Civil Police (Brazil)
In Brazil, the Civil Police is the name of the investigative state police forces. The Civil Polices of Brazil had origin in the General Intendancy of Police, with the transference of the Portuguese Royal Family to Brazil in 1808, the Police started to be regulated, have structure and important social role. The Police General Intendancy of the Court and the State of Brazil was created by charter of D, the first Police General Superintendent was Councilor Paulo Fernandes Viana who organized the police administration in Rio de Janeiro city as it used to be in Lisbon. The Police General Intendancy went through the phase of the Brazilian politic emancipation movement which culminated on September 7,1822. Civil Police had been developing for all country during the governments Imperial. Today, the existence of the Civil Police and its attributions elapse of article 144, IV and 144 § 4°. 27 Civil Polices in Brazil, one for each State of the federacy exist and they are directed by a Head of Police, chosen amongst the Commission agents of Police of career.
The services of judiciary police are given through the Police stations of Police, the function of Judiciary Police is exercised through the police inquiry, included in the Brazilian prosecution law in order to investigate the penal infractions and their responsibility. When concluded the inquiry is sent to the criminal judge
Federation of Australia
Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the efforts to bring about federation in the mid-19th century were dogged by the lack of popular support for the movement. A number of conventions were held during the 1890s to develop a constitution for the Commonwealth, Sir Henry Parkes, Premier of New South Wales, was instrumental in this process. The election returned Barton as prime minister, though without a majority and this period has lent its name to an architectural style prevalent in Australia at that time, known as Federation architecture, or Federation style. A serious movement for Federation of the colonies arose in the late 1880s, a time there was increasing nationalism amongst Australians. The idea of being Australian began to be celebrated in songs and this was fostered by improvements in transport and communications, such as the establishment of a telegraph system between the colonies in 1872.
The Australian colonies were influenced by other federations which had emerged around the world, notably in Argentina, Switzerland. Sir Henry Parkes, Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, the Federation had the potential to ensure that throughout the continent and interstate commerce would be unaffected by protectionism and measurement and transport would be standardised. The final push for the Federal Council came at a conference in 1883, called to debate the strategies needed to counter the activities of the German and French in New Guinea, Sir Samuel Griffith, the Premier of Queensland, drafted a bill to constitute the Federal Council. The conference successfully petitioned the Imperial Parliament to enact the bill as the Federal Council of Australasia Act 1885, as a result, a Federal Council of Australasia was formed, to represent the affairs of the colonies in their relations with the South Pacific islands. New South Wales and New Zealand did not join, the self-governing colonies of Queensland and Victoria, as well as the Crown Colonies of Western Australia and Fiji, became involved.
South Australia was briefly a member between 1888 and 1890, the absence of the powerful colony of New South Wales weakened its representative value. Nevertheless, it was the first major form of inter-colonial co-operation and it provided an opportunity for Federalists from around the country to meet and exchange ideas. The means by which the Council was established endorsed the continuing role that the Imperial Parliament would have in the development of Australias constitutional structure, the individual colonies, Victoria excepted, were somewhat wary of Federation. Queensland, for its part, worried that the advent of national legislation would restrict the importing of kanaka labourers and these were not the only concerns of those resistant to federation. Smaller colonies worried about the abolition of tariffs, which would deprive them of a proportion of their revenue. New South Wales, traditionally free-trade in its outlook, wanted to be satisfied that the federations tariff policy would not be protectionist, Victorian Premier James Service described fiscal union as the lion in the way of federation. A further fundamental issue was how to distribute the excess customs duties from the government to the states
Western Australia Police
The genesis of the police was the appointment of a sheriff by Captain Stirling on 18 June 1829, as part of the proclamation of the Swan River Colony. The proclamation provided for the appointment of a sheriff having under his direction a high constable, bailiffs, the sheriff still exists as an officer of the Western Australian Justice Department—no longer having jurisdiction over police or highways. The sheriff retains responsibility for enforcement of judgments and the administration of jury service. Police continue to carry out sheriff and bailiff duties, particularly in remote country locations, early colonial policemen were recruited by magistrates and worked part-time. They were paid only for specific tasks, such as one shilling for serving a summons, by 1830, there were fifteen part-time constables in the state, of whom five worked in Perth. It was involved in the Pinjarra Massacre, in which Captain Ellis, the first full-time constable for Perth was appointed in 1840. The Legislative Council passed an ordinance in 1849 that outlined police powers.
An organised police force was established in 1853. After convicts started arriving in the colony in 1849, the acquired the duties of registering and supervising the ticket-of-leave men. By 1870, after transportation had ceased, some 1,244 ticket-of-leave men had to be supervised by 146 police employees, applicants for police service were required to be aged under forty and physically fit. Leave was difficult to obtain and officers were not to appear in public out of uniform. Until the end of the century, the monthly pay day was marked by a parade with band. A Criminal Investigation Department was set up in 1873, although two detectives had been sent out from Britain in 1854, a fingerprint bureau was set up in 1902 and the first female officer was appointed in 1921. The Police Headquarters is located in East Perth overlooking the Causeway, the 1960s curved building housed the former East Perth Lockup. and a magistrates courtroom. The structure is entered on the State Heritage Register, recruits are trained at the Western Australian Police Academy at Joondalup.
Previously the Academy was located at Maylands, in premises used by various units including the mounted. The command structure has the state divided into three regions and sub-divided into fourteen districts, as of 2012 there were 35 metropolitan and 123 regional police stations. The highest-ranking officer is the Commissioner of Police, the current Commissioner is Karl OCallaghan, appointed in June 2004
Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory is the federal district in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. Its only city is Canberra, the city of Australia. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. The need for a territory was flagged by colonial delegates during the Federation conventions of the late 19th century. Section 125 of the Australian Constitution provided that, following Federation in 1901, the territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the naming of Canberra as the national capital in 1913. The floral emblem of the ACT is the royal bluebell and the emblem is the gang-gang cockatoo. The economic activity of the Australian Capital Territory is heavily concentrated around Canberra and this trend continued into 2016, when the territory was ranked the third best performing out of all of Australias states and territories. There is a proportion of young adults in the region compared with other Australian states or territories.
Approximately one-fifth of ACT residents were born outside of Australia, mainly in the United Kingdom, almost one-fifth speak a language other than English at home, the most common being Chinese. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory contains agricultural land, small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Uriarra and Hall. There are a range of mountains and creeks in the Namadgi National Park. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers, Canberra is noted for its warm to hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the mountains in the territorys south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm, with rainfall highest in spring and summer, the highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C at Acton on 11 January 1939.
The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971, notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale. In the 1840s fossils of brachiopods and trilobites from the Silurian period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon, at the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed. Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting, the oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago
Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest by area, located in the western part of the country. Neighboring states are Rondônia, Pará, Goiás and it borders Bolivia to the southwest. A state with a landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas. The vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state, in the north is the Amazonian forest, with a biodiversity originally covering half of the state, currently largely devastated for logging, agricultural purposes and pastures. The Xingu National Park and the Araguaia River are in Mato Grosso, further south, the Pantanal, the worlds largest wetland, is the habitat for almost a thousand species of animals, with many aquatic birds. Located in the Mato Grosso is the Chapada dos Guimarães, an environment made from sandstone mountains. The terrain of the Mato Grosso is varied and includes cliffs, the biologically rich Pantanal, one of the worlds largest wetland/prairie ecosystems, is located within this state. Much environmental degradation has occurred to the Pantanal within the past few decades, the Pantanal can be compared to the Everglades in Florida, as both share much in common, habitat wise, although the Pantanal is of much larger scale.
In 1977, the state was split into two halves, with Mato Grosso do Sul becoming a new state, the Bororo Indians live in the Mato Grosso area. As late as 1880, soldiers patrolled lands on the outskirts of Cuiabá, Mato Grossos capital and largest city, the southwestern part of it was ceded to Bolivia in exchange for Acre, according to Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903. The historic remoteness of this area led it to be the subject of exploration, most notably by Captain Percy Fawcett and it was the rumored location of access to the interior of the earth in various Hollow Earth theories. Mato Grosso had a rate of population growth in the 20th century. Despite this, the state as a whole has one of the lowest population densities of any Brazilian state, according to the IBGE of 2008,3,010,000 people resided in the state. The population density was 3.2 inh. /km², urbanization,76. 6%, Population growth,2. 4%, Houses,836,000. Ethnically, the state includes a high proportion of caboclos. The last PNAD census revealed the numbers,1,532,000 Brown people,1,179,000 White people,239,000 Black people,41,000 Amerindian people,14,000 Asian people.
Agriculture is the largest component of GDP at 40. 8%, the industrial sector represents 19% of GDP. Mato Grosso exports, soybeans 83%, wood 5. 6%, meats 4. 8%, the states share of the Brazilian economy is 1. 7%
Special Deployment Commando
Special Deployment Commandos, Spezialeinsatzkommandos, are the specialized operation armed response units of the sixteen German state police forces. The comparable units of the German Federal Police are GSG9, the organization of special police forces varies from state to state. Whilst most states have created one Special Deployment Commando which is based in their capital city, north Rhine-Westphalia Police or Rheinland-Pfalz State Police have established Special Deployment Commandos in other major cities as needed. The Bavarian State Police and Hessen State Police both have two Special Deployment Commandos - one each for the north and the south, a SEK unit can be attached to the Rapid Reaction Police or to big regional police headquarters. The internal organisation of SEKs rests with the units and therefore differs as well, the SEK of South Bavaria has an alpine component and the SEK units of Bremen and Hamburg have elements trained for maritime tasks. Some SEKs have specialized groups for cases like hostage situations or suicide attempts.
Any state police officer is eligible to apply for service in a SEK unit, the age limit is mostly between 23 and 35 years, whilst operatives have to leave the entry teams when they reach the age of 42. Both sexes can be recruited, only a few policewomen have been able to handle the extensive, at the moment, only the SEK units of Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Southern Hesse have women in their ranks. Basically the requirements demand physical and mental strength and capacity for teamwork, only about 30 percent of all candidates pass the tests. The length of the necessary to become an operative in a SEK unit differs but is generally five to eight months long. Mainly unrecognized by the media and public, the missions of SEK units are to serve arrest warrants. Hostage sieges and raids belong to their missions as well as other scenarios like personal security detail for VIPs or witnesses, since the 1970s, each SEK has handled several thousand deployments. The front-runner is the SEK of the Berlin Police with up to 500 deployments a year, the basic gear for every SEK officer is a standard sidearm and a submachine gun. SEK would gain other weaponry including rifles, sniper rifles, unlike other police institutions, members are not bound to normal procurement policies and can order the equipment they feel the best for their mission.
If cited in a trial they are referred to by numbers. When off-duty SEK officers are called to a scene, they may appear plain-clothed, only wearing their special protective gear. Mobile Task Force units operate hand-in-hand with the SEKs and these plain-clothed units are specialized in surveillance, quick arrests and mobile hostage sieges or kidnappings. They are often used in investigations against organized crime or blackmailers, the deployment of the MEK units is requested only for serious offenses
Military police are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state. In the Second World War, the police of the German Army still used a metal gorget as an emblem. Naval police members are sometimes called masters-at-arms and shore patrol, Military police in Brazil has two meanings. There are provost corps for each of the Brazilian Armed Forces, Army Police for the Army, Navy Police for the Navy, the second type are the civilian preventative police, with military organization comparable to gendarmerie, called the Military Police. Each State has their own Military Police, there is a joint National Public Security Force, created in 1999. This force is composed of the most qualified State Military Police personnel from all the states and they have the power to arrest anyone who is subject to the Code of Service Discipline, regardless of position or rank under the National Defence Act. If in fact a crime is committed on or in relation to DND property or assets, MP have the power to arrest and charge the offender, military or civilian, under the Criminal Code.
It is important to note though that the purpose of the CFMP is not to replace the job of a police officer. MP have the power to enforce the Provincial Highway Traffic Acts on all military bases in Canada pursuant to the Government Property Traffic Regulations, in Colombia, MPs are very common. They can be seen guarding closed roads, embassies, government buildings, in the National Army of Colombia they are assigned to the 37 Military Police Battalions, wearing green uniforms with the military police helmet. A Naval Police battalion is in service in the Colombian Marine Corps, Each branch of the military of the United States maintains its own police force. The U. S. CGIS primarily investigates and charges those in its own population with serious crimes, such as rape, assault or forgery, designated as Naval Security Force, primarily responsible for law enforcement and force protection. NSF personnel are led by Naval commissioned officers from the Limited Duty Officer and Chief Warrant Officer communities, additionally, a host installations Security Force are augmented by Sailors on Temporary Assignment of Duty from their parent units, as part of the Auxiliary Security Force.
Prior to the 1970s, Master-at-Arms and Shore Patrol were used synonymously to refer to Sailors assigned to law enforcement. Air Force Security Forces —United States Air Force Each service maintains uniformed civilian police departments and they are referred to as Department of Defense Police. These police fall under each directorate they work for within the United States Department of Defense, for example, the Department of the Air Force Police operate under the Air Provost Marshal. The police officers duties are similar to those of civilian police officers. They enforce the Uniform Code of Military Justice and state laws, the United States Constabulary was a gendarmerie force used to secure and patrol the American Zone of West Germany immediately after World War II
Landespolizei is the term used to refer to all police of any one of the states of Germany. The Landespolizei in the meaning of today can trace its origins to the late 19th century Germany, various towns and cities maintained police forces as the increasing number of new laws and regulations made controlling urban life more complicated. In Nazi Germany, all state and city forces were absorbed into the Ordnungspolizei which existed from 1936 to 1945, after World War II, massive numbers of refugees and displaced persons and poverty characterised everyday life in Germany. Attacks by armed gangs, robbery and black-marketing were commonplace, in all three Western zones, the emphasis was to decentralise and democratise the police. Some restrictions were lifted as Cold War tensions grew and certain police functions necessitated central rather than local direction, the Landespolizei became the police force for the federal states in the West. East Germany created a national force in the form of the Volkspolizei.
All state police forces are subordinate to the Land Minister of the Interior, the internal structures of these police forces differ somewhat, but usually immediately subordinate to the interior ministries are the regional police headquarters. These direct operations over an area or in a big city and have administrative. The Präsidium often has direct control of the force’s specialist units such as patrols, mounted police detachments. Under the regional headquarters, there are district police headquarters serving communities of from 200,000 to 600,000 citizens. Subordinate to each Direktion, there are several stations or precincts that are manned on a 24-hour basis, conduct day-to-day policing. Below this level, the Polizeiposten is a police office manned by one or two officers, normally only during office hours. The State Police wear the patch on the uniform sleeve. Police officers can be transferred anywhere within their state, once skilled, officers of the state police can be moved theoretically nationwide.
In practice, such requests are made by the officers themselves and they usually swap workplaces with an exchange partner from another federal state. Such an exchange is thus possible nationwide and is not dependent on the state, State police forces are divided into the following branches, Schutzpolizei - the uniformed police officers who patrol the streets and respond to emergency calls etc. In 1950 the Bepo was founded as an organized and trained police force. In some states the police academy is part of the Bepo
Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders, Sergipe and the Atlantic Ocean and it occupies an area of 27,767 km², being slightly larger than Haiti. Its capital is the city of Maceió, next to last Brazilian state in area and 16th in population, it is one of the greatest producers of sugarcane and coconuts in the country and has an economy based on cattle raising. Land of the sururu, lagoon shellfish which serves as food for the coastal population, the Alagoano territory constituted the southern part of the Captaincy of Pernambuco and only gained its autonomy in 1817. Its occupation pushed the expansion of the captaincys sugarcane farming, which required new areas of cultivation, thus arose Porto Calvo and Penedo, nuclei which guided the colonization and social life of the region for a long time. The Dutch invasion in Pernambuco was extended to Alagoas in 1631, the invaders were expelled in 1645, after intense fighting in Porto Calvo, leaving the economy totally disorganized.
The escape of African slaves during the Dutch invasion created a labour shortage problem on the sugarcane plantations. Grouped in villages called quilombos, the Africans were only completely dominated at the end of the 17th century with the destruction of the most important quilombo, during the empire, the separatist and republican movement the Confederation of the Equator received the support of noteworthy Alagoano figures. Throughout the 1840s, political life was marked by the conflict between the lisos and the cabeludos, delmiro Gouveia was killed in October 1917 in circumstances still unclarified, after being pressured, according to rumor, to sell his factory to competing foreign firms. After his death, his machines would be destroyed and thrown into Paulo Afonso Falls, the suffix -ano is characteristic of Brazil, alagoano, baiano and acriano. The states name originates with the lakes along its coast near the city of Maceió, the coast is bordered by fringing reefs and many fine beaches.
This is the area dominated by sugar cane. Still farther inland lies the Sertão of the Northeast region of the nation, the Sertão is a high dry region dominated by scrub that is often thorn-filled and sometimes toxic, the caatinga. This area and its people are famed in legend and song and it is the land of the cowboy who is clad from head to toe with very thick leather to avoid the sharp vegetation. During the first three centuries of its history, Alagoas was part of the captaincy of Pernambuco, only changing into an independent captaincy in 1817. Initially, in the first years of the 16th century, Alagoas settlement went on slowly, in the period of the 16th and 17th centuries, French pirates invaded its territory attracted by the commerce of Brazil wood. Some time later, Duarte Coelho, owner of the captaincy of Pernambuco, gave the control of the back to the Portuguese. In 1630, the territory was taken by the Dutch, whose interest was to manage the commerce of sugarcane in most parts of the region of Brazil
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic