Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong known as the Supreme Head or the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution on paper; the constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under Cabinet authority; the Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament. Among them, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing prime minister if no party has won a majority vote.
It, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the prime minister. He can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament, he may discontinue or dissolve Parliament but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister. He can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him; the queen consort for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is known as the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the couple are styled in English as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty". The 16th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Al-Sultan Abdullah of Pahang, replacing Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan, who abdicated on 6 January 2019, he was elected on 24 January, at a special meeting of the Conference of Rulers. He was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 31 January; the full style and title in Malay is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia means Under the dust of the Almighty referring to how the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's power is dust compared to God's power and the ruler is always subservient to God.
Seri Paduka Baginda refers to Seri as in a person. Paduka means victorious and the term Baginda is in Malay for a royal in the third person. Yang di-Pertuan Agong in literal English is "He Who is Made Supreme Lord", it is an archaic term for a presiding head, "Yang di-Pertuan" or means "the one-in-charge. "Agong" means "supreme". The term Agong is not translated, as in the Constitution of Malaysia. Common English terms used in the media and by the general public include "King", "Supreme King", "Paramount Ruler", "Head of State", "Head of the Federation" and "Head of State of the Federation". In Malaysian passports before 2010, the title "The Supreme Head of Malaysia" was used in the English version of the passport note. Since the issuance of ICAO-compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title "His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia" is used, but in all English correspondence, the King is referred to as "His Majesty The Yang di-Pertuan Agong" In August 1957, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Conference of Rulers elected the first occupant of the throne.
By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, did not secure the necessary votes. Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one; the first Conference of Rulers comprised: The Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad The Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah The Raja of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail The Sultan of Terengganu, Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin III The Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Badlishah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah The Sultan of Kelantan, Sultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV The Sultan of Pahang, Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah, Tunku Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah Radziallah Hu'an-hu The following rulers have served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is formally elected to a five-year term by and from the nine rulers of the Malay states, who form the Conference of Rulers.
After a ruler has served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the other states have stood for election. In the event of a vacancy of the office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the previous term had expired; the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term. After his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected; the position de facto rotates among the nine rulers. The selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong follow
Leader of the Opposition (Malaysia)
The Leader of the Opposition in Malaysian Federal Politics is a Member of Parliament in the Dewan Rakyat. By convention, the position is held by the leader of the political party not in government that has the most seats in the House; when in parliament, the Leader of the Opposition sits on the left-hand side of the centre table, in front of the Opposition and opposite the Prime Minister. The Opposition Leader is elected by the minority party of the House according to its rules. A new Opposition Leader may be elected when the incumbent dies, resigns, or is challenged for the leadership. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system and is based on the Westminster model; the Opposition is an important component of the Westminster system, with the Opposition directing criticism at the Government's policies and programs, give close attention to all proposed legislation and attempts to defeat and replace the Government. The Opposition is therefore known as the'government in waiting' and it is a formal part of the parliamentary system.
Since May 2018, BN and PAS has been the largest Malaysian Opposition. The longest-serving Opposition Leader had been Lim Kit Siang, who served for a total of 28 years. Colour key: PMIP/PAS LPM DAP SNAP PKR PH BN Lim Kit Siang Edmund Langgu Saga Abdul Hadi Awang Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Anwar Ibrahim Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
2018 Malaysian general election
The 2018 Malaysian general election, formally known as the 14th Malaysian general election, was held on Wednesday, 9 May 2018 for members of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia. At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 505 seats in 12 out of the 13 State Legislative Assemblies of Malaysia; the 13th Parliament of Malaysia was dissolved by the Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013. In an unprecedented victory, the Pakatan Harapan coalition, the country's federal Opposition prior to the election, won a simple majority in the Dewan Rakyat together with the Sabah Heritage Party, with PH and WARISAN cumulatively securing 121 seats; the election heralded the first regime change in Malaysia's history, as the erstwhile ruling Barisan Nasional coalition, which had enjoyed an uninterrupted reign over the country since Malaya's independence in 1957, was voted out of power.
PH's leader, Mahathir Mohamad, was sworn in as Malaysia's Prime Minister on 10 May, a day after the election. BN, led by Najib, held onto 79 seats, becoming the new federal Opposition along with Gagasan Sejahtera, which won 18 seats; the United Sabah Alliance held one seat. In the simultaneous state elections held for 12 of the State Legislative Assemblies, PH retained Penang and Selangor, while capturing Kedah, Negeri Sembilan and Johor from BN. WARISAN seized Sabah from BN, which retained only two states - Perlis and Pahang. GS held onto Kelantan while gaining Terengganu off BN. State-level elections were not held in Sarawak. However, as a consequence of the election, Sarawak-based BN component parties left the coalition to form Gabungan Parti Sarawak, thereby taking over the state from BN. Following the election, Prime Minister Mahathir secured a royal pardon for the jailed PH Leader, Anwar Ibrahim, has indicated that he would give way to the latter within the next few years. Meanwhile, Najib resigned as BN's chairman on 12 May and was succeeded as the Leader of the Opposition by his party colleague, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi.
Investigations within Malaysia into the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal, halted during Najib's tenure, were resumed in the aftermath of the election, resulting in several ongoing criminal indictments against the former Prime Minister. In the previous general election in 2013, the incumbent Barisan Nasional government won re-election for the 13th consecutive time, but with a decreased mandate and losing the majority vote. Barisan Nasional chairman, Najib Razak, was re-elected as Prime Minister to a second term; the main opposition, Pakatan Rakyat, led by Anwar Ibrahim, won the majority vote but was unable to win enough seats to form the government due to Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system and alleged gerrymandering. The election marked the first time. Elections in Malaysia exists at two levels: the state level. Federal elections are held to elect members of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state elections are held to elect members of the 13 State Legislative Assemblies of Malaysia.
The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers are indirectly elected filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures The Dewan Rakyat is made up of 222 members of parliament, elected for a five-year term. Members are elected from single-member constituencies that each elects one representative to the Dewan Rakyat using the first-past-the-post voting system. If one party obtains a majority of seats that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition. Malaysia does not practice automatic voter registration; the voting age is above 21 although the age of majority in the country is 18. The redistribution of electoral boundaries for the entire country had been presented to and passed by the Dewan Rakyat, subsequently gazetted on 29 March 2018 after obtaining the royal consent of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ahead of the 14th general election.
Elections are conducted by the Election Commission of Malaysia, under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister's Department. The Constitution of Malaysia requires a general election to be held in the fifth calendar year unless it is dissolved earlier by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong due to a motion of no-confidence or at the request of the Prime Minister; the Dewan Rakyat will be automatically dissolved five years after the first meeting of the first session of the Parliament of Malaysia. The key dates are listed below in Malaysia Standard Time: The cost to the taxpayer of organising the election was RM500 million – RM100 million more than the previous general election. Part of the spending was spent on indelible ink, which costed around RM4.8 million for a total of 100,000 bottles of 60mL ink imported from Mysore Paints and Varnish Limited in India. Before the campaign, there were no limits to what a political party, candidate, or third party (corporations, special interest group
Prime Minister of Malaysia
The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government and the highest political office in Malaysia. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints Prime Minister as a Member of Parliament who, in his opinion, is most to command the confidence of a majority of MPs; the Prime Minister chairs the Cabinet of the de facto executive branch of government. On 18 October 2018, 7th Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, announced a two-term limit to all Cabinet Profolio. After the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya, became Prime Minister of Malaysia. From independence until the 2018 general election, the Prime Minister had always been from the United Malays National Organisation party of Barisan Nasional. Following a general election, Mahathir Mohamad took office on 10 May 2018, as the first Prime Minister of the opposition coalition, Pakatan Harapan. Mahathir is the first Prime Minister not to represent the Alliance/Barisan Nasional coalition.
He is the first Malaysian Prime Minister to serve from two different parties and on non-consecutive terms. Mahathir and the PH coalition have confirmed that, after a period of around 2 years, People's Justice Party leader Anwar Ibrahim will take over as Prime Minister. On 11 June 2018, Mahathir said he's prepared to stay as Prime Minister for more than two years if, what members of the public wants. According to the federal constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint as Prime Minister to preside over the Cabinet and requires such Prime Minister to be a member of the Dewan Rakyat who in his judgment is to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House and must not a Malaysian citizen by naturalisation or by registration; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the Prime Minister's advice shall appoint other Ministers from either Dewan Rakyat or Dewan Negara. The Prime Minister and his cabinet ministers must take and subscribe in the presence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong the oath of office and allegiance as well as the oath of secrecy before they can exercise the functions of office.
The Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament of Malaysia. The members of the Cabinet shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, business or profession that will cause conflict of interest; the Prime Minister's Department is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions and powers. If a government cannot get its appropriation legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or the house passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the Prime Minister is bound by convention to resign immediately; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's choice of replacement prime minister will be dictated by the circumstances. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign his office. Following a resignation in other circumstances, defeated in an election or the death of a prime minister, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong will appoint as Prime Minister the person voted by the governing party as their new leader.
The power of the prime minister is subject to a number of limitations. Prime ministers removed as leader of his or her party, or whose government loses a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives, must advise a new election of the lower house or resign the office; the defeat of a supply bill or unable to pass important policy-related legislation is seen to require the resignation of the government or dissolution of Parliament, much like a non-confidence vote, since a government that cannot spend money is hamstrung called loss of supply. The prime minister's party will have a majority in the House of Representatives and party discipline is exceptionally strong in Malaysian politics, so passage of the government's legislation through the House of Representatives is a formality. Under the Constitution, the Prime Minister’s role includes advising the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on: the appointment of the federal ministers. Under Article 39 of the Constitution, executive authority is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
However, Article 40 states that in most cases, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is bound to exercise his powers on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. Thus, most of the day-to-day work of governing is done by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Under Article 55 of Constitution of Malaysia, the lower house of Parliament unless sooner dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong with his own discretion on the advice of the prime minister shall continue for five years from the date of its first meeting. Article 55 of the Constitution permits a delay of
Politics of Malaysia
Politics of Malaysia takes place in the framework of a federal representative democratic constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the 13 state governments. Federal legislative power is vested in the 13 state assemblies; the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a certain level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts. The Constitution of Malaysia is codified and the system of government is based on the Westminster system; the hierarchy of authority in Malaysia, in accordance to the Federal Constitution, stipulates the three branches of the Malaysian government as consisting of the Executive and Legislative branch. Whereas, the Parliament consists of the Dewan Dewan Rakyat. Malaysia has had a multi-party system since the first direct election of the Federal Legislative Council of Malaya in 1955 on a first-past-the-post basis.
The ruling party was the Alliance Party coalition and from 1973 onwards, its successor, the Barisan Nasional coalition. Together with its predecessor, the Barisan Nasional government served for 61 years and was one of the world's longest serving governments until it lost power to the Pakatan Harapan coalition in the 14th general election, held on 9 May 2018; the Pakatan Harapan coalition consists of People's Justice Party, Democratic Action Party, National Trust Party and Malaysian United Indigenous Party with Sabah Heritage Party and United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation as confidence-and-supply partner. The opposition is made up of Barisan Nasional, Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party and other smaller parties. Although Malaysian politics has been stable, critics allege that "the government, ruling party, administration are intertwined with few countervailing forces." However, since the 8 March 2008 General Election, the media's coverage on the country's politics has noticeably increased.
After the 14th general elections, media freedom was promised by the new government of Malaysia. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Malaysia a "flawed democracy" in 2016. However, Malaysia was a runner up to the Economist 2018 "Country of the Year" in 2018 due to the peaceful transfer of power following the 14th general elections, losing out at least due to Mahathir Mohamad's seeming reluctance to relax the country's divisive racial politics or to hand over power, as agreed, to Anwar Ibrahim. Early organised political movements in Malaysia were organised along regional and ethnic groups and were not political parties in the modern sense, they were loose alliances of interest groups and individuals concerned with social welfare, social progress and religious reform among the Muslim Malay communities similar to interest groups and civil society organisations of today. Religious reformers played a large role in developing and disseminating ideas with magazines and periodicals like al-Imam published in Singapore by Tahir Jalaluddin between 1906 and 1908, al-Munir published in Penang by Abdullah Ahmad between 1911 and 1916.
These in turn were influenced by the Egyptian Islamic reform magazine, al-Manar published in Cairo by Rashid Rida from 1898 to 1936. While these publications were concerned with the Islamic religion, it touched extensively on the social and economic conditions of the Malays. One of the first such movements was the New Hope Society, established in Johor Bahru in 1916. On 14 September 1923, a movement was established in Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt by students from British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies known as the Al-Jam'iyah Al-Khairiyah lit-tholabah Al-Azhariyah Al-Jawiyah. Composed of students influenced by the Young Turks movement and the Muslim Brotherhood, the movement encouraged intentional political and religious discourse through periodicals like Osman Abdullah's Seruan Al-Azhar and Pilehan Timur; the Sultan Idris Training College for Malay teachers in Tanjung Malim was fertile ground for the exchange of ideas. The establishment of the Selangor Malay Teachers Association in 1921 by Muhammad Yusof paved the way for similar organisations to be set up in the other Federated Malay States and a magazine known as Majalah Guru was published in 1923.
This magazine allowed for the discussion of larger socio-economic issues as well political issues, establishing itself as one of the influences in the development of Malay nationalism. Various self-help societies like the Maharani Company in Muar and the Serikat Pembaikan Hidup organised by Mohamad Eunos Abdullah of the Singapore Malay Union established co-operatives and communes to help improve the socio-economic conditions of the Malay peasants and smallholders, they too utilised newspapers and periodicals like the Maharani Company published Perjumpaan Melayu to disseminate ideas and encourage discourse on issues pertaining to the social and economic conditions of the Malay people. The Malay Union was established in 1926 by Mohamad Eunos Abdullah, Tengku Kadir Ali and Embok Suloh with the aim of increasing the role of Malays in public life, u
Conference of Rulers
The Conference of Rulers in Malaysia is a council comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states. It was established by Article 38 of the Constitution of Malaysia, is the only such institution in the world, according to the Malaysian National Library, its main responsibility is the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and his deputy, the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which occurs every five years or when the positions fall vacant. Although its position in the process of elective monarchy is unique, the Conference of Rulers plays a role in amending the Constitution of Malaysia and some other policies, in particular, those Articles which have been "entrenched", namely those pertaining to the status of the rulers, the special privileges of the indigenous Bumiputra, the status of the Malay language as the national language, the clause governing the entrenchment of such Articles; the Conference of Rulers has its origins in the 1897 Durbar, the Council of Rulers for the Federated Malay States, which were not under the British colonial regime, with the British playing the advisory role on only a few administrative items and the full authority to govern remaining with the Sultan of those states.
Only the four Federated Malay States of Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang were represented at the Durbar, which first convened in 1897. The purpose of the Durbar, as described by Resident-General Frank Swettenham, was to "bring home to the Malays, in the most striking manner possible, the reality of federation". After World War II, a similar body called the Council of Sultans was constituted under the short-lived Malayan Union; the Council comprised the Governor of the Union, who acted as President, the nine rulers, the Chief Secretary, Attorney-General and Financial Secretary as ex officio members. The sole functions of the Council were to consider legislation related to Islam and to advise the Governor of the Union or the ruler of any state as necessary; the first Conference of Rulers was convened on 31 August 1948, the year the British established the semi-autonomous Federation of Malaya, where it was attended by the rulers of all nine Malay states. The Conference of Rulers continued after independence, when it was formally established under the Constitution.
The membership of the Conference depends on the succession of the Malay sultans, the appointment of the governors. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the governors, while each state has its own procedure for succession to the throne. One, Negeri Sembilan, is itself an elective monarchy. Only the rulers of the Malay states of Negeri Sembilan, Perlis, Kedah, Pahang and Perak are permitted to participate in the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and stand as candidates; the governors of the other states do not participate when the Conference of Rulers meets to decide matters related to the election or removal of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or his deputy, those related to privileges of the Malay rulers and those related to the observance of Islam. Should a member of the Conference be unable to attend a meeting, his or her state must designate a temporary replacement. Once elected, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong delegates his state representation in the Conference to the Regent he has selected to rule in his stead in his home state.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong still attends the meetings of the Conference, though he does so intermittently only when the Conference would be discussing national policy or electing a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong. When attending Conference meetings, each ruler and governor is accompanied by the Menteri Besar or Chief Minister of his state; when the Yang di-Pertuan Agong attends, he is accompanied by the Prime Minister. Every meeting of the Conference is chaired by one of the nine Malay rulers, appointed rotationally; the National Library has called the Conference of Rulers "the supreme institution in the country", which would mean Parliament is subordinate to it. However, its role is de facto symbolic, as the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong follows a fixed order based on the seniority of the Malay rulers at the time of independence in 1957. In policy-making, if the Conference of Rulers is involved, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is constitutionally required to consult with not only the Prime Minister and the members of the Conference, but with the Menteri Besar of each state.
The Conference's role in amending the Constitution was first set out by the Constitution Act 1971, one of the first pieces of legislation passed by Parliament after the catastrophic May 13 Incident, which saw at least 200 deaths after racial rioting in the federal capital of Kuala Lumpur. The Act named Article 152, 153, 181, Part III of the Constitution as specially protected; the provisions in question covered the social contract, a quid pro quo agreement between the Bumiputra and the non-Bumiputra. In return for the granting of citizenship to the non-Bumiputra, the Bumiputra were guaranteed special r
Constitution of Malaysia
The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia. The Federation was called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, when the States of Sabah and Singapore became part of the Federation; the Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State whose roles are ceremonial. It provides for the establishment and the organisation of three main branches of the government: the bicameral legislative branch called the Parliament, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Constitutional Conference: A constitutional conference was held in London from 18 January to 6 February 1956 attended by a delegation from the Federation of Malaya, consisting of four representatives of the Rulers, the Chief Minister of the Federation and three other ministers, by the British High Commissioner in Malaya and his advisers. Reid Commission: The conference proposed the appointment of a commission to devise a constitution for a self-governing and independent Federation of Malaya.
This proposal was accepted by the Malay Rulers. Accordingly, pursuant to such agreement, the Reid Commission, consisting of constitutional experts from fellow Commonwealth countries and headed by Lord Reid, a distinguished Lord-of-Appeal-in-Ordinary, was appointed to make recommendations for a suitable constitution; the report of the Commission was completed on 11 February 1957. The report was examined by a working party appointed by the British Government, the Conference of Rulers and the Government of the Federation of Malaya and the Federal Constitution was enacted on the basis of its recommendations. Constitution: The Constitution came into force on 27 August 1957 but formal independence was only achieved on 31 August; this constitution was amended in 1963 to admit Sabah and Singapore as additional member states of the Federation and to make the agreed changes to the constitution that were set out in the Malaysia Agreement, which included changing the name of the Federation to "Malaysia".
Thus speaking, the establishment of Malaysia did not create a new nation as such but was the addition of new member states to the Federation created by the 1957 constitution, with a change of name. The Constitution, in its current form, consists of 15 Parts containing 230 articles and 13 schedules; the following is a list of the schedules to the Constitution. First Schedule – Oath of Applications for Registration or Naturalization Second Schedule – Citizenship by operation of law of persons born before, on or after Malaysia Day and supplementary provisions relating to citizenship Third Schedule – Election of Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong Fourth Schedule – Oaths of Office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong Fifth Schedule – The Conference of Rulers Sixth Schedule – Forms of Oaths and Affirmations Seventh Schedule – Election of Senators Eighth Schedule – Provisions to be inserted in State Constitutions Ninth Schedule – Legislative Lists Tenth Schedule – Grants and Sources of Revenue assigned to States Eleventh Schedule – Provisions of the Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance 1948, Applied for Interpretation of the Constitution Twelfth Schedule – Provisions of the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1948 as Applied to the Legislative Council after Merdeka Day Thirteenth Schedule – Provisions relating to delimitation of Constituencies*NOTE—This Article was repealed by Act A354, section 46, in force from 27-08-1976—see section 46 of Act A354.
Fundamental liberties in Malaysia are set out in Articles 5 to 13 of the Constitution, under the following headings: liberty of the person, prohibition of slavery and forced labour, protection against retrospective criminal laws and repeated trials, prohibition of banishment and freedom of movement, freedom of speech and association, freedom of religion, rights in respect of education and rights to property. Some of these liberties and rights are subject to limitations and exceptions and some are available to citizens only. Article 5 enshrines a number of basic fundamental human rights: No person may be deprived of life or personal liberty except in accordance with law. A person, unlawfully detained may be released by the High Court. A person has the right to be informed of the reasons of his arrest and to be represented by a lawyer of his choice. A person may not be arrested for more than 24 hours without a magistrate's permission. Article 6 provides. All forms of forced labour are prohibited, but federal law, such as the National Service Act 1952, may provide for compulsory service for national purposes.
It is expressly provided that work incidental to serving a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a court of law is not forced labour. In the area of criminal laws and procedure, this Article provides the following protections: No person shall be punished for an act or omission, not punishable by law when it was done or made. No person shall su