State of Palestine
|State of Palestine[i]
دولة فلسطين (Arabic)
Territory claimed by the State of Palestine (green)
Territory also claimed by Israel (light green)
|Status||Partially recognized state, UN observer state
Recognized by 136 UN member states
|Largest city||Gaza City|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|15 November 1988|
|29 November 2012|
• Sovereignty dispute with Israel
|6,020 km2 (2,320 sq mi) (163rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2014 estimate
|731/km2 (1,893.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2008a estimate|
|$11.95 billiona (–)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2014)|| 0.677
medium · 113th
|Time zone||Palestine Standard Time (UTC+2)|
• Summer (DST)
|Palestine Summer Time (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||PS|
Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn), officially the State of Palestine[i] (Arabic: دولة فلسطين Dawlat Filasṭīn) is a de jure sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital although its administrative center is located in Ramallah.[ii] Most of the areas claimed by the State of Palestine have been occupied by Israel since 1967 in the consequence of the Six-Day War, the population is 4,550,368 as of 2014, ranked 123rd in the world.
After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces. Later, the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip. Israel later captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 following the Six-Day War.
Following the withdrawals of Egypt from Sinai and Gaza (1982) and Jordan from the West Bank (1988), the State of Palestine proclaimed its independence on 15 November 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Algiers as a government-in-exile. Since the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed the following year to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Gaza would later be ruled by Hamas in 2007 after Israel withdrawal from Gaza two years prior.
The State of Palestine is recognized by 136 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations – which amounts to a de facto, or implicit, recognition of statehood. It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, and the International Olympic Committee.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Politics
- 5 Security
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Education
- 10 Culture
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that currently covers the State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has historically been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories.[non-primary source needed]
The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant. The Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, and Israel to the north and east, the West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, and Israel to the north, south, and west. Thus, the two enclaves constituting the State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel, these areas constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area.
In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate, the plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, and Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan, the Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan, Egypt, and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied the West Bank. Egypt initially supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan, the annexation was ratified in 1950 but was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and Gaza Strip, besides other territories.
In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel, the Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but later relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971.
The October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency." In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN, after the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly officially acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN. In spite of this decision, the PLO did not participate at the UN in its capacity of the State of Palestine's government.
In 1979, through the Camp David Accords, Egypt signaled an end to any claim of its own over the Gaza Strip; in July 1988, Jordan ceded its claims to the West Bank—with the exception of guardianship over Haram al-Sharif—to the PLO. In November 1988, the PLO legislature, while in exile, declared the establishment of the "State of Palestine"; in the month following, it was quickly recognised by many states, including Egypt and Jordan. In the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, the State of Palestine is described as being established on the "Palestinian territory", without explicitly specifying further, because of this, some of the countries that recognised the State of Palestine in their statements of recognition refer to the "1967 borders", thus recognizing as its territory only the occupied Palestinian territory, and not Israel. The UN membership application submitted by the State of Palestine also specified that it is based on the "1967 borders", during the negotiations of the Oslo Accords, the PLO recognised Israel's right to exist, and Israel recognised the PLO as representative of the Palestinian people. Between 1993 and 1998, the PLO made commitments to change the provisions of its Palestinian National Charter that are inconsistent with the aim for a two-state solution and peaceful coexistence with Israel.
After Israel took control of the West Bank from Jordan and Gaza Strip from Egypt, it began to establish Israeli settlements there, these were organised into Judea and Samaria district (West Bank) and Hof Aza Regional Council (Gaza Strip) in the Southern District. Administration of the Arab population of these territories was performed by the Israeli Civil Administration of the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories and by local municipal councils present since before the Israeli takeover. In 1980, Israel decided to freeze elections for these councils and to establish instead Village Leagues, whose officials were under Israeli influence. Later this model became ineffective for both Israel and the Palestinians, and the Village Leagues began to break up, with the last being the Hebron League, dissolved in February 1988.
In 1993, in the Oslo Accords, Israel acknowledged the PLO negotiating team as "representing the Palestinian people", in return for the PLO recognizing Israel's right to exist in peace, acceptance of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and its rejection of "violence and terrorism". As a result, in 1994 the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) territorial administration, that exercises some governmental functions[iii] in parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In 2007, the Hamas takeover of Gaza Strip politically and territorially divided the Palestinians, with Abbas's Fatah left largely ruling the West Bank and recognized internationally as the official Palestinian Authority, while Hamas secured its control over the Gaza Strip. In April 2011, the Palestinian parties signed an agreement of reconciliation, but its implementation had stalled until a unity government was formed on 2 June 2014.
As envisioned in the Oslo Accords, Israel allowed the PLO to establish interim administrative institutions in the Palestinian territories, which came in the form of the PNA, it was given civilian control in Area B and civilian and security control in Area A, and remained without involvement in Area C. In 2005, following the implementation of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, the PNA gained full control of the Gaza Strip with the exception of its borders, airspace, and territorial waters.[iii] Following the inter-Palestinian conflict in 2006, Hamas took over control of the Gaza Strip (it already had majority in the PLC), and Fatah took control of the West Bank. From 2007, the Gaza Strip was governed by Hamas, and the West Bank by Fatah.
On 29 November 2012, in a 138–9 vote (with 41 abstentions and 5 absences), the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution 67/19, upgrading Palestine from an "observer entity" to a "non-member observer state" within the United Nations system, which was described as recognition of the PLO's sovereignty. Palestine's new status is equivalent to that of the Holy See, the UN has permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as "The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations", and Palestine has instructed its diplomats to officially represent "The State of Palestine"—no longer the Palestinian National Authority. On 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon declared that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents", thus recognising the title 'State of Palestine' as the state's official name for all UN purposes, as of 14 September 2015, 136 ( 70.5%) of the 193 member states of the United Nations have recognised the State of Palestine. Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people", the PLO's Executive Committee is empowered by the Palestinian National Council to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.
The State of Palestine consists of the following institutions that are associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):
- President of the State of Palestine[iv] – appointed by the Palestinian Central Council
- Palestinian National Council – the legislature that established the State of Palestine
- Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization – performs the functions of a government in exile, maintaining an extensive foreign-relations network
These should be distinguished from the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) and PNA Cabinet, all of which are instead associated with the Palestinian National Authority.
The State of Palestine's founding document is the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, and it should be distinguished from the unrelated PLO Palestinian National Covenant and PNA Palestine Basic Law.
The State of Palestine is divided into sixteen administrative divisions.
|Name||Area (km2)||Population||Density (per km2)||muhfaza or district capital|
|Ramallah & Al-Bireh||855||348,110||407.14||Ramallah|
|Jericho & Al Aghwar||593||52,154||87.94||Jericho|
|Jerusalem||345||419,108a||1214.8a||Jerusalem (De Jure and disputed)|
|North Gaza||61||362,772||5947.08||Jabalya|
|Deir Al-Balah||58||264,455||4559.56||Deir al-Balah|
|Khan Yunis||108||341,393||3161.04||Khan Yunis|
a. Data from Jerusalem includes occupied East Jerusalem with its Israeli population
The governorates in the West Bank are grouped into three areas per the Oslo II Accord. Area A forms 18% of the West Bank by area, and is administered by the Palestinian government. Area B forms 22% of the West Bank, and is under Palestinian civil control, and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control. Area C, except East Jerusalem, forms 60% of the West Bank, and is administered by the Israeli Civil Administration, except that the Palestinian government provides the education and medical services to the 150,000 Palestinians in the area. More than 99% of Area C is off limits to Palestinians. There are about 330,000 Israelis living in settlements in Area C, in the Judea and Samaria Area, although Area C is under martial law, Israelis living there are judged in Israeli civil courts.
East Jerusalem, the proclaimed capital of Palestine, is administered as part of the Jerusalem District of Israel, but is claimed by Palestine as part of the Jerusalem Governorate, it was annexed by Israel in 1980, but this annexation is not recognised by any other country. Of the 456,000 people in East Jerusalem, roughly 60% are Palestinians and 40% are Israelis.
Representation of the State of Palestine is performed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In states that recognise the State of Palestine it maintains embassies, the Palestine Liberation Organization is represented in various international organizations as member, associate or observer. Because of inconclusiveness in sources in some cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the participation is executed by the PLO as representative of the State of Palestine, by the PLO as a non-state entity or by the PNA.
On 29 November 2012, UN General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to "non-member observer state" status in the United Nations. The change in status was described as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".
On 3 October 2014, new Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven used his inaugural address in parliament to announce that Sweden would recognise the state of Palestine, the official decision to do so was made on 30 October, making Sweden the first EU member state outside of the former communist bloc to recognise the state of Palestine. Most of the EU's 28 member states have refrained from recognising Palestinian statehood and those that do – such as Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – did so before accession.
On 13 October 2014, the UK House of Commons voted by 274 to 12 in favour of recognising Palestine as a state, the House of Commons backed the move "as a contribution to securing a negotiated two-state solution" – although less than half of MPs took part in the vote. However, the UK government is not bound to do anything as a result of the vote: its current policy is that it "reserves the right to recognise a Palestinian state bilaterally at the moment of our choosing and when it can best help bring about peace".
On 2 December 2014, the French parliament voted by 331 to 151 in favour of urging their government to recognise Palestine as a state, the text, proposed by the ruling Socialists and backed by left-wing parties and some conservatives, asked the government to "use the recognition of a Palestinian state with the aim of resolving the conflict definitively".
On 31 December 2014, the United Nations Security Council voted down a resolution demanding the end of Israeli occupation and statehood by 2017. Eight members voted for the Resolution (Russia, China, France, Argentina, Chad, Chile, Jordan, Luxembourg), however following strenuous US and Israeli efforts to defeat the resolution, it did not get the minimum of nine votes needed to pass the resolution. Australia and the United States voted against the resolution, with five other nations abstaining.
On 10 January 2015, the first Palestinian embassy in a western European country is open in Stockholm, Sweden.
On 13 May 2015, the Vatican announced it was shifting recognition from the PLO to the State of Palestine, confirming a recognition of Palestine as a state after the UN vote of 2012. Monsignor Antoine Camilleri, Vatican foreign minister, said the change was in line with the evolving position of the Holy See, which has referred unofficially to the State of Palestine since Pope Francis's visit to the Holy Land in May 2014.
On 23 December 2015 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution demanding Palestinian sovereignty over the natural resources in the Palestinian territories under Israeli occupation, it called on Israel to desist from the exploitation, damage, cause of loss or depletion and endangerment of Palestinian natural resources, the right of Palestinians to seek restitution for extensive destruction. The motion was passed by 164 votes to 5, with Canada, Federated States of Micronesia, Israel, Marshall Islands, and the United States opposing.
Raising the flag at the UN
In August 2015, Palestine's representatives at the UN presented a draft resolution that would allow the non-member observer states Palestine and the Holy See to raise their flags at the United Nations headquarters. Initially, the Palestinians presented their initiative as a joint effort with the Holy See, which the Holy See denied.
In a letter to the Secretary General and the President of the General Assembly, Israel’s Ambassador at the UN Ron Prosor called the step "another cynical misuse of the UN ... in order to score political points".
After the vote, the US Ambassador Samantha Power said that "raising the Palestinian flag will not bring Israelis and Palestinians any closer together". US state department spokesman Mark Toner called it a "counterproductive" attempt to pursue statehood claims outside of a negotiated settlement.
There are a wide variety of views regarding the status of the State of Palestine, both among the states of the international community and among legal scholars, the existence of a state of Palestine, although controversial, is a reality in the opinions of the states that have established bilateral diplomatic relations.
The State of Palestine has a number of security forces, including a Civil Police Force, National Security Forces and Intelligence Services, with the function of maintaining security and protecting Palestinian citizens and the Palestinian State.
According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the State of Palestine had population of 4,420,549 people in 2013. Within an area of 6,220 square kilometres (2,400 sq mi), there is a population density of 731 people per square kilometre. To put this in a wider context, the average population density of the world was 53 people per square kilometre based on data from July 5, 2014.
93% of Palestinians are Muslim, the vast majority of whom are followers of the Sunni branch of Islam, with a small minority of Ahmadiyya, and 15% being nondenominational Muslims. Palestinian Christians represent a significant minority of 6%, followed by much smaller religious communities, including Druze and Samaritans.
Tourism in the Palestinian territories refers to tourism in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In 2010, 4.6 million people visited the Palestinian territories, compared to 2.6 million in 2009. Of that number, 2.2 million were foreign tourists while 2.7 million were domestic. Most tourists come for only a few hours or as part of a day trip itinerary; in the last quarter of 2012 over 150,000 guests stayed in West Bank hotels; 40% were European and 9% were from the United States and Canada. Lonely Planet travel guide writes that "the West Bank is not the easiest place in which to travel but the effort is richly rewarded." In 2013 Palestinian Authority Tourism minister Rula Ma'ay'a stated that her government aims to encourage international visits to Palestine, but the occupation is the main factor preventing the tourism sector from becoming a major income source to Palestinians. There are no visa conditions imposed on foreign nationals other than those imposed by the visa policy of Israel. Access to Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza is completely controlled by the Government of Israel. Entry to the occupied Palestinian territories requires only a valid international passport.
Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation, the water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.
Generally, the water quality is considerably worse in the Gaza strip when compared to the West Bank. About a third to half of the delivered water in the Palestinian territories is lost in the distribution network. The lasting blockade of the Gaza Strip and the Gaza War have caused severe damage to the infrastructure in the Gaza Strip. Concerning wastewater, the existing treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat all of the produced wastewater, causing severe water pollution, the development of the sector highly depends on external financing.
The literacy rate of Palestine was 96.3% according to a 2014 report by the United Nations Development Programme, which is high by international standards. There is a gender difference in the population aged above 15 with 5.9% of women considered illiterate compared to 1.6% of men. Illiteracy among women has fallen from 20.3% in 1997 to less than 6% in 2014.
There are a number of newspapers, news agencies, and satellite television stations in the State of Palestine. News agencies include Ma'an News Agency, Wafa, Palestine News Network and the satellite television includes Al-Aqsa TV, Al-Quds TV, Sanabel TV.
Football is the most popular sport among the Palestinian people. Rugby is also a popular sport, the Palestine national football team represents the country in international football.
- Palestinian self-determination
- Palestinian territories
- Israeli-occupied territories
- Israeli settlement
- Water Rights in Israel-Palestine
|i.||^ Note that the name Palestine can commonly be interpreted as the entire territory of the former British Mandate, which today also incorporates Israel. The history was expressed by Mahmoud Abbas in his September 2011 speech to the United Nations: "... we agreed to establish the State of Palestine on only 22% of the territory of historical Palestine – on all the Palestinian Territory occupied by Israel in 1967." The name is also officially used as the short-form reference to the State of Palestine and this should be distinguished from other homonymous uses for the term including the Palestinian Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the subject of other proposals for the establishment of a Palestinian state.|
|ii.||^ The Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaims the "establishment of the State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem (Al-Quds Ash-Sharif)." The same decision was taken also by the PLC in May 2002 when it approved the PNA Basic Law, which states unambiguously "Jerusalem is the Capital of Palestine". Ramallah is the administrative capital where government institutions and foreign representative offices are located. Jerusalem's final status awaits future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (see "Negotiating Jerusalem", University of Maryland at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 May 2006)). The United Nations and most countries do not accept Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem through the Jerusalem Law of 1980 (see Kellerman 1993, p. 140) and maintain their embassies to Israel in Tel Aviv (see The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency). The international community also does not recognize either Israeli or Palestinian sovereignty over Jerusalem.|
|iii.||^ Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on the area classification. It maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, sea beyond internal waters, land) in the Gaza Strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), and varying degrees of interference elsewhere. See also Israeli-occupied territories.|
|iv.||^ So far both presidents of the State of Palestine, Yasser Arafat and his successor Mahmoud Abbas, were appointed beforehand as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the committee performing the functions of State of Palestine government. See also Leaders of Palestinian institutions.|
- "Palestinian National Authority". World Statesmen.org. Ben Cahoon. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Palestine" (includes audio). nationalanthems.info. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Ban sends Palestinian application for UN membership to Security Council". United Nations News Centre. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Bissio, Robert Remo, ed. (1995). The World: A Third World Guide 1995–96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1.
- Lapidoth, Ruth (2011). "Jerusalem: Some Legal Issues" (PDF). The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. p. 26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
The attitude of the Palestinians was expressed inter alia in 1988 and 2002. When the Palestine National Council proclaimed in November 1988 the establishment of a Palestinian State, it asserted that Jerusalem was its capital; in October 2002, the Palestinian Legislative Council adopted the Law on the Capital, which stipulates that Jerusalem is the capital of the Palestinian State, the main seat of its three branches of government. The State of Palestine is the sovereign of Jerusalem and of its holy places. Any statute or agreement that diminishes the rights of the Palestinian State in Jerusalem is invalid, this statute can be amended only with the consent of two-thirds of the members of the Legislative Council. The 2003 Basic Law also asserts that Jerusalem is the capital of the State of Palestine.Reprinted from: Wolfrum, Rüdiger (ed.) (online 2008, print 2011). The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford University Press.
- "Declaration of Independence (1988) (UN Doc)". State of Palestine Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations. United Nations. 18 November 1988. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Miskin, Maayana (5 December 2012). "PA Weighs 'State of Palestine' Passport". israelnationalnews.com. Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
A senior PA official revealed the plans in an interview with Al-Quds newspaper. The change to 'state' status is important because it shows that 'the state of Palestine is occupied,' he said.
- "State of Palestine name change shows limitations". AP. 2013-01-17. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013.
Israel remains in charge of territories the world says should one day make up that state.
- "The World Factbook: Middle East: West Bank". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "The World Factbook: Middle East: Gaza Strip". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 12 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Estimated Population in the Palestinian Territory Mid-Year by Governorate,1997–2016". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. State of Palestine. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "GINI Index: West Bank and Gaza". The World Bank: Data. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- According to Article 4 of the 1994 Paris Protocol. The Protocol allows the Palestinian Authority to adopt multiple currencies; in the West Bank, the Israeli new sheqel and Jordanian dinar are widely accepted; while in the Gaza Strip, the Israeli new sheqel and Egyptian pound are widely accepted.
- Al Zoughbi, Basheer (November 2011). "The de jure State of Palestine under Belligerent Occupation: Application for Admission to the United Nations" (PDF). Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Falk, Palma (30 November 2012). "Is Palestine now a state?". CBS News. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine". United Nations. 29 November 1947. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Brenner, Michael; Frisch, Shelley (April 2003). Zionism: A Brief History. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 184.
- "Zionist Leaders: David Ben-Gurion 1886–1973". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (US Department of State, Office of the Historian)"Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate."
- Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 — Chap.8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine".
- Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. Pp. 177-78
- "Israel defies UN after vote on Palestine with plans for 3,000 new homes in the West Bank". The Independent. 1 December 2012.
- Charbonneau, Louis (29 November 2012). "Palestinians win implicit U.N. recognition of sovereign state". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Lederer, Edith M (30 November 2012). "Live Stream: Palestine asks United Nations for a 'birth certificate' ahead of vote". www.3news.com. New Zealand: MediaWorks TV. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Rubin, 1999, The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab world, p. 186, at Google Books
- Herodotus, Volume 4. P.21. 1806. Rev. William Beloe translation.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
- al Madfai; Madiha Rashid (1993). Jordan, the United States and the Middle East Peace Process, 1974–1991. Cambridge Middle East Library. 28. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-521-41523-1.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 29 Resolution 3237 (XXIX). 2296th plenary meeting. Observer status for the Palestine Liberation Organization A/RES/3237(XXIX) 22 November 1974. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Geldenhuys, Deon (1990). Isolated States: A Comparative Analysis. Cambridge Studies in International Relations. 15. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-521-40268-2.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 43 Resolution 43/117. 75th plenary meeting. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees A/RES/43/117 8 December 1988. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Hillier, Tim (1998). Sourcebook on Public International Law (Cavendish Publishing sourcebook series ed.). Cavendish Publishing. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-84314-380-2. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Agenda item 36. 54th plenary meeting. Bethlehem 2000 Draft resolution (A/55/L.3) A/55/PV.54 page 10. Al-Kidwa, Nasser Palestine (in Arabic). 7 November 2000 at 3 p.m. Retrieved 10 June 2014. "Moreover, we are confident that in the near future we will truly be able to join the international community, represented in the Organization as Palestine, the State that encompasses Bethlehem."
- "40 Years Of Israeli Occupation". arij.org.
- Murphy, Kim (10 September 1993). "Israel and PLO, in Historic Bid for Peace, Agree to Mutual Recognition : Mideast: After decades of conflict, accord underscores both sides' readiness to coexist. Arafat reaffirms the renunciation of violence in strong terms.". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 52 Resolution 52/250. Participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations A/RES/52/250 13 July 1998.
- "Written Statement Submitted by Palestine" (PDF). International Court of Justice (ICJ). 30 January 2004. pp. 44–49. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2014, in "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (Index)" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 10 December 2003. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014, referred to the ICJ by United Nations General Assembly Resolution ES-10/14. Agenda item 5. Tenth emergency special session; 23rd plenary meeting. Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory A/RES/ES/10/14 12 December 2003. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Hamas leader’s Tunisia visit angers Palestinian officials". Al Arabiya News. Agence France-Presse (AFP). 7 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Palestinian unity government sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas". BBC News Middle East. BBC. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "United Nations Sixty-seventh General Assembly: General Assembly Plenary, 44th & 45th Meetings (PM & Night). GA/11317: General Assembly Votes Overwhelmingly to Accord Palestine 'Non-Member Observer State' Status in United Nations". un.org. United Nations. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "General Assembly grants Palestine non-member observer State status at UN". United Nations News Centre. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 67 Agenda item 37. Question of Palestine A/67/L.28 26 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2014. and United Nations General Assembly Session 67 Resolution 67/19. Status of Palestine in the United Nations A/RES/67/19 29 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Palestine: What is in a name (change)?". Aljazeera Inside Story. Aljazeera. 8 January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Hume, Tim; Fantz, Ashley (30 November 2012). "Palestinian United Nations bid explained". CNN International Edition: Middle East. Cable News Network (CNN). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Website of the State of Palestine's Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations Archived 31 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Gharib, Ali (20 December 2012). "U.N. Adds New Name: "State of Palestine"". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- Christmas Message from H.E. President Mahmoud Abbas, Christmas 2012: "133 countries that took the courageous step of recognizing the State of Palestine on the 1967 borders."
- Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN 9780198296430. "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."
- Government of the Dominican Republic (15 July 2009). "Comunicado Conjunto para Establecimiento Relaciones Diplomaticas entre la Republica Dominican y el Estado de Palestina" [Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Dominican Republic and the State of Palestine] (PDF) (in Spanish, English, and Arabic). Dominican Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
Presidente del Estado de Palestina [President of the State of Palestine].
- PLO Body Elects Abbas 'President of Palestine' November 25, 2008. Agence France-Presse (via MIFTAH). Retrieved August 12, 2017. "'I announce that the PLO Central Council has elected Mahmud Abbas president of the State of Palestine. He takes on this role from this day, November 23, 2008,' the body's chairman Salem al-Zaanun told reporters."
- Executive Board of UNESCO (12 May 1989). "Hundred and Thirty-First Session – Item 9.4 of the Provisional Agenda – Request for the Admission of the State of Palestine to UNESCO as a Member State" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 18, Annex II. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
A government-in-exile, having no effective control in the territory and not having had previous control, ... .
- "Palestinian National Council (PNC)". European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation. Medea Institute. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
The Palestinian National Council (PNC), Parliament in exile of the Palestinian people, is the most important institution of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO). The PNC elects the Executive Committee of the organization which makes up the leadership between sessions.
- "Palestine". GeoHive. Johan van der Heyden. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Zahriyeh, Ehab (4 July 2014). "Maps: The occupation of the West Bank". Al Jazeera America. Al Jazeera Media Network. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Gvirtzman, Haim. "Maps of Israeli Interests in Judea and Samaria". Bar-Ilan University. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- West Bank and Gaza – Area C and the future of the Palestinian economy (Report). World Bank Group. 2 October 2013. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Group: Israel Controls 42% of West Bank". CBS News. CBS Interactive. Associated Press. 6 July 2010. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention (PDF) (Report). UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 9 March 2012. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Kelly, Tobias (May 2009). Von Benda-Beckmann, Franz; Von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet; Eckert, Julia M., eds. Laws of Suspicion:Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law. Ashgate Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 9780754672395.
- Jerusalem, Facts and Trends 2009/2010 (PDF) (Report). Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. 2010. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Such as listing "Palestine" or Occupied Palestinian Territory without further explanation.
- UNGA, 15 December 1988; Resolution 43/177. Question of Palestine (doc.nr. A/RES/43/177)
- Beaumont, Peter (3 October 2014). "Sweden to recognise state of Palestine". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Sweden officially recognises state of Palestine". The Guardian. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Wallström, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Margot (30 October 2014). "Sweden today decides to recognise the State of Palestine". Dagens Nyheter. Stockholm. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "MPs back Palestinian statehood alongside Israel". BBC News. BBC. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "French parliament votes for recognition of Palestinian state". Uk. Reuters. Reuters. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Peter Beaumont. "US and Israeli intervention led UN to reject Palestinian resolution". the Guardian.
- "UNSC rejects resolution on Palestinian state". Al Jazeera. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "UN Security Council rejects Palestinian resolution". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "UN security council rejects Palestinian statehood bid". The Guardian. Associated Press. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Palestine opens first W Europe embassy in Sweden". PressTV. PressTV. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- 'PLO: Vatican accord with Palestine a contribution to justice,' Ma'an News Agency 14 May 2015.:"The Holy See has identified the State of Palestine as such since the vote" by the UN general assembly to recognize it in November 2012, Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi told AFP.
- "Vatican recognizes state of Palestine in new treaty". bigstory.ap.org. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- 'UN adopts resolution on Palestinian sovereignty over natural resources,' Ma'an News Agency 23 December 2015.
- UN backs raising Palestinian flag at NY headquarters. i24news and AFP, 9 September 2015
- Response:Palestinian Attempt to Raise Flag at UNHQ. Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations, 1 September 2015.
- U.N. General Assembly approves Palestinian request to fly its flag. Louis Charbonneau, Reuters, 10 September 2015
- UN strongly approves Palestinian proposal to raise flag. Al Jazeera, 11 September 2015
- Segal, Jerome M., Chapter 9, "The State of Palestine, The Question of Existence", in Philosophical perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Tomis Kapitan editor, M.E. Sharpe, 1997, ISBN 1-56324-878-6.
- Boyle, Francis A. Creation of the State of Palestine; 1 Eur. J. Int'l L. 301 (1990)
- Kearney, Michael and Denayer, Stijn, Al-Haq Position Paper on Issues Arising from the Palestinian Authority's Submission of a Declaration to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Under Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute (24 December 2009), para 43.a.
- Dugard, John (22 July 2009; Op-Ed essay). "Take the Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics". State of Palestine. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Are all Palestinians Muslim?". Institute for Middle East Understanding. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Lybarger, 2007, p. 114.
- "PA's Moderate Muslims Face Threats". Israel National News. May 31, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- "Religious Identity Among Muslims". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- M'aan (26 September 2011). "PCBS: Marked increase in West Bank tourism in 2010". M'aan. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Imtiaz Muqbil; Sana Muqbil (2013-03-11). "Europeans Dominate Visitor Arrivals to Palestine in 2012". Travel-impact-newswire.com. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Israel and the Palestinian Territories. p254. Lonely Planet Publications. 2012
- "Tourism in Palestine an Act of Solidarity, says Minister of Tourism".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- United Nations (September 3, 2009). "Gaza water crisis prompts UN call for immediate opening of crossings". Retrieved 2009-11-25.
- "Gaza Strip Water and Sanitation Situation". Worldbank. 2009.
- Fatta, D. (2005). "Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation for Agricultural Irrigation: The situation in Morocco and Palestine". The Environmentalist. 24: 227–236. doi:10.1007/s10669-005-0998-x.
- Assaf, Karen (2004). "Water as a human right: The understanding of water in Palestine" (PDF). Boell.de.
- "Education (2014)" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. United Nations. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- "Full transcript of Abbas speech at UN General Assembly". Haaretz.com. 23 September 2011.
- Baroud, Ramzy (2004). Kogan Page, ed. Middle East Review (27th ed.). London: Kogan Page. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4.
- "2002 Basic Law". The Palestinian Basic Law. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- Tobias Kelly, "Laws of Suspicion: Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank", Franz von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, Julia M. Eckert (eds.) Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law, Ashgate Publishing 2009, pp. 83–99
- Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip.
- Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones".
- Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
- "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza Is Still 'Occupied' Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 5 (3). Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 7 (29). Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Transcript (22 January 2008). "Address by FM Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Bercovitch, Jacob; Zartman, I. William (2008). Bercovitch, Jacob; Kremenyuk, Victor; Zartman, I. William,, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution (illustrated ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-2192-3.
- Brownlie, Ian; Goodwin-Gill, Guy S.; Talmon, Stefan; Jennings, Robert (1999). The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826837-6.
- Gerson, Allan (1978). Israel, the West Bank and International Law. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-3091-5.
- Grant, Thomas D. (1999). The Recognition of States: Law and Practice in Debate and Evolution. Greenwood Publishing Group (via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-275-96350-7.
- Hillier, Tim (1998). Sourcebook on Public International Law (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85941-050-9.
- Kassim, Anis F. (1997). The Palestine Yearbook of International Law 1989 (illustrated ed.). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-411-0342-0. p. 49 p. 279 p. 291 p. 294
- Kellerman, Aharo n (1993). "Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century". Albany, New York: State University of New York Press (via Google Books): 352. ISBN 978-0-7914-1295-4.
- Kogan Page (2004). Middle East Review (27th, illustrated ed.). Kogan Page. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4.
- Le More, Anne (2008). International Assistance to the Palestinians After Oslo: Political Guilt, Wasted Money (illustrated ed.). Routledge (via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-415-45385-1.
- Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-93921-8.
- Quigley, John B. (2005). The Case for Palestine: An International Law Perspective (2nd, revised ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3539-9.
- Rubin, Don (1999). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab World (illustrated, reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-05932-9.
- Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829643-0.
- Segal, Jerome M. (1997). Tomis Kapitan, ed. Philosophical Perspectives on the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-878-8.
- Silverburg, Sanford R. (2002). Palestine and International Law: Essays on Politics and Economics. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1191-7.
- Takkenberg, Alex (1998). The Status of Palestinian Refugees in International Law (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826590-0.
- Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of Governments in International Law: With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press (via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-19-826573-3.
- Europa World Year Book 2. Taylor & Francis (via Google Books). 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-255-8.
- The Middle East and North Africa 2004 (50th, illustrated ed.). Routledge. 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1.
- Arzt, Donna E. (1997). Refugees into Citizens: Palestinians and the End of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (illustrated ed.). Council on Foreign Relations. ISBN 978-0-87609-194-4.
- Fowler, Michael; Bunck, Julie Marie (1995). Law, Power, and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty. Penn State University Press (via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-271-01471-5.
- Peters, Joel (1992). Israel and Africa: The Problematic Friendship (illustrated ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-870915-10-6.
- Taylor & Francis Group; Dean, Lucy (2003). The Middle East and North Africa 2004: 2004 (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1.
- Tessler, Mark A. (1994). A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (2nd, illustrated ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35848-6.
- Watson, Geoffrey R. (2000). The Oslo Accords: International Law and the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Agreements (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829891-5.
- Status of Palestine in the United Nations (A/RES/67/19) Full Text
- Cross, Tony (24 September 2011). "After Abbas's UN Bid Are Palestinians Closer To Having a State?". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 2011-9-28.
- Recognition of a Palestinian state Premature Legally Invalid and Undermining any Bona Fide Negotiation Process
- Political Statement accompanying Palestinian Declaration of Independence
- Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations
- The Historic Compromise: The Palestinian Declaration of Independence and the Twenty-Year Struggle for a Two-State Solution
- International Recognition of a Unilaterally Declared Palestinian State: Legal and Policy Dilemmas, by Tal Becker