SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

State highway

A state highway, state road, or state route is a road, either numbered or maintained by a sub-national state or province. A road numbered by a state or province falls below numbered national highways in the hierarchy. Roads maintained by a state or province include both nationally numbered highways and un-numbered state highways. Depending on the state, "state highway" may be used for one meaning and "state road" or "state route" for the other. In some countries such as New Zealand, the word "state" is used in its sense of a sovereign state or country. By this meaning a state highway is a road maintained and numbered by the national government rather than local authorities. Australia's State Route system covers urban and inter-regional routes that are not included in the National Route or the National Highway systems; these routes are marked with a blue shield. Sometimes a state route may be formed. Most states and territories have introduced an alphanumeric route numbering system, either or replacing the previous systems.

Brazil is another country, divided into states and has state highways. Canada is divided into provinces and territories, each of which maintains its own system of provincial or territorial highways, which form the majority of the country's highway network. There is the national transcontinental Trans-Canada Highway system, marked by distinct signs, but has no uniform numeric designation across the country. In the eastern provinces, for instance, an unnumbered Trans-Canada route marker is co-signed with a numbered provincial sign, with the provincial route continuing alone outside the Trans-Canada Highway section. However, in the western provinces, the two parallel Trans-Canada routes are numbered with Trans-Canada route markers. Canada has a designated National Highway System, but the system is unsigned, aside from the Trans-Canada routes; this makes Canada unique in that national highway designations are secondary to subnational routes. In Germany, state roads are a road class, ranking below the federal road network.

The responsibility for road planning and maintenance is vested in the federal states of Germany. Most federal states use the term Landesstraße, while for historical reasons Saxony and Bavaria use the term Staatsstraße; the appearance of the shields differs from state to state. The term Lande-s-straße should not be confused with Landstraße, which describes every road outside built-up areas and is not a road class. Italy's Strade Statali extend for some 18,000 km, overseen by the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade founded in 1946, replacing the A. A. S. S. of 1928. State highways in India are numbered highways that are maintained by state governments. Mexico's State Highway System is a system of urban and state routes constructed and maintained by each Mexican state; the main purpose of the state networks is to serve as a feeder system to the federal highway system. All states except the Federal District operate a road network; each state marks these routes with a white shield containing the abbreviated name of the state plus the route number.

New Zealand state highways are national highways – the word "state" in this sense means "government" or "public", not a division of a country. New Zealand's state highway system is a nationwide network of roads covering the North Island and the South Island; as of 2006, just under 100 roads have a "State Highway" designation. The NZ Transport Agency administers them; the speed limit for most state highways is 100 km/h, with reductions when one passes through a densely populated area. The highways in New Zealand were designated on a two-tier system and provincial, with national highways having a higher standard and funding priorities. Now all of them are state highways, the network consists of SH 1 running the length of both main islands, SH 2–5 and 10–58 in the North Island, SH 6–8 and 60–99 in the South Island. National and provincial highways are numbered north to south. State Highway 1 runs the length of both islands. Local highways are the next important roads under the National highways; the number has three, or four dights.

Highways with two-digit numbers routes are called State-funded local highways. State highways are a mixture of primary and secondary roads, although some are freeways; each state has its own system for its own marker. The default marker is a white circle containing a black sans serif number, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices; however each state is free to choose a different marker, most states have. States may choose a design theme relevant to its state to distinguish state route markers from interstate, county, or municipal route markers. List of longest state highways in the United States List of numbered highways in the United States Interstate Highway System, U. S. Highway System Mi

Battle off Noordhinder Bank

The Battle off Noordhinder Bank on 1 May 1915 was a naval action between a squadron of four British naval trawlers supported by a flotilla of four destroyers and a pair of German torpedo boats from the Flanders Flotilla. The battle began when the two torpedo boats were sent on a search and rescue mission and ran into a British patrol; the Germans fought with the patrolling trawlers until a heavier force of British destroyers from Harwich Force came to their aid and sank the German vessels. The battle demoralized the German flotilla at Flanders, as the boats that were sunk had just been launched shortly before the battle; the action off Noordhinder Bank helped bring to the attention of the German high command that the Flanders Flotilla was inadequately armed to protect the coast it was assigned to defend, let alone harass British shipping in the English Channel. After similar defeats, the small torpedo boats such as those used off Noordhinder Bank were relegated to coastal patrol and heavier units were transferred to the balance of power in the channel.

After the 7th Torpedo Boat Half Flotilla was lost during the Battle off Texel, German naval authorities were reluctant to commit any further forces for offensive operations off the coast of Flanders. Despite this, the commander of Marine Corps Flanders—Admiral Ludwig von Schröder—kept pressure on the German naval command for a transfer of a force of submarines and torpedo boats to his command. After several months, the Kaiserliche Marine relented and decided to send him a force of light torpedo boats and submarines. Although these forces were inferior in armament and displacement to those he had requested, Admiral Schroeder put his new ships to use as soon as he received them, he formed the Flanders Torpedo Boat Flotilla made up of 15 "A"-class torpedo boats under the command of Korvettenkapitän Hermann Schoemann. Three days on 1 May 1915, two German seaplanes reported a squadron of four trawlers off Noordhinder Bank. One of the seaplanes was forced to make an emergency landing and Schoeman was dispatched with boats SMS A2 and A6 to rescue the seaplane's crew and destroy the trawlers.

While patrolling off the Galloper lightship near Goodwin Sands, HMS Recruit was sunk by the German submarine UB-6. Brazen, Recruit's consort as well as the four trawlers the German seaplanes had spotted, began searching for Recruit's attacker. A2 and A6 caught the trawlers off the Noordhinder Bank at 15:00; the trawlers Columbia, Barbados and Miura were under the command of Lieutenant Sir James Domville on Barbados. Armed with a 3-pounder gun each, the trawlers were out-gunned by the German torpedo boats, which were both armed with two torpedo tubes as well as a 4-pounder gun; as soon as the trawlers were spotted by Schoeman's boats, they were engaged. Rather than flee, Domville tried to fight his way out. A2 and A6 both made torpedo runs against the trawlers but of the four torpedoes launched, only one hit its target, sinking Columbia and killing Domville. Barbados rammed A6. Before withdrawing, the Germans managed to rescue a lieutenant and two deckhands from Columbia making them prisoners of war.

The trawlers had alerted Harwich Force and a squadron of four Laforey-class destroyers were dispatched to rescue the trawlers. The squadron consisted of HMS Laforey, Lawford and Lark from Harwich Force and managed to gain sight of the German boats soon after arriving on the scene. Out-gunned as the trawlers previous, the German boats attempted to make for the safety of the Flanders coast, pursued by the British destroyers. Once the British managed to catch up to the torpedo boats, they were engaged in a running fight that lasted nearly an hour. By the end, both torpedo boats were destroyed with many of the Germans, including the new commander of the Flanders Flotilla, going down with their ships, while the British destroyers had no casualties; when the battle ended, British losses included Columbia sunk, Barbados damaged. Columbia suffered 16 dead, with only a deckhand being recovered after the action; the Germans lost 46 captured. Controversy erupted after it was discovered from the captured Germans that the three men taken from the sinking Columbia, had been locked away below decks on one of the torpedo boats and left to die when the German vessel started to sink.

The Germans reported that they did not have enough time to get to the British prisoners and were able to escape themselves. The battle showed Schroeder the severe limitations of the "A"-class torpedo boats, they were too poorly armed for raiding and the boats were relegated to coastal patrols; the defeat at Noordhinder allowed Schroeder's pleas for reinforcements to be heard by the German admiralty and he was reinforced by heavier vessels. The next engagement involving an "A"-class torpedo boat reinforced the perception that the class was too weak for service and several new boats were put in reserve when larger and more capable boats were transferred to the Flanders Flotilla. Massie, R. K.. Castles of Steel: Britain and the Winning of the Great War at Sea. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 1-8441-3411-3

Alejandro Ferrer López

Alejandro Guillermo Ferrer López is a Panamanian politician and lawyer. He was Vice Chancellor of Panama, Minister of Commerce and Industry and current Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama since July 1, 2019, he was born in Panama on February 1, 1967, son of Enna López de Ferrer and Alejandro Ferrer Stanziola. He has 2 daughters. Ferrer graduated from Colegio La Salle and continued his university studies at the Universidad Católica Santa María La Antigua, where in 1990 he graduated with a degree in Law and Political Science, Summa cum laude. In 1992 he obtained a Master in Law and in 2000, a Doctorate in Law Science from the University of Michigan, as a Fulbright Scholar, he participated in a course on Global Leadership and Public Policies for the 21st Century at Harvard University. In 2008, Ferrer received the title of Global Young Leader of the World Economic Forum and the Integrity Award, Government Ethics category, from the Panamanian chapter of Transparency International. During his tenure, he was recognized along with the Electoral Tribunal as the entities with the greatest transparency in the obligation to inform by the Pro-Justice Citizen Alliance.

He was president of the Amador Foundation from 2006 to 2013. In 1993 he acted as Legal Advisor to the Adhesion Commission of Panama before the GATT and until 1994, he became Deputy Permanent Representative before that body. Between 1998 and 1999 he was a member of the Presidential Commission against Money Laundering, in the periods 1996-1999 and 2008-2009, he was a member of the Council of Foreign Relations. Between 1994 and 1995 he served as Permanent Ambassador to the World Trade Organization in Geneva and Alternate Ambassador to the United Nations and other international organizations. Between 1995 and 1996, he was Foreign Trade Advisor at the Embassy of Panama in Washington. Between 1996 and 1997 he was Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, he was Minister of Commerce and Industries from 2004 to 2008, appointed by the president Martín Torrijos Espino. During his tenure as minister, he managed, through appropriate promotion policies, that Panama will exceed for the first time the billion in exports, for several years.

It promoted the Multinational Offices Act, which has attracted more than 150 world-renowned companies to the country, generating thousands of jobs. On May 22, 2019, he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama by President-elect Laurentino Cortizo Cohen