The State University of New York is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. Led by Chancellor Kristina M. Johnson, the SUNY system has 91,182 employees, including 32,496 faculty members, some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $10.7 billion budget. SUNY includes many institutions and four university Centers: Albany, Binghamton and Stony Brook. SUNY's administrative offices are in Albany, the state's capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D. C. SUNY's largest campus is the University at Buffalo, which has the greatest endowment and research funding; the State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University.
The Commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, at the time Chairman of General Electric; the system was expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state. Apart from units of the City University of New York, SUNY comprises all other institutions of higher education statewide that are state-supported. New York is one of the last states to set up a state university system. New York State Regents Scholarships, discontinued under Governor Mario Cuomo, provided state support for private colleges in the state and to a limited extent fulfilled the role of a state university system; the first colleges were established with some arising from local seminaries. But New York state had a long history of supported higher education prior to the creation of the SUNY system; the oldest college, part of the SUNY System is SUNY Potsdam, established in 1816 as the St. Lawrence Academy. In 1835, the State Legislature acted to establish stronger programs for public school teacher preparation and designated one academy in each senatorial district to receive money for a special teacher-training department.
The St. Lawrence Academy received this distinction and designated the village of Potsdam as the site of a Normal School in 1867. On May 7, 1844, the State legislature voted to establish New York State Normal School in Albany as the first college for teacher education. In 1865, the endowed Cornell University was designated as New York's land grant college, it began direct financial support of four of Cornell's colleges in 1894. From 1889 to 1903, Cornell operated the New York State College of Forestry, until the Governor vetoed its annual appropriation; the school was moved to Syracuse University in 1911. It is now the State University of New York College of Environmental Forestry. In 1908, the State legislature began the NY State College of Agriculture at Alfred University. In 1946-48 a Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, chaired by Owen D. Young, Chairman of the General Electric Company, studied New York's existing higher education institutions, it was known New York's private institutions of higher education were discriminatory and failed to provide for many New Yorkers.
Noting this need, the commission recommended the creation of a public state university system. In 1948 legislation was passed establishing SUNY on the foundation of the teacher-training schools established in the 19th century. Most of them had developed curricula similar to those found at four-year liberal arts schools long before the creation of SUNY, as evidenced by the fact they had become known as "Colleges for Teachers" rather than "Teachers' Colleges." On October 8, 1953, SUNY took a historic step of banning national fraternities and sororities that discriminated based on race or religion from its 33 campuses. Various fraternities challenged this rule in court; as a result, national organizations felt pressured to open their membership to students of all races and religions. The SUNY resolution, upheld in court states: Resolved that no social organization shall be permitted in any state-operated unit of the State University which has any direct or indirect affiliation or connection with any national or other organization outside the particular unit.
Despite being one of the last states in the nation to establish a state university, the system was expanded during the chancellorship of Samuel B. Gould and the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in the design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state. Rockefeller championed the acquisition of the private University of Buffalo into the SUNY system, making the public State University of New York at Buffalo. SUNY is governed by a State University of New York Board of Trustees, which consists of eighteen members, fifteen of whom are appointed by the Governor, with consent of the New York State Senate; the sixteenth member is the President of the Student Assembly of the State University of New York. The last two members are the P
Fred Creighton was a Canadian ice hockey centre and coach. Creighton is best known for his time as an NHL head coach. Creighton grew up in rural Manitoba. After completing his journey hockey career, he played in a variety of minor leagues between 1951 and 1964, he served as an assistant and the head coach of the Charlotte Checkers of the Eastern Hockey League. He led the team from behind the bench for eight years, guiding the club to two Walker Cup Titles in 1970–71 and 1971–72. Creighton coached the Atlanta Flames from 1975 to 1979, making the playoffs in his final four seasons as coach but losing in the first round of each year's postseason. Creighton was hired as coach of the Boston Bruins in the 1980, but failed to mesh with powerful GM and former coach Harry Sinden, who fired Creighton with 15 days left in the regular season. In 1981, Creighton was hired to coach the Indianapolis Checkers, the top Central Hockey League affiliate of the New York Islanders, where he led the team to Adams Cup championships in 1982 and 1983 and a spot in the CHL Finals in 1984.
He became the Checkers' general manager when the team moved to the International Hockey League in 1984-85, served as interim coach in the playoffs. In 1985, he again became the head coach of the Islanders' top affiliate, the AHL's Springfield Indians, full-time in 1985-86, as a midseason replacement the following two years. After retirement, Creighton became a franchisee for Little Caesars pizza, he died in 2011 due to complications from Alzheimer's disease. Fred Creighton career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database
The Indian 2000-rupee banknote is a denomination of the Indian rupee. It was released by the Reserve Bank of India on 8 November 2016 after the demonetisation of ₹500 and ₹1000 banknotes and has been in circulation since 10 November 2016, it is a part of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series of banknotes with a new design. This is the highest currency note printed by RBI, in active circulation since the 1,000 rupee note was demonetised in November 2016. Before the official announcement by RBI, the media reported that ₹2000 notes had been printed from the currency printing press in Mysuru by the end of October 2016. Post 2016 Indian banknote demonetisation, six new currency notes have been announced by the Reserve Bank of India-- ₹2,000, ₹500, ₹200, ₹100, ₹50, ₹10. According to the RBI data, there were 3,285 million pieces of ₹2000 notes in circulation at end-March 2017. A year after, there was only a marginal increase in the number at 3,363 million pieces. Of the total currency in circulation amounting to ₹18,037 billion at end-March 2018, ₹2000 notes accounted for 37.3 percent, down from 50.2 percent at end-March 2017.
Suspecting that the ₹2000 note is being used for hoarding and tax evasion, RBI has stopped the printing of banknotes of ₹2000 denomination and no new notes of this denomination were printed during the 2019-20 fiscal year. The new ₹2000 banknote is a 66 mm × 166 mm Magenta coloured note, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi, the Ashoka Pillar Emblem, the signature of Reserve Bank of India Governor, it has Braille print on it. The reverse side features a motif of the Mangalyaan, representing India's first interplanetary space mission, the logo and tag line for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan; the ₹2000 banknote has multiple security features, listed below: See-through registration device with denominational numeral ₹2000 Latent image with denominational numeral ₹2000 Denominational numeral २००० rendered in Devnagari script Micro letters'RBI' and'2000' on the left side of the banknote Windowed security thread with inscriptions'भारत', RBI, ₹2000 on banknotes, with a colour shift.
The thread colour changes from green to blue when the note is tilted Guarantee Clause, the Governor’s signature with the Promise Clause, the RBI's emblem on the right side Denominational numeral with Rupee Symbol, ₹2000 in colour changing ink on bottom right Ashoka Pillar emblem on the right Mahatma Gandhi portrait and electrotype watermarks Number panel with numerals growing from small to big on the top left side and bottom right side. For the visually impaired Intaglio of Mahatma Gandhi portrait, Ashoka Pillar emblem, bleed lines and identity mark Horizontal rectangle with ₹2000 in raised print on the right Seven angular bleed lines on left and right side in raised print Year of printing of the note on the left Like other Indian rupee banknotes, the ₹2000 banknote has its amount written in 17+1 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India; the languages are displayed in alphabetical order.
Languages included on the panel are Assamese, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Nepali, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Braille. The introduction of such high denomination currency has been criticized by some, with former Indian Minister of Finance P. Chidambaram dubbing the move "puzzling"; the design of the new note was criticized by former Minister of Industry Anand Sharma. Mahatma Gandhi New Series Indian 500 and 1000 rupee note demonetisation Indian 500-rupee note Indian 200-rupee note Indian rupee