quarters of the paper's readership is located in the Brisbane metropolitan area. Although claimed to be Brisbane's only daily newspaper since the demise of Queensland Newspapers' own afternoon newspaper The Telegraph in 1988, it arguably has had two competitors since 2007. News Corp itself published mX, a free afternoon newspaper, since 2007, but mX had a low news content, was discontinued in mid 2015. Fairfax Media has published the online Brisbane Times since 2007. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Courier-Mail's website is the 141st and 273rd most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 25th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 2.6 million visitors per month. Prominent journalists and columnists include Mike O'Connor.
Its current Editor is Lachlan Heywood. Its editorial cartoonist is Sean Leahy, its National Political Corresp
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
State Library Victoria
State Library Victoria is the central library of the state of Victoria, located in Melbourne. It was established in 1854 as the Melbourne Public Library, making it Australia's oldest public library and one of the first free libraries in the world; the Library's vast collection includes over two million books and 350,000 photographs, manuscripts and newspapers, with a special focus on material from Victoria, including the diaries of the city's founders, John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, the folios of Captain James Cook. It houses some of the original armour of Ned Kelly; the Library is located in the northern centre of the central business district, on the block bounded by Swanston, La Trobe and Little Lonsdale streets. In 1853, the decision to build a combined library and gallery was made at the instigation of Lieutenant-Governor Charles La Trobe and Mr Justice Redmond Barry, Q. C.. A competition was held, won by the arrived architect Joseph Reed, whose firm and its successors went on to design most of the extensions, as well as numerous 19th-century landmarks such as the Melbourne Town Hall, the Royal Exhibition Building.
On 3 July 1854, the inaugurated Governor Sir Charles Hotham laid the foundation stone of both the new library complex and the University of Melbourne. The library was the first stage opened in 1856, with a collection of 3,800 books chosen by Mr Justice Barry, the President of Trustees. Augustus H. Tulk, the first librarian, was appointed three months after the opening; the Melbourne Public Library as it was known was one of the first free public libraries in the world, open to anyone over 14 years of age, so long as they had clean hands. The complex of buildings that now house the Library were built in numerous stages, housing various library spaces, art galleries and museum displays filling the entire block in 1992; the first stage was the centre of the front block, opened in 1856, with most of the front wing, along with the floor Queen's Reading Room complete in 1864 by Abraham Linacre. Other wings were built are various time, such as Barry Hall, along Little Lonsdale Street, in 1886, McCoy Hall, built for the Museum in 1892, Baldwin Spencer Hall facing Russell Street in 1909, the McAllan Gallery on the LaTrobe Street side, built in 1932.
Temporary buildings were built in 1866 for the Intercolonial Exhibition of Australasia just behind the front wing, which remained in use until 1909, when work began on the library's famed Domed Reading Room, opened in 1913, designed by Bates and Smart, the successor to Reed's firm, now known as Bates Smart. In 1959, the dome's skylights were covered in copper sheets due to water leakage, creating the dim atmosphere that characterised the Library for decades; the National Gallery of Victoria moved to new buildings in St Kilda Road in 1968, the Melbourne Museum moved to the Carlton Gardens in 2000. The library underwent major refurbishments between 1990 and 2004, designed by architects Ancher Mortlock & Woolley; the project cost A$200 million. The reading room closed in 1999 to allow for renovation; the renamed La Trobe Reading Room reopened in 2003. The redevelopment included the creation of a number of exhibition spaces, some of which are used to house permanent exhibitions The Mirror of the World: Books and Ideas and The Changing Face of Victoria as well as a display from the Pictures Collection in the Cowen Gallery.
As a result of the redevelopment, State Library Victoria can now be considered one of the largest exhibiting libraries in the world. In February 2010, the southern wing of the library on Little Lonsdale Street was reopened as the Wheeler Centre, part of Melbourne's city of literature initiative. In 2015 the Library embarked on a five-year, $88.1 million redevelopment project, Vision 2020, to transform its public spaces and facilities to better meet the changing needs of the community. On 29 April 2015 the Minister for Creative Industries Martin Foley announced that the 2015–16 State Budget would provide $55.4 million towards the redevelopment of State Library Victoria, including the restoration of the Queen’s Hall, the creation of a rooftop garden terrace, a dedicated children’s and youth space, the opening up 40 percent more of the building to the public. In late 2017, the library's contribution of $27 million from donations was raised. In September 2018, the main Swanston Street entrance is temporarily closed and replaced by the newly refurbished Russell Street and La Trobe Street entrances.
The grassy lawn in front of the library's grand entrance on Swanston Street is a popular lunch-spot for the city's workers and students at the adjacent RMIT University. Enclosed by a picket fence by a wrought iron fence and gates in the 1870s, the space was opened up with the removal of the fence and the creation of diagonal paths in 1939; the forecourt includes a number of statues. A pair of bronze lions flanked the entry from the 1860s until they were removed in 1937 due to deterioration. A memorial statue of Mr Justice Sir Redmond Barry, Q. C. by James Gilbert and built by Percival Ball was installed on the central landing of the main stairs in 1887. Flanking the entrance plaza are Saint George and the Dragon, by the English sculptor Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, installed in 1889 and Jeanne d'Arc, a replica of the statue by French sculptor Emmanuel Frémiet, installed in 1907. WW1 commemorative statues ‘Wipers’ and ‘The Driver’ were at the centre points of the 1939 diagonal paths were relocated to the ground of the Shrine of Remembrance in 1998.
A statue of Charles La Trobe, by Australian sculptor Peter Corlett, was installed in 2006 in the
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988, it contains a significant portion of Queensland's documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank; the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902. In 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating to Queensland; the Libraries Act of 1943 established the Library Board of Queensland to manage the Public Library of Queensland. In March 1947, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queensland's first State Librarian.
Stapleton advocated for a new building for the library and that library services should be free to the public. He remains the longest-serving CEO, has been followed by five others: Sydney Lawrence Ryan from 1970 to 1988, Des Stephens from 1988 to 2001, Lea Giles-Peters from 2001 to 2011, Janette Wright, from 2012-2015 and from 2016, Vicki McDonald. In 1971, the "Public Library" became the "State Library." The following year, the Public Library Service was established to liaise with Queensland local authorities regarding their public libraries. A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange and other services to public libraries in Queensland's smaller local government areas. Under the new name of Rural Libraries Queensland, the service is still going strong today, administered by the State Library's Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York and Torres Strait areas.
There is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities: across Cape York, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland and at Cherbourg in South East Queensland. The State Library's current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons; the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, which includes the James Hardie Library of Australian Fine Arts; the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material. The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, posters and how-to-vote cards.
Access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to public libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people and multicultural communities. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools and other community organisations. Outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. Library services to Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders including the establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Centres in Cape York and Torres Strait regions and increasing the employment and training opportunities for Indigenous peoples in the library industry. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people. A free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business; the library has hosted a number of prominent exhibitions, including Plantation Voices Home: A Suburban Obsession Islands: hidden histories from Queensland Islands Hot Modernism Free guided tours of the building are available.
In 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. Rural Libraries Queensland is a collaboration between the State Library of Queensland and 30 of the local government councils to provide library libraries to rural communities; the Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street, Brisbane in 1899. This building had been occupied by the Queensland Museum; the Library shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery. In the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space; the mural was the winning design in a national competition held in 1958. In 1988, the State Library of Queensland moved to a new home within the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank, near the Queensland Museum and the original Queensland Art Gallery. In 2004, work began on the Millennium Library Project - a major redevelopment of the existing State Library building. After three years of extensive redevelopment, the South Bank building
State Library of South Australia
The State Library of South Australia, located on North Terrace, Adelaide, is the official library of the Australian state of South Australia. It is the largest public research library in the state with a collection focus on South Australian information, general reference material for information and research purposes, it holds the "South Australiana" collection, which documents South Australia from pre-European settlement to the present day. Reference material comes in a wide range of formats from digital and electronic to film, sound recordings, photographic and microfiche. Library collections must be used on site. Customers can gain access to a large array of journals and other resources from the comfort of their own home by registering for Home Access; the State Library of South Australia: provides information and referral services for the community collects and give access to the state's documentary heritage, enhances the cultural life of the state through public programs and other lifelong learning opportunities, supports public libraries, co-operates with other agencies to enhance economic and social benefits of the state.
The origins of the State Library of South Australia are found in the South Australian Institute, established in 1856. This consolidated the work of the Mechanics Institute, founded in 1847 which had merged with the South Australian Library in 1848 creating the "Mechanics' Institute and South Australian Library", based in Peacock's Buildings, Hindley Street; however it was subsequently moved to Exchange Chambers, King William Street, by 1855 had gone into decline. The South Australian Legislative Council passed Act No. 16 which incorporated the South Australian Institute, to whose ownership the old library was transferred. This act ensured the library would be open to the public free of charge and grant funding was allocated to it; this made the library popular amongst artisans and workmen who filled it to capacity in the evenings. As new books arrived from Britain the library was expanded and soon needed new accommodation, found in North Terrace in 1860; the building now known as the Mortlock Wing was opened on 18 December 1884 as a "Public Library and Art Gallery for the colony of South Australia" with 23,000 books and a staff of three.
It had taken over 18 years to complete after the initial foundations were laid in 1866. The foundation stone was laid on 7 November 1879 by Sir William Jervois and the building was constructed by Brown and Thompson at a total cost of £43,897, opened in 1884. Supervision for the Board of Directors was undertaken by secretary Robert Kay general director and secretary of the Public Library and Art Gallery of South Australia; the building is French Renaissance in style with a mansard roof. The walls are constructed of brick with Sydney freestone facings with decorations in the darker shade of Manoora stone; the interior has two galleries, the first supported by masonry columns, the second by cast iron brackets. The balconies feature wrought iron balustrading ornamented with gold while the glass-domed roof allows the chamber to be lit with natural light. Two of the original gas "sunburner" lamps survive in the office space located on the second floor at the southern end. Restoration of the building occurred in 1985 as a Jubilee 150 project by Danvers Architects, consultant architect to the South Australian Department of Housing and Construction.
The $1.5 million project was jointly funded by the community. In honour of a substantial bequest from John Andrew Tennant Mortlock, the Libraries Board of South Australia resolved that a percentage of the South Australiana Collections would be housed in the wing and named the Mortlock Library of South Australiana in 1986. After the State Library underwent a substantial redevelopment, commencing in 2001 and reaching completion in 2004, the main chamber of the Mortlock Wing became an exhibition space providing a glimpse into the history and culture of South Australia. In August 2014 the Mortlock Wing featured in a list of the top 20 most beautiful libraries of the world, compiled by the U. S. magazine Travel + Leisure. The general reference and research material in the State Library was named the Bray Reference Library in 1987 after former SA Chief Justice, Dr John Jefferson Bray, who served on the Libraries Board of South Australia from 1944 to 1987; the State Library has a national responsibility to collect and give access to historical and contemporary South Australian information.
The South Australiana collections document South Australia from pre-white settlement to the present day, the Northern Territory to 1911. The South Australiana collection is one of the most comprehensive in the world due to legal deposit requirements for published material, through donations of unpublished material. A well known donation is the Bradman Collection of cricketing memorabilia; the York Gate Library was acquired from the estate of Stephen William Silver, of S. W. Silver and Co. a London based company who not only sold clothing and equipment suitable for emigrants to the British Colonies, but a series books providing relevant information for such emigrants. William had started to collect objects and books related to the areas to which their custom
Queensland Cultural Centre
The Queensland Cultural Centre is a heritage-listed entertainment centre at Grey Street, South Brisbane, City of Brisbane, Australia. It is part of the South Bank precinct of the Brisbane River, it was built from 1976. The major components of the centre are Queensland Performing Arts Centre, the Queensland Museum, the State Library of Queensland, the Queensland Art Gallery and the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art; the original part was designed by Brisbane architects Robin Gibson and Partners and opened in 1985. In 2010, Robin Gibson and Partners were granted a "25 Year Award for Enduring Architecture" by the Queensland Chapter of the Australian Institute of Architects; the GOMA building designed by Kerry and Lindsay Clare, directors of the Australasian firm Architectus, was added to the complex in 2006. In 2007, the building received three awards: a Brisbane Commendation and a Public Architecture Award from the Queensland Chapter of AIA. In 2010, the Clares received the AIA's Gold Medal for their work.
In the same year, an extension of the SLQ building designed by the Brisbane architects Donovan Hill and Peddle Thorp was opened. For their design, the architects were awarded the prestigious Sir Zelman Cowen Award for Public Architecture by AIA in 2007; the centre is surrounded by sub-tropical gardens which are professionally maintained and developed by The Plant Management Company and are open to the public. There are several cafés, restaurants and other public facilities located throughout the site. In the immediate South Bank area there are restaurants, parklands, walking paths, swimming pools, the Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's new radio and television headquarters which house the Queensland Symphony Orchestra, the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. With South Brisbane Railway Station directly opposite QPAC, many major bus routes running past the centre, water transport available along the Brisbane River, the public has ready access to the centre.
In 2009, a pedestrian and bicycle bridge called. It connects the Roma Street Railway Station area of Brisbane City with the centre, reaching South Bank next to GOMA and close to SLQ, QAG and the Museum; the south-western part of the Queensland Cultural Centre was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 12 June 2015. The heritage listing consisted of Queensland Performing Arts Centre, the Queensland Museum, the Queensland Art Gallery but not the more recent Queensland Gallery of Modern Art nor the renovated State Library of Queensland; the Queensland Cultural Centre, located on the south bank of the Brisbane River opposite the central business district, is the state's principal cultural venue and an important example of late 20th century modernist architecture. Constructed between 1976 and 1998, this ambitious complex, a milestone in the history of the arts in Queensland and the evolution of the state, was designed by renowned Queensland architect Robin Gibson in conjunction with the Queensland Department of Public Works, for the people of Queensland.
The Cultural Centre includes the Queensland Art Gallery, the Queensland Performing Arts Centre, the Queensland Museum, the State Library and The Fountain Room Restaurant and Auditorium. The altered State Library and the Gallery of Modern Art are part of the broader cultural precinct but are not part of the heritage listing. Prior to European settlement, the whole of the South Brisbane peninsula was known as Kurilpa, an important meeting place for the Yuggera/Jagera people; the tip of the South Brisbane peninsula was a traditional river crossing. After the establishment of the Moreton Bay Penal settlement in 1825, convicts cleared the river flats to grow grain for the settlement and during the 1830s, timber from the south bank was exported to Sydney. From the 1840s, South Brisbane developed as one of Queensland's key location for portside activity advantaged by its more direct access to the Darling Downs and Ipswich; as maritime trade expanded and stores were progressively established adjacent to the river.
Over time, a range of commercial, light industrial and manufacturing activities occurred, along with civic and residential land uses. The area prospered in the 1880s and South Brisbane became a municipality in 1888. Along with the development boom, a dry dock was opened in 1881, coal wharves and associated rail links were constructed and South Brisbane railway station was established as the passenger terminus for suburban and country train lines. By the end of the 19th century, the area had evolved into a substantial urban settlement, with Stanley Street a major retail centre and thoroughfare; such development however, could not arrest a gradual 20th century decline which accelerated after World War II, influenced by the reorientation of economic activity and transport networks in Brisbane. Post-war, wharves and railway sidings closed and were subsequently demolished, with the progressive relocation of shipping downriver; the decline of such a centrally located area in the capital city presented an opportunity for significant urban renewal.
The Queensland Cultural Centre is situated on the site of one of Queensland's historical theatres, the Cremorne Theatre. An open-air structure with seating for about 1,800, the Cremorne Theatre was located on Stanley Street, South Brisbane, between Peel and Melbourne Streets, close to the point where the Victoria Bridge crossed the Brisbane River from the city and on the site where the Queensland Art Gallery now stands. By mid-1952, the building had been converted for use as offices
How-to-vote cards are small leaflets that are handed out by party supporters during elections in Australia. Voting in the Australian lower house uses a preferential voting system. Voters must rank every candidate on the ballot in order for their vote to count. There are numerous candidates on the ballot, some with little public profile, so voters may find it difficult to decide on all of them. Parties produce how-to-vote cards ostensibly to help voters, they contain details about the candidate or party as well as instruction how to cast a ranked vote in the order that the party would prefer the voter follow. The flow of preferences can assist the party dispersing the cards directly and indirectly help allied parties; the use of how-to-vote cards has benefited minor parties in a number of ways including increasing their chances of winning, punishing opponents and receiving policy commitments. Sometimes "preference deals" are done between political parties so that they are favoured by each other's how-to-vote cards.
Voters are under no obligation to follow the cards. In South Australia, all how-to-vote cards are displayed on all polling booths; the Importance Of Andrew. "Labor accused of'sneaky' how-to-vote cards". Sunday Mail. News Limited. Retrieved 5 August 2011. AAP. "Greens want how-to-vote cards outlawed". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. Retrieved 5 August 2011. "How-to-vote cards awaken the rebel in inner-city voter". The Age. Fairfax. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2011; the ` How-to-vote' Cards used in Australia's elections. Proportional Representation Society Of Australia