Alderney is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands. It is part of the Bailiwick of a British Crown dependency, it is 1 1⁄2 miles wide. The area is 3 square miles, making it the third-largest island of the Channel Islands, the second largest in the Bailiwick, it is around 10 miles from the west of La Hague on the Cotentin Peninsula, Normandy, in France, 20 miles from the north-east of Guernsey and 60 miles from the south coast of Great Britain. It is the closest of the Channel Islands to the United Kingdom, it is separated from Cap de la Hague by the dangerous Alderney Race. As of April 2013, the island had a population of 1,903. Formally, they are known from the Latin Riduna; the only parish of Alderney is the parish of St Anne. The main town, St Anne known as La Ville, is referred to as "St Anne's" by visitors and incomers, but by locals; the town's "High Street", which had a small handful of shops, is now entirely residential, forming a T-junction with Victoria Street at its highest point.
The town area features an unevenly cobbled main street: Victoria Street. There is a primary school, a secondary school, a post office, hotels, as well as restaurants and shops. Other settlements include Braye, Longis, Mannez, La Banque, Newtown. Alderney shares its prehistory with the other islands in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, becoming an island in the Neolithic period as the waters of the Channel rose. Rich in dolmens, like the other Channel Islands, Alderney with its heritage of megaliths has suffered through the large-scale military constructions of the 19th century and by the Germans during the World War II occupation, who left the remains at Les Pourciaux unrecognisable as dolmens. A cist survives near Fort Tourgis, Longis Common has remains of an Iron Age site. There are traces of Roman occupation including a fort, built in the late 300s, at 49°43′09″N 2°10′36″W above the island's only natural harbour; the etymology of the island's name is obscure. It is known in Latin as Riduna but as with the names of all the Channel Islands in the Roman period there is a degree of confusion.
Riduna may be the original name of Tatihou, while Alderney is conjectured to be identified with Sarnia. Alderney/Aurigny is variously supposed to be Celtic name, it may be a corruption of Adreni or Alrene, derived from an Old Norse word meaning "island near the coast". Alternatively it may derive from three Norse elements: - ey. Alderney may be mentioned in Paul the Deacon's Historia Langobardorum as'Evodia' in which he discussed a certain dangerous whirlpool; the name'Evodia' may in turn originate from the seven'Haemodae' of uncertain identification in Pliny the Elder's Natural History (IV 16 or Pomponius Mela's Chronographia. Along with the other Channel Islands, Alderney was annexed by the Duchy of Normandy in 933. In 1042 William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy granted Alderney to the Abbey of Mont Saint-Michel. In 1057 the bishop of Coutances took back control of the island. After 1204, when mainland Normandy was incorporated into the kingdom of France, Alderney remained loyal to the English monarch in his dignity of Duke of Normandy.
Henry VIII of England undertook fortification works, but these ceased in 1554. Essex Castle perpetuates the name of the Earl of Essex, who purchased the governorship of Alderney in 1591. Prior to the Earl's execution for treason in 1601, he leased the island to William Chamberlain, Alderney remained in the hands of the Chamberlain family until 1643. From 1612, a Judge was appointed to assist the Governor's administration of Alderney, along with the Jurats; the function of the Judge was similar to that of the Bailiffs of Guernsey and Jersey, continued until 1949. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Alderney was held by a Parliamentary garrison under Nicholas Ling, Lieutenant-Governor. Ling built Government House; the de Carterets of Jersey acquired the governorship passing it to Sir Edmund Andros of Guernsey, from whom the Guernsey family of Le Mesurier inherited it, thus establishing a hereditary line of governors that lasted until 1825. Henry Le Mesurier prospered through privateering, moved the harbour from Longis to Braye, building a jetty there in 1736.
Warehouses and dwellings were built at Braye, the export of cattle generated wealth for the economy. The Court House was built in 1770 and a school in 1790. A Methodist chapel was constructed in 1790, following John Wesley's visit in 1787. A telegraph tower was constructed above La Foulère in 1811, enabling signals to be relayed visually to Le Mât in Sark and on to Guernsey – early warning of attack during the Napoleonic Wars was of strategic importance. With the end of those wars privateering was ended and smuggling suppressed, leading to economic difficulties; the last of the hereditary Governors, John Le Mesurier, resigned his patent to the Crown in 1825, since authority has been exercised by the States of Alderney, as amended by the constitutional settlement of 1948. The British Government decided to undertake massive fortifications in the 19th century and t
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Herm is one of the Channel Islands and part of the Parish of St Peter Port in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. It is located in north-west of France and south of England, it is 1.5 miles long and under 0.5 miles wide. The much larger island of Guernsey lies to the west and Jersey to the south-east, the smaller island of Jethou is just off the south-west coast. Herm was first discovered in the Mesolithic period, the first settlers arrived in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Many tombs from that period remain the majority in the north of the island; the island was annexed to the Duchy of Normandy in 933, but returned to the English Crown with the division of Normandy in 1204. It was occupied by Germany in the Second World War and the scene of Operation Huckaback, but was bypassed. Herm is managed by Herm Island Ltd, formed by Starboard Settlement, who acquired Herm in 2008, following fears during the sale of the island that the'identity' of the island was at threat. Herm's harbour is on its west coast. There are several buildings of note in the vicinity including the White House, St Tugual's Chapel, Fisherman's Cottage, "The Mermaid" pub and restaurant, a small primary school with about eight children.
During a busy summer season, up to 100,000 tourists visit the island, arriving by one of the catamaran ferries operated by the Trident Charter Company. Cars are banned from the island. Herm was first found in the Mesolithic period. In the Neolithic and Bronze ages, settlers arrived. After a three-year project by the University of Durham, supported by specialists from the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the Guernsey museum, they stated that the "density of tombs suggests that the northern end of Herm may have been a place set apart for funerary activity"; the first records of Herm's inhabitants in historic times are from the 6th century, when the island became a centre of monastic activity. In 709, a storm washed away the strip of land. An important moment in Herm's political history was in 933, when the Channel Islands were annexed to the Duchy of Normandy, they remained so until the division of Normandy in 1204, when they became a Crown Dependency. In 1111 Brother Claude Panton was a hermit in "Erm" and in 1117 the hermit, Brother Francis Franche Montague is recorded as living on "Erm".
After the annexation, Herm lost its monastic inhabitants, between 1570 and 1737 the governors of Guernsey used it as a hunting ground. In 1810, an inn was founded. Most were quarrymen working in new granite quarries. Several quarries can still be seen at present, such as on the Common; when the Prince and Princess Blücher leased the island from the British government during the First World War, he introduced a colony of Red-necked wallabies to the island, around 60-70 in number. They increased up to the First World War, after which they decreased in numbers, the remaining few were re-captured and put in enclosures. Compton Mackenzie, an English born Scottish novelist, acquired the tenancy in 1920, he recalled. It has been suggested that Mackenzie was the basis for the character Mr Cathcart in D. H. Lawrence's The Man who Loved Islands, about a man who moved to smaller islands much as Mackenzie moved from Herm to the smaller Jethou, but Lawrence himself denied it; the German occupation of the Channel Islands during the Second World War by-passed Herm.
The island was claimed on 20 July 1940 by the Third Reich, a few weeks after the arrival of German troops in Guernsey and Jersey, German soldiers landed on the island to shoot a propaganda film, The Invasion of the Isle of Wight. Herm's sandy beaches were soon used for practising landings from barges, in preparation for the invasion of England, but otherwise the island saw little of the Germans beyond officers making trips to shoot rabbits. Herm had only a little German construction during the war. German soldiers would travel to Herm to cut wood for fuel. Operation Huckaback was a British Second World War military operation, designed to be a raid on Herm and Brecqhou, but instead became only a raid on Herm undertaken on the night of 27 February 1943, following an earlier attempt, aborted. Ten men of the Small Scale Raiding Force and No. 4 Commando under Captain Patrick Anthony Porteous landed 200 yards to the north-west of Selle Rocque on a shingle beach and made several unsuccessful attempts to climb the cliff in front of them.
Porteous managed to climb up the bed of a stream and pulled the others up with a rope. They reported that they had found no sign of any Islanders or Germans (who were supposed to be billeted near the h
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
The States Assembly is the parliament of the British Crown dependency of Jersey. The origins of the legislature of Jersey lie in the system of self-government according to Norman law guaranteed to the Channel Islands by King John following the division of Normandy in 1204; the States Assembly has exercised uncontested legislative powers since 1771, when the concurrent law-making power of the Royal Court of Jersey was abolished. The Assembly amends laws and regulations. Members are able to ask questions to find out information and to hold ministers to account. Executive powers are exercised by a Chief Minister and nine ministers, elected from among the members of the Assembly and known collectively as the Council of Ministers. Ministers are accountable to the assembly for the conduct of their departments; the constitution of the States is set out in the States of Jersey Law 2005. It is a unicameral parliament. In the current assembly, elected voting members comprise eight Senators, twenty-nine Deputies, twelve Connétables.
In previous assemblies, the number of Senators was ten. The reduction in the number of Senators was politically controversial and attempts were made, unsuccessfully, to prevent the Privy Council from approving the proposal. There are five non-voting members appointed by the Crown: the Bailiff–who is the President; the clerk of the Assembly is known as the Greffier of the States. The Viscount is the executive officer of the States. Under the States of Jersey Act 2005, 22 of the 51 members form the executive: ten as ministers in the Council of Ministers and twelve as assistant ministers. During the 2008–2011 assembly, 17 members sat on scrutiny panels, six sit only on the Planning Applications panel or the Privileges and Procedures Committee. Following widespread criticisms of the system of ministerial government introduced in December 2005, the assembly of the States of Jersey agreed in March 2011 to establish an independent electoral commission to review the make-up of the Assembly and government.
Elections are held every three years, with the most recent being in 2014. In the 2008–2011 assembly, four members were affiliated to the Jersey Democratic Alliance, but three of them subsequently left the party and continued to sit as independents. In the 2011 elections, all candidates stood as independents. In the 2014 elections, candidates stood for the newly formed Reform Jersey for the first time, with 3 being elected as Deputies. A main type of legislation made by the States is known in English as a'Law', in French as a Loi. After a Law is adopted by the States it must receive Royal Assent and be registered with the Royal Court of Jersey before it is'passed'. Members of the Assembly are responsible for scrutinizing the work of the Council of Ministers and their departments. Scrutiny panels of backbench members of the assembly have been established to examine economic affairs, environment and infrastructure corporate services and home affairs and health, social security and housing. A Public Accounts Committee scrutinizes the spending of public finances.
The real utility of the panels is said to be "that of independent critique which holds ministers to account and constructively engages with policy, deficient". The legislature derives its name from the estates of the Crown, the Church and the people from whom the assembly was summoned. Jersey's political history begins as part of the Duchy of Normandy; however when the King of France stripped King John of England of the title ‘Duke of Normandy’ the people of Jersey and the other Channel Islands rebelled against the French King maintaining the sovereignty of the'rightful' Duke. In 1259 Henry III signed the Treaty of Paris resigning his claim to the Duchy of Normandy except the Channel Islands; the Channel Islands were not absorbed into the Kingdom of England but two offices were appointed. The Royal Court had legislative power but by the sixteenth century a legislative assembly within the Royal Court was convened; the Royal Court and the States both legislated until with the fixing in 1771 of the Code des Lois it was established that the States had a legislative monopoly.
The earliest extant Act of the States dates from 1524. The States are mentioned in a document of 1497 regarding the endowments of the grammar schools.
The Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Great Britain that are self-governing possessions of the Crown: the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man. They do not form part of either the British Overseas Territories. Internationally, the dependencies are considered "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible", rather than sovereign states; as a result, they are not member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. However, they do have relationships with the Commonwealth, the European Union, other international organisations, are members of the British–Irish Council, they have their own teams in the Commonwealth Games. They are not part of the European Union; the Isle of Man is within the EU's VAT area. As the Crown dependencies are not sovereign states, the power to pass legislation affecting the islands rests with the government of the United Kingdom; however they each have their own legislative assembly, with the power to legislate on many local matters with the assent of the Crown.
In each case, the head of government is referred to as the Chief Minister. "The Crown" is defined differently in each Crown Dependency. In Jersey, statements in the 21st century of the constitutional position by the Law Officers of the Crown define it as the "Crown in right of Jersey", with all Crown land in the Bailiwick of Jersey belonging to the Crown in right of Jersey and not to the Crown Estate of the United Kingdom. Legislation of the Isle of Man defines the "Crown in right of the Isle of Man" as being separate from the "Crown in right of the United Kingdom". In Guernsey, legislation refers to the "Crown in right of the Bailiwick", the Law Officers of the Crown of Guernsey submitted that "The Crown in this context ordinarily means the Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey" and that this comprises "the collective governmental and civic institutions, established by and under the authority of the Monarch, for the governance of these Islands, including the States of Guernsey and legislatures in the other Islands, the Royal Court and other courts, the Lieutenant Governor, Parish authorities, the Crown acting in and through the Privy Council."
This constitutional concept is worded as the "Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Guernsey". Since 1290, the Channel Islands have been governed as the Bailiwick of Jersey, comprising the island of Jersey and uninhabited islets such as the Minquiers and Écréhous the Bailiwick of Guernsey, comprising the islands of Guernsey, Alderney, Herm and Lihou; each Bailiwick is a Crown dependency and each is headed by a Bailiff, with a Lieutenant Governor representing the Crown in each Bailiwick. Each Bailiwick has its own legal and healthcare systems, its own separate immigration policies, with "local status" in one Bailiwick having no jurisdiction in the other; the two Bailiwicks exercise bilateral double taxation treaties. Since 1961, the Bailiwicks have had separate courts of appeal, but the Bailiff of each Bailiwick has been appointed to serve on the panel of appellate judges for the other Bailiwick; the Bailiwick of Guernsey comprises three separate jurisdictions: Guernsey, which includes the nearby islands of Herm and Jethou, other smaller uninhabited islands.
Sark, which includes the nearby island of Brecqhou, other smaller uninhabited islands. Alderney, including smaller surrounding uninhabited islands; the parliament of Guernsey is the States of Deliberation, the parliament of Sark is called the Chief Pleas, the parliament of Alderney is called the States of Alderney. The three parliaments together can approve joint Bailiwick-wide legislation that applies in those parts of the Bailiwick whose parliaments approve it. Guernsey issues its own coins and banknotes: Guernsey banknotes Coins of the Guernsey poundThese circulate in both Bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes, they are not legal tender within the UK. There are no political parties in any of the parliaments. Guernsey has its own separate international vehicle registrations, internet domain, ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union and added by the International Organization for Standardization on 29 March 2006. In any case the GBG on a numberplate is only put on the number plate of a car or motorbike at the request of the vehicle owner and is not compulsory, however a motorbike/scooter can have an identical number to a car, e.g. 5432 on 2 wheels and on 4 wheels.
The Bailiwick of Jersey consists of the island of Jersey and a number of surrounding uninhabited islands. The parliament is the States of Jersey, the first known mention of, in a document of 1497; the States of Jersey Law 2005 introduced the post of Chief Minister of Jersey, abolished the Bailiff's power of dissent to a resolution of the States and the Lieutenant Governor's power of veto over a resolution of the States, established that any Order in Council or Act of the United Kingdom proposed to apply to Jersey must be referred to the States so that the States can express their views on it. Jersey issues its own coins and banknotes: Jersey banknotes Coins of the Jersey poundThese circulate in both Bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes, they are not legal tender within
Vice Admiral Sir Ian Fergus Corder, is a retired senior Royal Navy officer who served as UK Military Representative to NATO. In 2016, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey. Educated at Rugby School and Peterhouse, Corder joined the Royal Navy in 1978, he commanded the submarine HMS Oracle the submarine HMS Splendid and the frigate HMS Cumberland. He went on to become Naval Assistant to the First Sea Lord, Deputy Director of the unit at the Ministry of Defence responsible for policy regarding NATO, the European Union and the United Nations and Chief of the Strategic Systems Executive. After that he became Director of Naval Personnel Strategy and Deputy Commander Naval Striking and Support Forces NATO before becoming Commander Operations and Rear Admiral, Submarines in March 2011 and in that capacity he was the UK's Maritime Commander for operations over Libya in Spring 2011, he attended the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton in April 2011. He went on to be UK Military Representative to NATO in May 2013.
Corder retired from the Royal Navy on 1 July 2016. In March 2016 Corder was announced as the next Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey, to assume the post by May, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2016 Birthday Honours