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State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes. It may also refer to large-scale secularization attempts by governments, it is a form of Religion-State relationship that is usually ideologically linked to irreligion and the promotion of irreligion to some extent. State atheism may refer to a government's promotion of anti-clericalism, which opposes religious institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, including the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. In some instances, religious symbols and public practices that were once held by religion were replaced with secularized versions. State atheism can also exist in a politically neutral fashion, in which case it is considered as non-secular.
The majority of Marxist–Leninist states followed similar policies from 1917 onwards. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1917–1991) and the Soviet Union (1922–1991) more broadly, had a long history of state atheism, whereby those seeking social success generally had to profess atheism and to stay away from houses of worship; this trend became especially militant during the middle of the Stalinist era which lasted from 1929 to 1939. In Central Europe, countries like Estonia, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Bulgaria experienced strong policies. So did East Germany and the Czech republic; the Soviet Union attempted to suppress public religious expression over wide areas of its influence, including places such as Central Asia. Either currently or in their past, China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia and Cuba, are or were officially atheist.
In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. In a review of 35 European states in 1980, only 5 states were considered 'secular' in the sense of religious neutrality, 9 were considered 'atheistic', and 21 states were considered 'religious'.
- 1 Communist states
- 2 Non-Communist states
- 3 Human rights
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
A communist state, in popular usage, is a state with a form of government that is characterized by the one-party rule or dominant-party rule of a communist party and a professed allegiance to a Leninist or Marxist–Leninist communist ideology as the guiding principle of the state. The founder and primary theorist of Marxism, the 19th-century German thinker Karl Marx, had an ambivalent attitude toward religion, which he primarily viewed as "the opium of the people" that had been used by the ruling classes to give the working classes false hope for millennia, whilst at the same time he recognized it as a form of protest by the working classes against their poor economic conditions.[not in citation given] In the Marxist–Leninist interpretation of Marxist theory, developed primarily by Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, atheism emanates from its dialectical materialism and tires to explain and criticize religion.
Religion is the opium of the people—this dictum by Marx is the corner-stone of the whole Marxist outlook on religion. Marxism has always regarded all modern religions and churches, and each and every religious organisation, as instruments of bourgeois reaction that serve to defend exploitation and to befuddle the working class.
Julian Baggini devotes a chapter of his book Atheism: A Very Short Introduction to a discussion about 20th-century political systems, including communism and political repression in the Soviet Union. Baggini argues that "Soviet communism, with its active oppression of religion, is a distortion of original Marxist communism, which did not advocate oppression of the religious." Baggini goes on to argue that "Fundamentalism is a danger in any belief system" and that "Atheism's most authentic political expression... takes the form of state secularism, not state atheism."
State atheism, (gosateizm, a syllabic abbreviation of "state" (gosudarstvo) and "atheism" (ateizm)), was a major goal of the official Soviet ideology; this phenomenon, which lasted for seven decades, was new in world history. The Communist Party engaged in diverse activities such as destroying places of worship, executing religious leaders, flooding schools and media with anti-religious propaganda, and propagated "scientific atheism".
After the Russian Civil War, the state used its resources to stop the implanting of religious beliefs in nonbelievers and remove "prerevolutionary remnants" that still existed; the Bolsheviks were particularly hostile toward the Russian Orthodox Church (which supported the White Movement during the Russian Civil War) and saw it as a supporter of Tsarist autocracy. During a process of collectivization of land, Orthodox priests distributed pamphlets declaring that the Soviet regime was the Antichrist coming to place "the Devil's mark" on the peasants, and encouraged them to resist the government. Political repression in the Soviet Union was widespread and while religious persecution was applied to numerous religions, the regime's anti-religious campaigns were often directed against specific religions based on state interests; the attitude in the Soviet Union toward religion varied from persecution of some religions to not outlawing others.
From the late 1920s to the late 1930s, such organizations as the League of Militant Atheists ridiculed all religions and harassed believers; the league was a "nominally independent organization established by the Communist Party to promote atheism". It published its own newspaper, and journals, sponsored lectures, and organized demonstrations that lampooned religion and promoted atheism. Anti-religious and atheistic propaganda was implemented into every portion of soviet life from schools to the media and even on to substituting rituals to replace religious ones. Though Lenin originally introduced the Gregorian calendar to the Soviets, subsequent efforts to reorganise the week to improve worker productivity saw the introduction of the Soviet calendar, which had the side-effect that a "holiday will seldom fall on Sunday".
Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from 1922 to 1926, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were killed (a much greater number was subjected to persecution). Most seminaries were closed, and publication of religious writing was banned. A meeting of the Antireligious Commission of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) that occurred on 23 May 1929 estimated the portion of believers in the USSR at 80 percent, though this percentage may be understated to prove the successfulness of the struggle with religion; the Russian Orthodox Church, which had 54,000 parishes before World War I, was reduced to 500 by 1940. Overall, by that same year 90 percent of the churches, synagogues, and mosques that had been operating in 1917 were either forcibly closed, converted, or destroyed.
Despite the Soviet Union's attempts to eliminate religion, other former USSR and anti-religious nations, such as Armenia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia have high religious populations.[original research?] Professor Niels Christian Nielsen of philosophy and religious thought of Rice University has written that the post-Soviet population in areas which were formerly predominantly Orthodox are now "nearly illiterate regarding religion", almost completely lacking the intellectual or philosophical aspects of their faith and having almost no knowledge of other faiths.
Today in the Russian Federation, approximately 100 million citizens consider themselves Russian Orthodox Christians, amounting to 70% of the population, although the Church claims a membership of 80 million. According to the CIA Factbook, however, only 17% to 22% of the population is now Christian. According to a poll by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center, 63% of respondents considered themselves Russian Orthodox, 6% of respondents considered themselves Muslim and less than 1% considered themselves either Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant or Jewish. Another 12% said they believe in God, but did not practice any religion, and 16% said they are non-believers. In Ukraine, 96.1% of the Ukrainian population is Christian. In Lithuania, the only Catholic-majority country which was once a Soviet republic, a 2005 report stated that 79% of Lithuanians belonged to the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1967 Enver Hoxha, the head of state of Albania, declared Albania to be the "first atheist state of the world". Marxist–Leninist authorities in Albania claimed that religion was foreign to Albania and used this to justify their policy of state atheism and suppression of religion; this nationalism was also used to justify the communist stance of state atheism from 1967 to 1991. The Agrarian Reform Law of August 1945 nationalized most property of religious institutions, including the estates of mosques, monasteries, orders, and dioceses. Many clergy and believers were tried and some were executed. All foreign Roman Catholic priests, monks, and nuns were expelled in 1946.
Religious communities or branches that had their headquarters outside the country, such as the Jesuit and Franciscan orders, were henceforth ordered to terminate their activities in Albania. Religious institutions were forbidden to have anything to do with the education of the young, because that had been made the exclusive province of the state. All religious communities were prohibited from owning real estate and operating philanthropic and welfare institutions and hospitals.
Although there were tactical variations in Enver Hoxha's approach to each of the major denominations, his overarching objective was the eventual destruction of all organized religion in Albania. Between 1945 and 1953, the number of priests was reduced drastically and the number of Roman Catholic churches was decreased from 253 to 100, and all Catholics were stigmatized as fascists.
The campaign against religion peaked in the 1960s. Beginning in February 1967 the Albanian authorities launched a campaign to eliminate religious life in Albania. Despite complaints, even by APL members, all churches, mosques, monasteries, and other religious institutions were either closed down or converted into warehouses, gymnasiums, or workshops by the end of 1967. By May 1967, religious institutions had been forced to relinquish all 2,169 churches, mosques, cloisters, and shrines in Albania, many of which were converted into cultural centers for young people; as the literary monthly Nendori reported the event, the youth had thus "created the first atheist nation in the world."
Clerics were publicly vilified and humiliated, their vestments were taken and desecrated. More than 200 clerics of various faiths were imprisoned, others were forced to seek work in either industry or agriculture, and some were executed or starved to death; the cloister of the Franciscan order in Shkodër was set on fire, which resulted in the death of four elderly monks.
Article 37 of the Albanian Constitution of 1976 stipulated, "The state recognizes no religion, and supports atheistic propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialistic world outlook in people.". The penal code of 1977 imposed prison sentences of three to ten years for "religious propaganda and the production, distribution, or storage of religious literature", which meant that individuals caught with Bibles, Qurans, icons, or other religious objects faced long prison sentences. A new decree that in effect targeted Albanians with Muslim and Christian names, stipulating that citizens whose names did not conform to "the political, ideological, or moral standards of the state" were to change them, it was also decreed that towns and villages with religious names must be renamed. Hoxha's brutal antireligious campaign succeeded in eradicating formal worship, but some Albanians continued to practice their faith clandestinely, risking severe punishment.
Parents were afraid to pass on their faith, for fear that their children would tell others. Officials tried to entrap practicing Christians and Muslims during religious fasts, such as Lent and Ramadan, by distributing dairy products and other forbidden foods in school and at work, and then publicly denouncing those who refused the food; those clergy who conducted secret services were incarcerated. Catholic priest Shtjefen Kurti was executed for secretly baptizing a child in Shkodër in 1972.
The article was interpreted by Danes as violating The United Nations Charter (chapter 9, article 55) which declares that religious freedom is an inalienable human right; the first time that the question came before the United Nations' Commission on Human Rights at Geneva was as late as 7 March 1983. A delegation from Denmark got its protest over Albania's violation of religious liberty placed on the agenda of the thirty-ninth meeting of the commission, item 25, reading, "Implementation of the Declaration on the Elimination of all Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination based on Religion or Belief.", and on 20 July 1984 a member of the Danish Parliament inserted an article into one of Denmark's major newspapers protesting the violation of religious freedom in Albania.
The 1998 Constitution of Albania defined the country as a parliamentary republic, and established personal and political rights and freedoms, including protection against coercion in matters of religious belief. Albania is a member state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the 2011 census found that 58.79% of Albanians adhere to Islam, making it the largest religion in the country. The majority of Albanian Muslims are secular Sunnis along with a significant Bektashi Shia minority. Christianity is practiced by 16.99% of the population, making it the 2nd largest religion in the country. The remaining population is either irreligious or belongs to other religious groups. In 2011, Albania's population was estimated to be 56.7% Muslim, 10% Roman Catholic, 6.8% Orthodox, 2.5% atheist, 2.1% Bektashi (a Sufi order), 5.7% other, 16.2% unspecified Today, Gallup Global Reports 2010 shows that religion plays a role in the lives of 39% of Albanians, and Albania is ranked the thirteenth least religious country in the world.[not in citation given] The U.S. state department reports that in 2013, "There were no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious affiliation, belief, or practice."
Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge
The Khmer Rouge actively persecuted Buddhists during their reign from 1975 to 1979. Buddhist institutions and temples were destroyed and Buddhist monks and teachers were killed in large numbers. A third of the nation's monasteries were destroyed along with numerous holy texts and items of high artistic quality. 25,000 Buddhist monks were massacred by the regime, which was officially an atheist state. The persecution was undertaken because Pol Pot believed that Buddhism was "a decadent affectation", he sought to eliminate Buddhism's 1,500-year-old mark on Cambodia.
Under the Khmer Rouge, all religious practices were banned. According to Ben Kiernan, "the Khmer Rouge repressed Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism, but its fiercest extermination campaign was directed against the ethnic Cham Muslim minority."
China has adopted a policy of official state atheism. Art. 36 of the Chinese constitution guarantees freedom of religion but limits the right to practice religion to state sanctioned organisations. The government has promoted atheism throughout the country. In April 2016, the General Secretary, Xi Jinping, stated that members of the Communist Party of China must be "unyielding Marxist atheists" while in the same month, a government-sanctioned demolition work crew drove a bulldozer over two Chinese Christians who protested the demolition of their church by refusing to step aside.
Traditionally, a large segment of the Chinese population took part in Chinese folk religions and Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism had played a significant role in the everyday lives of ordinary people. After the 1949 Chinese Revolution, China began a period of rule by the Communist Party of China. For much of its early history, that government maintained under Marxist thought that religion would ultimately disappear, and characterized it as emblematic of feudalism and foreign colonialism.
During the Cultural Revolution, student vigilantes known as Red Guards converted religious buildings for secular use or destroyed them; this attitude, however, relaxed considerably in the late 1970s, with the reform and opening up period. The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China guaranteed freedom of religion with a number of restrictions. Since then, there has been a massive program to rebuild Buddhist and Taoist temples that were destroyed in the Cultural Revolution.
The Communist Party has said that religious belief and membership are incompatible. However, the state is not allowed to force ordinary citizens to become atheists. China's five officially sanctioned religious organizations are the Buddhist Association of China, Chinese Taoist Association, Islamic Association of China, Three-Self Patriotic Movement and Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association; these groups are afforded a degree of protection, but are subject to restrictions and controls under the State Administration for Religious Affairs. Unregistered religious groups face varying degrees of harassment; the constitution permits what is called "normal religious activities," so long as they do not involve the use of religion to "engage in activities that disrupt social order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state. Religious organizations and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign dominance."
Article 36 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982 specifies that:
Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of religious belief. No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion; the state protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state. Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination.
Most people report no organized religious affiliation; however, people with a belief in folk traditions and spiritual beliefs, such as ancestor veneration and feng shui, along with informal ties to local temples and unofficial house churches number in the hundreds of millions; the United States Department of State, in its annual report on International Religious Freedom, provides statistics about organized religions. In 2007 it reported the following (citing the Government's 1997 report on Religious Freedom and 2005 White Paper on religion):
- Buddhists 8%.
- Taoists, unknown as a percentage partly because it is fused along with Confucianism and Buddhism.
- Muslims, 1%, with more than 20,000 Imams. Other estimates state at least 1%.
- Christians, Protestants at least 2%. Catholics, about 1%.
Statistics relating to Buddhism and religious Taoism are to some degree incomparable with statistics for Islam and Christianity; this is due to the traditional Chinese belief system which blends Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, so that a person who follows a traditional belief system would not necessarily identify him- or herself as exclusively Buddhist or Taoist, despite attending Buddhist or Taoist places of worship. According to Peter Ng, Professor of the Department of Religion at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, as of 2002[update], 95% of Chinese were religious in some way if religion is considered to include traditional folk practices such as burning incense for gods or ancestors at life-cycle or seasonal festivals, fortune telling and related customary practices.
The U.S. State Department has designated China as a "country of particular concern" since 1999, in part, due to the scenario of Uighur Muslims and Tibetan Buddhists. Freedom House classifies Tibet and Xinjiang as regions of particular repression of religion, due to concerns of separatist activity. Heiner Bielefeldt, the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief says that China's actions against the Uighurs are "a major problem"; the Chinese government has protested the report, saying the country has "ample" religious freedom.
In August 1960, several bishops signed a joint pastoral letter condemning communism and declaring it incompatible with Catholicism, and calling on Catholics to reject it. Fidel Castro gave a four-hour long speech the next day, condemning priests who serve "great wealth" and using fears of Falangist influence in order to attack Spanish born priests, declaring "There is no doubt that Franco has a sizeable group of fascist priests in Cuba."
Originally more tolerant of religion, the Cuban government began arresting many believers and shutting down religious schools after the Bay of Pigs invasion, its prisons were being filled with clergy since the 1960s. In 1961 The Cuban government confiscated Catholic schools, including the Jesuit school that Fidel Castro had attended. In 1965 it exiled two hundred priests.
In 1976 the Constitution of Cuba added a clause stating that the "socialist state...bases its activity on, and educates the people in, the scientific materialist concept of the universe". In 1992, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union led the country to declare itself a secular state. Pope John Paul II contributed to the Cuban thaw when he paid a historic visit to the island in 1998 and criticized the US embargo. Pope Benedict XVI visited Cuba in 2012 and Pope Francis visited Cuba in 2015; the Cuban government continued hostile actions against religious groups; in 2015 alone, the Castro régime ordered the closure or demolition of over 100 Pentecostal, Methodist, and Baptist parishes.
Though Article 39 of the GDR constitution of 1968 guarantees religious freedom, state policy was oriented towards the promotion of atheism. Eastern Germany practiced heavy secularization; the German Democratic Republic (GDR) generated antireligous regulations and promoted atheism for decades which impacted the growth of citizens affiliating with no religion from 7.6% in 1950 to 60% in 1986. It was in the 1950s that scientific atheism became official state policy when Soviet authorities were setting up a communist government; as of 2012[update] the area of the former German Democratic Republic was the least religious region in the world.
Although the North Korean constitution states that freedom of religion is permitted free religious activities do not exist in North Korea, because the government sponsors religious groups only to create an illusion of religious freedom; the North Korean government's Juche ideology has been described as "state-sanctioned atheism" and atheism is the government's official position. After 1,500 churches were destroyed during the rule of Kim Il Sung from 1948 to 1994, three churches were built in Pyongyang to deflect human rights criticism.
The North Korean government promotes the cult of personality of Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung, described as a political religion, as well as the Juche ideology, based on Korean ultranationalism, which calls on people to "avoid spiritual deference to outside influences", which was interpreted as including religion originating outside of Korea.
North Korea has been designated a "country of particular concern" by the U.S. State Department since 2001 due to its religious freedom violations. Cardinal Nicolas Cheong Jin-suk has said that, "There's no knowledge of priests surviving persecution that came in the late forties, when 166 priests and religious were killed or kidnapped," which includes the Roman Catholic bishop of Pyongyang, Francis Hong Yong-ho. In November 2013, the repression against religious people led to the public execution of 80 people, some of them for possessing Bibles.
The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) propagated atheism until the 1960s. In the Mongolian People's Republic, after it was invaded by Japanese troops in 1936, the Soviet Union deployed its troops there in 1937, undertaking an offensive against the Buddhist religion. Parallel with this, a Soviet-style purge was launched in the People's Revolutionary Party and the Mongolian army; the Mongol leader at that time was Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a follower of Joseph Stalin, who emulated many of the policies that Stalin had previously implemented in the Soviet Union. The purge virtually succeeded in eliminating Lamaism and cost an estimated thirty to thirty-five thousand lives.
Officially, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is an atheist state as declared by its communist government. Art. 24 of the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam recognizes religious freedom.
Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, and 130 of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as originally enacted were anticlerical and restricted religious freedoms. At first the anticlerical provisions were seldom enforced, but when President Plutarco Elías Calles took office in 1924, he enforced the provisions strictly. Calles' Mexico has been characterized as an atheist state and his program as being one to eradicate religion in Mexico.
All religions had their properties expropriated, and these became part of government wealth. There was an expulsion of foreign clergy and the seizure of Church properties. Article 27 prohibited any future acquisition of such property by the churches, and prohibited religious corporations and ministers from establishing or directing primary schools; this second prohibition was sometimes interpreted to mean that the Church could not give religious instruction to children within the churches on Sundays, seen as destroying the ability of Catholics to be educated in their own religion.
The Constitution of 1917 also forbade the existence of monastic orders (article 5) and any religious activity outside of church buildings (now owned by the government), and mandated that such religious activity would be overseen by the government (article 24).
On June 14, 1926, President Calles enacted anticlerical legislation known formally as The Law Reforming the Penal Code and unofficially as the Calles Law, his anti-Catholic actions included outlawing religious orders, depriving the Church of property rights and depriving the clergy of civil liberties, including their right to a trial by jury (in cases involving anti-clerical laws) and the right to vote. Catholic antipathy towards Calles was enhanced because of his vocal atheism, he was also a Freemason. Regarding this period, recent President Vicente Fox stated: "After 1917, Mexico was led by anti-Catholic Freemasons who tried to evoke the anticlerical spirit of popular indigenous President Benito Juárez of the 1880s, but the military dictators of the 1920s were a more savage lot than Juarez."
Due to the strict enforcement of anti-clerical laws, people in strongly Catholic states, especially Jalisco, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Colima and Michoacán, began to oppose him, and this opposition led to the Cristero War from 1926 to 1929, which was characterized by brutal atrocities on both sides; some Cristeros applied terrorist tactics, while the Mexican government persecuted the clergy, killing suspected Cristeros and supporters and often retaliating against innocent individuals. On May 28, 1926, Calles was awarded a medal of merit from the head of Mexico's Scottish rite of Freemasonry for his actions against the Catholics.
A truce was negotiated with the assistance of U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow. Calles, however, did not abide by the terms of the truce – in violation of its terms, he had approximately 500 Cristero leaders and 5,000 other Cristeros shot, frequently in their homes in front of their spouses and children. Particularly offensive to Catholics after the supposed truce was Calles' insistence on a complete state monopoly on education, suppressing all Catholic education and introducing "socialist" education in its place: "We must enter and take possession of the mind of childhood, the mind of youth.". The persecution continued as Calles maintained control under his Maximato and did not relent until 1940, when President Manuel Ávila Camacho, a believing Catholic, took office; this attempt to indoctrinate the youth in atheism was begun in 1934 by amending Article 3 to the Mexican Constitution to eradicate religion by mandating "socialist education", which "in addition to removing all religious doctrine" would "combat fanaticism and prejudices", "build[ing] in the youth a rational and exact concept of the universe and of social life". In 1946 this "socialist education" was removed from the constitution and the document returned to the less egregious generalized secular education; the effects of the war on the Church were profound. Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed. Where there were 4,500 priests operating within the country before the rebellion, in 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government to serve fifteen million people, the rest having been eliminated by emigration, expulsion, and assassination. By 1935, 17 states had no priest at all.
Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is designed to protect freedom of thought, conscience, and religion. In 1993, the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief." The committee further stated that "the freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief necessarily entails the freedom to choose a religion or belief, including the right to replace one's current religion or belief with another or to adopt atheistic views." Signatories to the convention are barred from "the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non-believers" to recant their beliefs or convert. Despite this, as of 2009[update] minority religions were still being persecuted in many parts of the world.
Theodore Roosevelt condemned the Kishinev pogrom in 1903, establishing a history of U.S. presidents commenting on the internal religious liberty of foreign countries. In Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union address, he outlined Four Freedoms, including Freedom of worship, that would be foundation for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and future U.S. diplomatic efforts. Jimmy Carter asked Deng Xiaoping to improve religious freedom in China, and Ronald Reagan told US Embassy staff in Moscow to help Jews harassed by the Soviet authorities. Bill Clinton established the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom with the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, in order to use diplomacy to promote religious liberty in repressive states. Countries like Albania had anti-religious policies, while also promoting atheism, that impacted their religious rights.
- Civil religion
- Communism and religion
- Freedom of religion
- Reign of Terror
- Religion in Albania
- Religion in China
- Religion in Cuba
- Religion in East Germany
- Religion in Mongolia
- Religion in North Korea
- Religion in the Soviet Union
- Religion in Vietnam
- Religious persecution
- Religion of Humanity
- Religion in Russia
- Militant atheism
- Society of the Godless
- Staatssekretär für Kirchenfragen
- State religion
- War in the Vendée
- Stanton 2012, p. 32, Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia
- Hall 1999, (subscription required) - Representations of Place: Albania: "the perception that religion symbolized foreign (Italian, Greek and Turkish) predation was used to justify the communists' stance of state atheism (1967-1991)."
- Marques de Morais 2014, Religion and the State in Angola
- Kowalewski 1980, pp. 426–441, (subscription required) - Protest for Religious Rights in the USSR: Characteristics and Consequences
- Clarke 2009, p. 94, Crude Continent: The Struggle for Africa's Oil Prize
- Avramović 2007, p. 599, Understanding Secularism in a Post-Communist State: Case of Serbia
- Kideckel & Halpern 2000, p. 165, Neighbors at War: Anthropological Perspectives on Yugoslav Ethnicity, Culture, and History
- Kalkandjieva 2015, The encounter between the religious and the secular in post-atheist Bulgaria
- Wessinger 2000, p. 282, Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases: "Democratic Kampuchea was officially an atheist state, and the persecution of religion by the Khmer Rouge was matched in severity only by the persecution of religion in the communist states of Albania and North Korea, so there were not any direct historical continuities of Buddhism into the Democratic Kampuchea era."
- deccanherald.com 2011, No religion for Chinese Communist Party cadres
- Clark & Decalo 2012, Historical Dictionary of Republic of the Congo -[page needed]
- Mallin 1994, Covering Castro: Rise and Decline of Cuba's Communist Dictator -[page needed]
- Ramet 1998, p. 125, Nihil Obstat: Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia
- Kellner 2014, 25 years after Berlin Wall's fall, faith still fragile in former East Germany: "During the decades of state-sponsored atheism in East Germany, more formally known as the German Democratic Republic, the great emphasis was on avoiding religion."
- Doulos 1986, p. 140, Christians in Marxist Ethiopia
- Zuckerman 2009, Atheism and Secularity. -[page needed]
- Stiller 2013, Laos: A Nation With Religious Contradictions
- Haas 1997, p. 231, Nationalism, Liberalism, and Progress: The dismal fate of new nations: "Yet the revolutionary leaders managed to score progress toward making the country a rationalized nation-state, as shown in table 5-3. Revolts continued to plague Mexico, some due to continuing rivalries among the leaders; the bloody Cristero Revolt (1926-29), however, was fought by devout peasants against an atheist state."
- Sanders 2003, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia -[page needed]
- Van den Bergh-Collier 2007, p. 180, Towards Gender Equality in Mozambique
- Temperman 2010, pp. 141–145, State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law : Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance
- Walaszek 1986, pp. 118–134, (subscription required) - An Open Issue of Legitimacy: The State and the Church in Poland
- Leustean 2009, p. 92, Orthodoxy and the Cold War: Religion and Political Power in Romania: "was to transform Romania into a communist atheist society."
- Dodd 2003, p. 571, The rough guide to Vietnam: "After 1975, the Marxist-Leninist government of reunified Vietnam declared the state atheist while theoretically allowing people the right to practice their religion under the constitution."
- Campbell 2015, Yemen: The Tribal Islamists
- Supporting sources listed as of January 22, 2018 for the world map showing nations that formerly or currently practice state atheism: Afghanistan;Albania; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Benin; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cambodia; China; Croatia; Congo; Cuba; Czechia; East Germany; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Mozambique; North Korea; Poland; Romania; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Vietnam; Yemen, or more specifically, South Yemen
- Bullivant & Lee 2016, p. 74, A Dictionary of Atheism: "State Atheism is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems. State Atheisms have tended to be as much anti-clerical and anti-religious as they are anti-theist, and typically place heavy restrictions on acts of religious organization and the practice of religion. State Atheist regimes are sometimes seen as examples of political secularism because they entail a nonreligious form of government; these regimes are even sometimes described as 'radically secularist'. However, where political secularism is understood as political neutrality towards religion or religions, or even political neutrality towards any worldview or existential culture including not only theist but also atheist examples, State Atheism is considered non-secular."
- Bullivant & Ruse 2015, pp. 461–462, The Oxford handbook of atheism: "As we look elsewhere around the world, the dynamics of secularization and religionization are even more complex. The largest-scale experiments in secularization — state atheisms — have had mixed outcomes. In the former Soviet Union, as in China, Communist 'scientific: 'militant', or 'practical' atheism has unquestionably had some secularizing effect overall, but the story—or history—does not end there. As the former Soviet countries illustrate, long-term effects of the experiment are uneven, it took hold more profoundly in, for example, eastern Germany or the Czech Republic than in Poland. Armenia, Lithuania, Azerbaijan, or Uzbekistan, among others (Froese 2004; see Irena Borowik, Branko Ana& and Radoslaw Tyrala's 'Central and Eastern Europe)."
- Madeley 2009, p. 183: "In Eastern Europe the end of the world war produced radically different outcomes as Soviet-installed regimes introduced strict controls on the churches and other religious bodies and the state atheism which had been pioneered in Russia after the Bolshevik takeover in 1917 was imposed. ... By 1970 however, as Table 12.1 indicates, all 22 countries of Central and Eastern Europe which lay behind the Iron Curtain could be designated Atheistic de jure, committed in Barrett's terms to 'formally promoting irreligion'. This meant typically that while the state was ostensibly separated from all religions and churches, it was also 'linked for ideological reasons with irreligion and opposed on principle to all religion', claiming the right 'to oppose religion by discrimination, obstruction or even suppression' (Barrett 1982: 96). Separation in these states meant exclusion from public life and the cutting-off of most of the resources required for religion to flourish; it emphatically did not mean that the state was debarred from interfering in the field of religious provision — rather that, as in Turkey, the state and its organs should exert maximum control and surveillance."
- Temperman 2010, pp. 140–141, State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law : Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance: "Before the end of the Cold War, many Communist States did not shy away from being openly hostile to religion. In most instances, communist ideology translated unperturbedly into state atheism, which, in turn, triggered measures aimed at the eradication of religion; as much was acknowledged by some Communist Constitutions. The 1976 Constitution of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, for instance, was firmly based on a Marxist dismissal of religion as the opiate of the masses, it provided: "The state recognizes no religion of any kind and supports and develops the atheist view so as to ingrain in to the people the scientific and materialistic world-view."
- Franken & Loobuyck 2011, p. 152, Religious Education in a Plural, Secularised Society. A Paradigm Shift: "In this model, atheism is a state doctrine. Instead, it is regarded as an official state policy, aiming to eradicate all sympathy for religious ideas, and the idea that God exists in particular; the adherents of political atheism make a plea for an atheist state that has to foster atheist convictions in its citizenry."
- Maddox 1998, p. 99
- Eller 2014, p. 254, Introducing Anthropology of Religion: Culture to the Ultimate.: "After the communist revolution of 1949, the People's Republic of China adopted a policy of official state atheism. Based on Marxist thinking that religion is class exploitation and false consciousness, the communist regime suppressed religion, "re-educated" believers and religious leaders, and destroyed religious buildings or converted them to non-religious uses."
- Bullivant & Ruse 2015, p. 626, The Oxford handbook of atheism: "There have been only a few comparative analyses of atheism carried out in the CEE region. One of the few attempts of this kind is that undertaken by Sinita Zrinkak (see 2004). Comparing different types of generational responses to atheism in several CEE countries, on the basis of studies carried out in these countries and based on data from the EVS, he distinguishes three groups of countries in the region; the first group comprises countries in which state atheism had the most severe consequences... This group includes such countries as Estonia, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Bulgaria."
- Hertzke 2006, p. 43, Freeing God's Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights: "Cuba is the only country in the Americas that has attempted to impose state atheism, and since the 1960s onward its jails have been filled with pastors and other believers."
- Hertzke 2006, p. 44, Freeing God's Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights: "The North Korea government not only imposed state-sanctioned atheism, it also mandated a totalitarian personality worship of Kim II Sung and Kim Jong II. This meant that the regime combined traditional Communist persecution of religion with a state-mandated faith we associate with Iranian mullahs or the Taliban, thus "enemies of the state" are also treated as heretics."
- O'Brien 1993, p. 108, The state of religion atlas: "Atheism continues to be the official position of the governments of China, North Korea and Cuba."
- Temperman 2010, p. 140, State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law : Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance: "Although the historical underlying incentives that accompanied the establishment of a secular state may have been characterized by criticism of certain religious doctrines or practices, presently a state of secularity in itself does not necessarily reflect value judgements about religion. In other words, state secularism does not come down to an official rejection of religion. State secularism denotes an intention on the part of the state to not affiliate itself with religion, to not consider itself a priori bound by religious principles (unless they are reformulated into secular state laws) and to not seek to justify its actions by invoking religion; such a state of secularity denotes official impartiality in matters of religion rather than official irreligiosity. By contrast, secularism as a philosophical notion can indeed be construed as an ideological defense of the secular cause, which might include criticism of or scepticism towards religion. Thus, states that are 'ideologically secular' and that declare secular world-views the official state doctrine give evidence, explicitly or by implication, of judgements about the value of religion within society. Most versions of state communism, for instance, embrace Marxist criticism of religion."
- Madeley 2003, pp. 1–22, (subscription required) - European Liberal Democracy and the Principle of State Religious Neutrality: "As Table 2 indicates along its horizontal dimension, according to the attributions based on these criteria, in 1980, out of 35 European territories listed, only five could be coded as secular in the sense that the ‘State is secular, promoting neither religion nor irreligion’ and nine were deemed Atheistic. On the other hand, 21 states or governments were found to be committed in one way or another to the support of religion and/or religious institutions."
- Raines 2002, pp. 5–6, Marx on Religion
- Thrower 1983, Marxist-Leninist "Scientific Atheism" and the Study of Religion and Atheism in the USSR: "As an integral part of the Marxist–Leninist world-view, ‘scientific atheism’ is grounded in the view of the world and of Man enshrined in dialectical [materialism] and historical materialism: The study of scientific atheism brings to light an integral part of the Marxist–Leninist world-view. Being a philosophical science, scientific atheism emanates from the basic tenets of dialectical and historical materialism, both in explaining the origin of religion, and its scientific criticism of [religion]. (ibid., p. 272.)"
- Lenin 1996, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin - The Attitude of the Workers’ Party to Religion
- Lobkowicz 1964, p. 319, - (subscription required) Karl Marx's Attitude toward Religion: "Marx, of course, was an atheist."
- Britannica Lenin, Vladimir Lenin: "When he was 16, nothing in Lenin indicated a future rebel, still less a professional revolutionary—except, perhaps, his turn to atheism."
- Adam & Stewart 1878, p. 577, Canadian Monthly and National Review:Communism
- Baggini 2003, Atheism: A Very Short Introduction -[page needed]
- Kowalewski 1980, p. 426, Protest for Religious Rights in the USSR: Characteristics and Consequences: "The Soviet policy of state atheism (gosateizm), albeit inconsistently applied, remains a major goal of official ideology. Massive state resources have been expended not only to prevent the implanting of religious belief in nonbelievers but also to eradicate "prerevolutionary remnants" already existing; the regime is not merely passively committed to a godless polity but takes an aggressive stance of official forced atheization. Thus a major task of the police apparatus is the persecution of forms of religious practice. Not surprisingly, the Committee for State Security (KGB) is reported to have a division dealing specifically with "churchmen and sectarians."
- Epstein, Genis & Vladiv-Glover 2016, p. 379, Russian Postmodernism : New Perspectives on Post-Soviet Culture: "The seven decades of Soviet atheism, whether one calls it "mass atheism," "scientific atheism," "state atheism," was unquestionably a new phenomenon in world history."
- Froese 2004, p. 35, (subscription required) - Forced Secularization in Soviet Russia: Why an Atheistic Monopoly Failed: "Atheists waged a 70-year war on religious belief in the Soviet Union. The Communist Party destroyed churches, mosques, and temples; it executed religious leaders; it flooded the schools and media with anti-religious propaganda; and it introduced a belief system called "scientific atheism," complete with atheist rituals, proselytizers, and a promise of worldly salvation."
- Congress Library AR, Anti-religious Campaigns
- Fitzpatrick 1996, p. 33, Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization
- countrystudies.com, Russia - The Russian Orthodox Church
- Overy 2004, p. 271, Dictators : Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia (page cited inaccessible)
- Peris 1998, p. 2, Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless
- Peris 1998, p. 2, Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless: "The League's Central Council in Moscow published its own newspaper, Bezbozhnik (The Godless), several other Russian-language journals, and propaganda materials in many other languages of the Soviet Union. Antireligious pamphlets and posters were printed in large numbers; the League's far-flung network of cells and councils sponsored lectures, organized demonstrations, and actively propagandized against religious observance. Leading Bolshevik figures gave speeches at the League's national congress in 1929, at which the League officially became "Militant." The Communist Party, the Komsomol, the trade unions, the Red Army, and Soviet schools all conducted antireligious propaganda, but the League was the organizational centerpiece of this effort to bring atheism to the masses."
- Time magazine 1931, Staggerers Unstaggered
- Mandelstam Balzer 2009, pp. 6–7, Religion and Politics in Russia: A Reader
- Atwood 2001, p. 311: "The Soviets moved quickly against the Russian Orthodox Church in 1918. Most church lands became the property of the state, but the state refused to pay the salaries of the clergy. Education was taken out of the church's hands, and the state legally recognized only civil marriages. Many church leaders responded by supporting the anti-revolutionaries and tsarists. Thousands of priests and monks perished in the civil war and subsequent repression. In 1929, Stalin instituted harsher measures against religion; the state strictly controlled the publication of religious books, including the Bible. Confirmed Christians could not teach in schools or join the Communist party; the erection of new church buildings was forbidden and many former church buildings were desecrated or used to promote anti-Christian propaganda. For slightly more than a decade, the week officially contained only six days because the Christian Sabbath had been simply removed, it should be noted that the Stalinist campaign against religion was directed against Jews and Muslims as well, particularly in the southern Soviet republics. As many as ninety percent of the churches, mosques, and synagogues that had been in existence in 1917 had been forcibly closed, converted, or destroyed by 1940."
- Daniel 1995, (subscription required) - Journal of Church and State Journal - Religious Policy in the Soviet Union
- Anderson 1994, p. 4, Religion, state and politics in the Soviet Union and successor states
- US state - Kazakhstan 2012, International Religious Freedom Report 2009 – Kazakhstan
- US state: Uzbekistan 2010, Background Note: Uzbekistan
- CIA: Turkmenistan, The World Factbook: Turkmenistan
- US state: Kyrgyzstan 2001, International Religious Freedom Report – Kyrgyzstan
- US state: Tajikistan, Background Note: Tajikistan (03/09)
- nationmaster.com: Belarus, Belarus Religion Facts & Stats
- CIA: Belarus, The World Factbook: Belarus
- nationmaster.com: Moldova, Moldova Religion Facts & Stats
- nationmaster.com: Georgia, Georgia Religion Facts & Stats
- Miller 2009, A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population
- Nielsen 2018, pp. 77–78, Christianity After Communism: Social, Political, And Cultural Struggle In Russia
- Page 2005, (subscription required) - The rise of Russian Muslims worries Orthodox Church -
- US_State_Russia, Department of State - Russia
- Cole 2008, Christian Post: Gorbachev Dispels 'Closet Christian' Rumors; Says He is Atheist
- religare.ru 2007, Опубликована подробная сравнительная статистика религиозности в России и Польше
- nationmaster.com: Ukraine, Population by Religious Confession, census
- Olsen 2007, p. 148, Sacred Places Europe: 108 Destinations
- Statistics Lithuania, Population by Religious Confession, census
- Tonnes 2008, p. 6, Albania: An Atheist State (subscription required): "The struggle against religion in its current, incomparably harsher phase, was inaugurated by Enver Hoxha in his speech of 6 February 1967. He declared Albania to be the "first atheist state of the world". All 2,169 religious establishments (including the 268 Catholic churches) were demolished or closed."
- country-data.com & Hoxha, - Hoxha's Antireligious Campaign
- country-data.com & Albania, - Albania - The Cultural and Ideological Revolution
- bjoerna & Albania, The Albanian Constitution of 1976
- Sinishta 1976, The fulfilled promise : a documentary account of religious persecution in Albania -[page needed]
- uscirf 2012, U.S. Commission On International Religious Freedom
- US-State_Albania 2013, Albania 2013 International Religious Freedom Report
- instat 2011, archived page (in Albanian)
- CIA: Albania 2013, The World Factbook: Albania
- Gallup 2013, archived page
- Yale-Cambodia 2004, Chronology, 1994-2004 - Cambodian Genocide Program - Yale University
- StPetersburg Cambodia 2015, Nie: Remembering the deaths of 1.7-million Cambodians
- Shenon 1992, (subscription required) - Phnom Penh Journal; Lord Buddha Returns, With Artists His Soldiers
- britannica.com: Khmer Rouge 2019, Cambodia - Religion: "Under the Khmer Rouge, all religious practices were forbidden."
- Gellately & Kiernan 2006, p. 30, The specter of genocide : mass murder in historical perspective:"Pol Pot's Cambodia perpetrated genocide against several ethnic groups, systematically dispersed national minorities by force, and forbade the use of minority and foreign languages. It also banned the practice of religion; the Khmer Rouge repressed Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism, but its fiercest extermination campaign was directed at the ethnic Cham Muslim minority."
- Wielander 2013, p. 1, Christian Values in Communist China.: "The PRC is offically an atheist state well known for its persecution and destruction of religion and its material manifestations sduring the Cultural Revolution."
- BBC: China 1999, China announces "civilizing" atheism drive in Tibet
- Campbell 2016, China's Leader Xi Jinping Reminds Party Members to Be 'Unyielding Marxist Atheists'
- Xiong 2013, Freedom of religion in China under the current legal framework and foreign religious bodies
- Sharma 2011, p. 201, Problematizing Religious Freedom
- Chen 1965, (subscription required) - Chinese Communist Attitudes Towards Buddhism in Chinese History: "In the journal Hsien-tai Fo-hsueh (Modern Buddhism), September 1959, there appeared a long article entitled "Lun Tsung-chiao Hsin-yang Tzu-yu" ("A Discussion Concerning Freedom of Religious Belief"), by Ya Han-chang, which was originally published in the official Communist ideological journal Hung Ch'i (Red Flag), 1959, No. 14. Appearing as it did in Red Flag it is justifiable to conclude that the views expressed in it represented the accepted Communist attitude toward religion. In this article, Ya wrote that the basic policy of the Chinese Communist Party and the People's Republic of China is to "recognise that everyone has the freedom to believe in a religion, and also that everyone has the freedom not to believe in a religion."
- Welch & Holmes 1973, p. 393, The practice of Chinese Buddhism, 1900-1950
- Xie 2006, p. 145, (page cited inaccessible) Religious Diversity and Public Religion in China
- Tyler 2004, p. 259, (no preview available) Wild West China: The Taming of Xinjiang
- china-embassy.org 1997, White Paper—Freedom of Religious Belief in China
- people.cn, Constitution of the People's Republic of China
- US state: Rel. Freedom 2007, International Religious Freedom Report 2007 — China
- Madsen 2010, p. 239, Chinese society: change, conflict and resistance
- USCIRF 2012: "The religious freedom situation in Russia is deteriorating and China remains one of the world's most egregious violators of this fundamental right"
- freedomhouse.org 2013, China - Country report - Freedom in the World - 2013
- refworld.org: China 2001, Refworld - Religious Minorities and China
- refworld.org: China Religion 2013, Refworld - 2013 Report on International Religious Freedom - China
- refworld.org: Macau province 2013, Refworld - 2013 Report on International Religious Freedom - China: Macau
- refworld.org: Fujian province, China: Freedom of religious practice and belief in Fujian province
- Wee 2015, U.N. official calls China's crackdown on Uighurs "disturbing"
- Reuters 2015, China lodges protest with U.S. after religious freedom report
- theconversation.com: Cuba 2016, Religion shapes Cuba despite Castro's influence: "Under Castro's rule, Cuba was for decades a self-declared atheist state where Christians were persecuted and marginalized. ... In 1992 the Cuban Constitution was amended to declare it a secular state, it was no longer an atheist Republic."
- Buckley Jr. 2011, Cuba libre? Castro was weakened by the fall of the Soviet Union.
- Simons 1980, p. 114, The Constitutions of the Communist world
- state.gov 2011, CUBA - Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom
- Berkley Center for Religion 2017, CUBA - Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom
- Huffington Post 2014, How Pope John Paul II Paved The Way For The U.S.-Cuba Thaw
- Miroff 2015, Pope Francis arrives in Havana, praising U.S.-Cuba thaw
- Scammell 2015, Castro thanks Pope Francis for brokering thaw between Cuba and US
- The New York Times 2014, Pope Francis Is Credited With a Crucial Role in U.S.-Cuba Agreement
- Los Angeles Times 2014, Pope Francis' role in Cuba stretches back years
- Bandow 2016, The Castros Continue to Shut Churches in Cuba
- Froese & Pfaff 2005, p. 397, (subscription required) Explaining a Religious Anomaly: A Historical Analysis of Secularization in Eastern Germany: "No religion could benefit substantially from the conditions that obtained in the GDR. Antireligious regulations and the official promotion of an exclusive, socialist-inspired atheism devastated religion; the percentage of those without any religious affiliation grew from 7.6 percent of the population in 1950 to more than 60 percent in 1986....Clearly, communist antipathy toward religion and the repression of religious organizations must have played a role in the rapid and dramatic abandonment of religion, but what contribution did atheism make to this development? In the GDR the weakening of the churches and their accommodation to communism was influential, but apparently so was the success of scientific atheism as a competitor to religion."
- Froese & Pfaff 2005, p. 402, (subscription required) Explaining a Religious Anomaly: A Historical Analysis of Secularization in Eastern Germany: "In the late 1950s, the regime announced that scientific atheism had become official policy and any of the approximately 1.5 million party members that remained church members were compelled to renounce religion (Maser 1999)."
- focus.de: E. Germany 2012, Ostdeutschland: Wo der Atheist zu Hause ist (in German): "52 Prozent der Menschen in Ostdeutschland sind laut einer aktuellen Studie Atheisten. Das ist ein globaler Spitzenwert."
- Worldcrunch 2009, WHY EASTERN GERMANY IS THE MOST GODLESS PLACE ON EARTH
- dialoginternational.com 2012, East Germany the "most atheistic" of any region
- Barker 2004, (subscription required) - Church and State: Lessons from Germany? : "The effects of living in an atheist state continue to be seen in younger generations of East Germans."
- wikisource.org: N. Korea, Constitution of North Korea (1972, rev. 1998)
- "uscirf.gov: N. Korea" 2012, Countries of Particular Concern: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- hrw.org 2004, Human Rights in North Korea (DPRK: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea)
- CIA: N. Korea, The World Factbook: North Korea
- uscirf: Kim-Il-Sung 2005, Thank You Father Kim Il Sung
- "uscirf.gov: N.Korea 1" 2010, The Democratic People's Republic of Korea - USCIRF Annual Report
- "uscirf.gov: N.Korea 2" & NKorea, Remarks by USCIRF Chair Katrina Lantos Swett at Conference on Religious Freedom, Violent Religious Extremism, and Constitutional Reform in Muslim-Majority Countries
- 30giorni.it 2007, 30Giorni - Korea, for a reconciliation between North and South (Interview with Cardinal Nicholas Cheong Jinsuk by Gianni Cardinale (in Italian)
- foxnews.com: Cuba 2013, North Korea publicly executes 80, some for videos or Bibles, report says: "North Korea publicly executes 80, some for videos or Bibles, report says"
- Sanders 2003, p. 406, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia: "The MPRP propagated atheism, but in the 1960s, the communist government began low-level support for Lamaism, seeing it as a vehicle for propaganda in Asian Buddhist countries."
- vietnamnews.vn & constitution, The constitution of the socialist republic of Viet Nam
- Fernandez 2002, pp. 435–452, Mexico and the 1981 United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief
- Cronon 1958, (Subscription required.) - American Catholics and Mexican Anticlericalism, 1933-1936
- Mexico-Constitution 1917, link to page
- myheritage.es & blog, The Decline And Fall of the Martin-Del-Campos Part II
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- Tuck 1996, Cristero Rebellion: part 1 - toward the abyss : Mexico History
- Shirk 2005, Mexico's New Politics
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- Quesada & Allyn 2007, p. 17, Revolution of Hope: The Life, Faith, and Dreams of a Mexican President
- Enc. Colombia & Calles, Plutarco Elias Calles
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- Van Hove 1996, Blood-Drenched Altars
- Scheina 2003, p. 33, Latin America's Wars Volume II: The Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900-2001
- Ruiz 1992, p. 392, Triumphs and Tragedy: A History of the Mexican People
- minorityrights.org 1993, CCPR General Comment 22: 30/07/93 on ICCPR Article 18
- fdih.org 2003, Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran
- Davis 2002, The Evolution of Religious Liberty as a Universal Human Right
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