Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, Somalia has the longest coastline on Africas mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with monsoon winds. Somalia has an population of around 12.3 million. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the southern regions, the official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic, both of which belong to the Afroasiatic family. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni, in antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre. It is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt, during the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, and the Geledi Sultanate.
The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti, Italian occupation lasted until 1941, yielding to British military administration. British Somaliland would remain a protectorate, while Italian Somaliland in 1949 became a United Nations Trusteeship under Italian administration, in 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. The Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, led by Mohamed Siad Barre, this government collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out. Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum, during this period, due to the absence of a central government, Somalia was a failed state, and residents returned to customary and religious law in most regions. A few autonomous regions, including the Somaliland and Puntland administrations emerged in the north, the early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations.
The Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, in 2006, the TFG, assisted by Ethiopian troops, assumed control of most of the nations southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union. The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, by mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized. In 2011–2012, a political process providing benchmarks for the establishment of permanent democratic institutions was launched, within this administrative framework a new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012, which reformed Somalia as a federation. Somalia has maintained an informal economy, mainly based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here, the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE
Flag of Somaliland
The flag of Somaliland is used in Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. Having established its own government in 1991, the regions self-declared independence remains unrecognized by any country or international organization. It contains the Pan-Arab colors of green, white, on the green stripe, there is the Sunni Shahada in white script, similar to that of the Saudi Arabian flag. The Constitution of Somaliland, as approved on May 31,2001, by referendum, Article 7, The Flag, the Emblem, the government set out principles on how to use the flag. It should be treated with respect and used carefully and sensitivity. Because the Shahada has huge importance in Islam, the first pillar of Islam etc and it is forbidden for Somalis to fly the flag at half mast because it has the Shahada written on it so it will be an un-Islamic and disrespectful way to treat the flag. Even if the President or someone with a high Somaliland governmental status dies, moreover, if a person is seen lowering the flag at half-mast, they might be taken to jail or to court and it would be considered as a criminal offense.
Similar rules, for the reason, apply to the flags of Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia. Although the aforementioned Article 7 clearly states that the bottom of the flag is red, another variation is the orientation of the star, many Somaliland flags have the star pointing the opposite direction from other flags, this upside-down star version is used quite widely. Some flags have a green band, without the Shahada, hence may be exempt from the half-mast rule. Most Somaliland flags are of the ratio 2,1 and it is based on the official ratio of the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, the former colonial power. Pictures of flags on the internet etc. often erroneously show a shorter flag, when the British annexed and occupied northwestern present-day Somalia in 1903, they established a protectorate and made it part of the British Empire. The British adopted a new flag for the region, like many Commonwealth countries, the flag had a defaced Blue Ensign, a blue field with the Union Flag in the upper hoist quarter of the flag.
There was an image of a Kudu on a white disc, the flag was flown on ships owned by residents of British Somaliland or on government buildings in the territory. In 1950 The Protectorate of British Somalilands badge and flag changed, the flag still had the Union flag on the quarter-hoist. The Kudus head and shoulders were retained and taken off to form the most dominant feature on the new arms, between its horns, the Royal crown was inserted to symbolize the Royal family and the British Empire in general. The green portion contained an image of a white minaret, moreover, on the blue quarter, an Arabian dhow in full sail on waves of the sea, with a golden anchor in the base. The Kudus head was facing forward to the observer instead of facing left on the earlier version, the Kudu was the Royal Crown between the horns
Government of China
The Government of the Peoples Republic of China is divided among several bodies, the legislative branch, the National Peoples Congress. The primary organs of power are the National Peoples Congress, the President. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a number of Vice Premiers, five State Councilors. During the 1980s there was a made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the leadership within the state are the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power, at the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government. It is not unheard of for an executive to be party secretary. This frequently causes conflict between the executive and the party secretary, and this conflict is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful. Under the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, the NPC is the highest organ of power in China.
It meets annually for two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, the budget. Most national legislation in the PRC is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress, most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Partys Politburo Standing Committee. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a tax to finance the construction of expressways. This article is about the administrative structure of the state, its branches, departments. As the role of the military is to enforce these decisions, experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount leaders de facto control over the government. The Constitution was first created on September 20,1954, before that an interim constitution-like document created by the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference was in force. The second promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, the role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone.
The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution, the current constitution is the PRCs fourth promulgation. On December 4,1982, it was promulgated and has served as a constitution for 30 years
The right of peoples to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law, binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms. The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, nor what the outcome should be, whether it be independence, protection, neither does it state what the delimitation between peoples should be—nor what constitutes a people. There are conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to self-determination, National aspirations must be respected, people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not a phrase, it is an imperative principle of action. By extension the term self-determination has come to mean the free choice of ones own acts without external compulsion and after, the Industrial Revolution many groups of people recognized their shared history, geography and customs. Such groups often pursued independence and sovereignty over territory, but sometimes a different sense of autonomy has been pursued or achieved, the world possessed several traditional, continental empires such as the Ottoman, Austrian/Habsburg, and the Qing Empire.
During the early 19th century, competition in Europe produced multiple wars, after this conflict, the British Empire became dominant and entered its imperial century, while nationalism became a powerful political ideology in Europe. Later, after the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, New Imperialism was unleashed with France and Germany establishing colonies in Asia, the Pacific, Japan emerged as a new power. The Ottoman Empire, Austrian Empire, Russian Empire, Qing Empire, all ignored notions of self-determination for those governed. The French Revolution was motivated similarly and legitimatized the ideas of self-determination on that Old World continent, within the New World during the early 19th century, most of the nations of Spanish America achieved independence from Spain. The United States supported that status, as policy in the relative to European colonialism. Such support, never became official government policy, due to balancing of other national interests, meanwhile, in Europe itself there was a rise of nationalism, with nations such as Greece, Hungary and Bulgaria seeking or winning their independence.
Karl Marx supported such nationalism, believing it might be a condition to social reform. In 1914 Vladimir Lenin wrote, would be wrong to interpret the right to self-determination as meaning anything, woodrow Wilson revived Americas commitment to self-determination, at least for European states, during World War I. When the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia in November 1917 and they supported the right of all nations, including colonies, to self-determination. The 1918 Constitution of the Soviet Union acknowledged the right of secession for its constituent republics and this presented a challenge to Wilsons more limited demands. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 led to Russias exit from the war, this imposition of states where some nationalities were given power over nationalities who disliked and distrusted them eventually helped lead to World War II. Also Germany lost land after WWI, Northern Slesvig voted to return to Denmark after a referendum, the League of Nations was proposed as much as a means of consolidating these new states, as a path to peace
United Nations Security Council
The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of an international organization. The Security Council consists of fifteen members, the great powers that were the victors of World War II—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, Republic of China, and the United States—serve as the bodys five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General, the Security Council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The bodys presidency rotates monthly among its members, Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016,103,510 peacekeeping soldiers and 16,471 civilians are deployed on 16 peacekeeping operations and 1 special political mission.
Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. The term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. The most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the rights of permanent members. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conferences failure, the UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17 January 1946, the Security Council met for the first time at Church House, Westminster, in London, United Kingdom.
The Security Council was largely paralysed in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and USSR and their allies, and the Council generally was only able to intervene in unrelated conflicts. Cold War divisions paralysed the Security Councils Military Staff Committee, the committee continued to exist on paper but largely abandoned its work in the mid-1950s. By the 1970s, the UN budget for social and economic development was far greater than its budget for peacekeeping. After the Cold War, the UN saw an expansion in its peacekeeping duties. Between 1988 and 2000, the number of adopted Security Council resolutions more than doubled, undersecretary-General Brian Urquhart described the hopes raised by these successes as a false renaissance for the organization, given the more troubled missions that followed. In 1994, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda failed to intervene in the Rwandan Genocide in the face of Security Council indecision, in the late 1990s, UN-authorised international interventions took a wider variety of forms
Christian Archibald Herter was an American politician and statesman, 59th Governor of Massachusetts from 1953 to 1957, and United States Secretary of State from 1959 to 1961. He graduated from Harvard University in 1915 and did work in architecture. Herter married the wealthy heiress Mary Caroline Pratt in 1917 and she was the daughter of Frederic B. Pratt, longtime head of the Pratt Institute and granddaughter of Standard Oil magnate Charles Pratt and they had three sons and one daughter, including Christian A. Herter, Jr. who was active in international relations. He was made attaché to the Embassy of the United States, Berlin and he was part of the US delegation to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, where he helped draft the Covenant of the League of Nations. Later, he was the assistant to Herbert Hoover when he was instrumental in providing relief to postwar Europe. Herter went on to work for Hoover when Hoover became Secretary of Commerce in the Harding Administration, Herter participated in the 1919 meeting that resulted in the U. S.
Herter hated working for the administration of President Warren Harding, and returned to Boston. In 1930, Herter was first elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, in 1942, he sought the Massachusetts 10th district seat in the US House of Representatives, held by George H. Tinkham, whose isolationist views made him vulnerable during World War II. Once Herter entered the contest, Tinkham withdrew and so opened the way for Herter to be elected, although he was critical of Franklin D. In those years, he refused to support a permanent congressional committee investigating un-American activities, in 1947, Herter founded the Middle East Institute with Middle East scholar George Camp Keiser and served on the board of trustees of the World Peace Foundation. Herter served five terms in Congress, in 1952, he ran successfully for governor of Massachusetts, narrowly defeating incumbent Governor Paul A. Dever. Herter was re-elected governor in 1954, defeating Massachusetts House Minority Leader Robert F.
Murphy and he chose not to seek a third term in 1956. Herter received the Medal of Freedom in 1961 and he is buried at the Prospect Hill Cemetery in Millis, Massachusetts. Secretary Herter was an active freemason and he was a member of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Christian Herters lifetime reputation was as an internationalist, especially interested in improving political, in 1943, with Paul Nitze, Herter co-founded the School of Advanced International Studies, which incorporated with the Johns Hopkins University in 1950. Today, the school has campuses in Washington, D. C. Bologna and Nanjing, and is recognized as a leader in international relations, economics
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal was a Somali politician. He was the Prime Minister of Somalia during the early and late 1960s and he served as the President of Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia, from 1993 to 2002. Egal was born in 1928 in the town of Oodweyne. He hailed from a Habr Awal Isaaq family, for his elementary studies, Egal attended primary school in Berbera and Burao. He attended Sheikh Intermediate School in Sheekh, after graduation, he went to England for further studies. Egal initially worked as a member of the former British Somaliland protectorates Executive Council. Following Somalias independence on July 1,1960, Egal became the first national Minister of Defense, in 1962, he left the government to form the opposition Somali National Congress. Two years he joined the Somali Youth League, the majority party in the government at that point, in 1967, Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was elected President and he appointed Egal as the Prime Minister.
He was still the Prime Minister and in Washington D. C. when President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was assassinated on October 15,1969, Egal was among the politicians detained by the SRC for his prominent role in the nations early government. He was eventually released and was named the Ambassador to India before the Barre regime imprisoned him again on charges of conspiracy until 1985, when the Barre regime eventually collapsed in 1991 with the start of the civil war, local leaders in north Somalia declared the region independent. Although Egal initially opposed their self-proclaimed secession, he was elected president of the new Somaliland polity two years by a council of elders. He introduced the Somaliland shilling and flag, in addition, Egal helped create the Somaliland army, one of the more effective armed forces in Somalia. In August 2001, Egal survived by one vote a motion tabled by several regional MPs charging him of half-heartedly pursuing separatism. In an interview with IRIN the same year, SNM leader Abdirahman Awale said of Egal that when he says he is for independence and he tells the people here one thing, but in his speeches elsewhere he has clearly declared that Somalia will unite one day.
He says we will talk to the southerners when they make their home clean and he says one thing to the public, and a different thing to the international community. Egal died on May 3,2002 in Pretoria, South Africa while undergoing surgery at a military hospital and his body was returned to Somaliland for a state funeral, whereafter his three sons laid him to rest next to his father, in accordance with his last wishes. Around 4,000 mourners reportedly attended his burial in Berbera, Somaliland flags did not fly at half-staff since the emblem on them includes the Shahadah, Islams holiest words. Dahir Rayale Kahin was sworn in the day as the new president
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi-campus public research university in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa. The university has grown from the original 32 students in a single late Victorian house to approximately 39,000 in 2010, the University was built on 7 suburban campuses on 1,120 hectares. The University is organised into nine faculties and a business school, established in 1920, the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science is the second oldest veterinary school in Africa and the only veterinary school in South Africa. In 2012 the Financial Times ranked the GIBS Executive MBA 1st in Africa, in 2008 the university awarded 15. 8% of all masters and doctorate degrees in South Africa, the highest percentage in the country. The university is referred to as UP, Tuks, or Tukkies and in post-nominals the university is typically abbreviated as Pret or UP. The proposal for a university for the capital, first mooted in the Volksraad in 1889, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899, in 1896 the South African School of Mines was founded in Kimberley.
Eight years later, in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and was renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute, the schools name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1902 after the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging, the Normal College for teacher training was established in Groenkloof, Pretoria. Instruction commenced with 32 students,4 professors and 3 lecturers in the Kya Rosa,270 Skinner Street a late Victorian residence purchased from Leo Weinthal the owner of The Press, the first four professors were Prof H. Th. Reinink, J. Purves, D. F. du Toit Malherbe, on 17 May 1910 the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated, each becoming an independent institution. The Johannesburg campus being reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, the South African School of Mines and Technology would go on to become the University of the Witwatersrand in 1922. In 1910 the TUC acquired its own campus in the East of Pretoria, the building’s striking Cape Dutch and Neo-Romanesque architectural style was recognised in 1968 when it was declared a provincial heritage site.
During this time the name for the university, Tukkies or Tuks, was derived from the Afrikaans acronym for the college i. e. Transvaalse Universiteits-Kollege. The late 1910s and early 1920s saw the establishment of faculties as the academic activities were expanded. Courses in agriculture, theology and political science, veterinary science, on 10 October 1930 the University of Pretoria Private Act, No.13 of 1930 changed the name of the TUC to the University of Pretoria. The TUC originally established as an English medium institution had evolved into the only bilingual university in South Africa. The rapid increase of Afrikaans speaking students brought about an imbalance between the demographics of students and the languages of instruction, by 1931, although 65% of students were Afrikaans speaking, 68% of the classes were conducted in English. In 1932 the University Council addressed the imbalance, deciding that Afrikaans would become the medium of instruction
Italian Somaliland, known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern and southern Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, in 1936, the region was integrated into Italian East Africa as part of the Italian Empire. This would last until 1941, during World War II, Italian Somaliland came under British military administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration. On July 1,1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland united as scheduled with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic, the late 19th century had a huge impact on developments occurring in the Horn of Africa. Italy had a shortage of capital and other serious economic problems. Cesare Correnti organized an expedition under the Società Geografica Italiana in 1876, the next year, the travel journal L’Esploratore was established by Manfredo Camperio.
The Società di Esplorazioni Commerciali in Africa was created in 1879, the Club Africano, which three years became the Società Africana D’Italia, was established in Somalia in 1880. In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians and his rival Boqor Osman Mahamuud was to sign a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Majeerteen Sultanate the following year. In signing the agreements, the rulers hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the independence of their territories. The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to clear of any interference in the Sultanates respective administrations. In return for Italian arms and a subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight. The Italians agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to both the Sultanates and their own interests. The new protectorates were thereafter managed by Vincenzo Filonardi through a chartered company, the last piece of land acquired by Italy in Somalia in order to form Italian Somaliland was the Jubaland region.
Britain ceded the territory in 1925 as a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in World War I, the British retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, which was called the Northern Frontier District. In January 1887 Italian troops from Somalia fought a battle against Ras Alula Engida’s militia in Dogali, the Prime Minister, Agostino Depretis, resigned because of this defeat in July 1887. Francesco Crispi replaced him as Prime Minister, on May 2,1889, the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II and Italy signed a peace treaty. The administrative regulator was Governor Mercantelli, with the six subdivisions of Brava, Lugh, Bardera, on April 5,1908 the Italian Parliament enacted a basic law to unite all of the parts of southern Somalia into an area called Somalia Italiana. The colonial power was divided between the Parliament, the metropolitan government, and the colonial government
Mogadishu, known locally as Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banaadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for millennia and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was historically inhabited by hunter-gatherers. These were joined by Cushitic-speaking agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies, during its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, a vassal of the Ajuran Sultanate. It subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, the city became the capital of Italian Somaliland in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known, the ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government and its African Union Mission to Somalia allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops, Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction.
As Somalias capital city, many important national institutions are based in Mogadishu and it is the seat of the Federal Government of Somalia established in August 2012, with the Somalia Federal Parliament serving as the governments legislative branch. Yusuf Hussein Jimaale has been the Mayor of Mogadishu since October 2015, villa Somalia is the official residential palace and principal workplace of the President of Somalia, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. In May 2012, the First Somali Bank was established in the capital, the establishment of a local construction yard has galvanized the citys real-estate sector. Arbaa Rukun Mosque is one of the oldest Islamic places of worship in the capital, the Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region. Mogadishu Cathedral was built in 1928 by the authorities in Italian Somaliland in a Norman Gothic style. The National Museum of Somalia is based in Mogadishu and holds many important artefacts. The National Library of Somalia is undergoing a $1 million Somali federal government funded renovation, Mogadishu is home to a number of scholastic and media institutions.
As part of the urban renewal program,100 schools across the capital are scheduled to be refurbished and reopened. The Somali National University was established in the 1950s, and professors from the university founded the non-governmental Mogadishu University. Benadir University was established in 2002 with the intention of training doctors, various national sporting bodies have their headquarters in Mogadishu, including the Somali Football Federation and the Somali Olympic Committee. Mogadishu Stadium was constructed in 1978 during the Siad Barre administration and it hosts football matches with teams from the Somali First Division and the Somalia Cup. Additionally, the Port of Mogadishu serves as a national seaport and is the largest harbour in Somalia
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David Ike Eisenhower was an American politician and Army general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a general in the United States Army during World War II. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43, in 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO. Eisenhower was of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry and was raised in a family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, after World War II, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman and accepted the post of President at Columbia University. Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft, campaigning against communism, Korea and he won in a landslide, defeating Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson and temporarily upending the New Deal Coalition.
Eisenhower was the first U. S. president to be constitutionally term-limited under the 22nd Amendment, Eisenhowers main goals in office were to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. He ordered coups in Iran and Guatemala, Eisenhower gave major aid to help the French in the First Indochina War, and after the French were defeated he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the space race. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt and he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. Eisenhower sent 15,000 U. S. troops to Lebanon to prevent the government from falling to a Nasser-inspired revolution during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident.
On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege and he otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. Eisenhower was a conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. Eisenhowers two terms saw considerable economic prosperity except for a decline in 1958. Voted Gallups most admired man twelve times, he achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office, since the late 20th century, consensus among Western scholars has consistently held Eisenhower as one of the greatest U. S. Presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in the Saarland, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, accounts vary as to how and when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhowers Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn