Estates of the realm
The estates of the realm were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom from the medieval period to early modern Europe. Different systems for dividing society members into estates developed and evolved over time, the best known system is the French Ancien Régime, a three-estate system used until the French Revolution. Monarchy was for the king and the queen and this system was made up of clergy, furthermore, the non-landowning poor could be left outside the estates, leaving them without political rights. In England, a system evolved that combined nobility and bishops into one lordly estate with commons as the second estate. This system produced the two houses of parliament, the House of Commons and the House of Lords, in southern Germany, a three-estate system of nobility and burghers was used. Today the term Fourth Estate usually refers to forces outside the power structure. Historically, in Northern and Eastern Europe, the Fourth Estate meant rural commoners, during the Middle Ages individuals were born into their class and change in social position was difficult.
The medieval Church was the institution where social mobility was most likely up to a certain level, however, only nobility were appointed to the highest church positions, although low nobility could aspire to the highest church positions. Another possible way to rise in position was due to exceptional military or commercial success. Such families were rare and their rise to nobility required royal patronage at some point, medieval political speculation is imbued to the marrow with the idea of a structure of society based upon distinct orders, Johan Huizinga observes. There are, first of all, the estates of the realm, but there are the trades, the state of matrimony and that of virginity, at court there are the four estates of the body and mouth, bread-masters, cup-bearers and cooks. In the Church there are orders and monastic orders. Finally there are the different orders of chivalry and this static view of society was predicated on inherited positions. Commoners were universally considered the lowest order, a persons estate and position within it were usually inherited from the father and his occupation, similar to a caste within that system.
In many regions and realms there existed population groups born outside these specifically defined resident estates, legislative bodies or advisory bodies to a monarch were traditionally grouped along lines of these estates, with the monarch above all three estates. Meetings of the estates of the realm became early legislative and judicial parliaments, monarchs often sought to legitimize their power by requiring oaths of fealty from the estates. Today, in most countries, the estates have lost all their legal privileges, one of the earliest political pamphlets to address these ideas was called What Is the Third Estate. It was written by Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès in January 1789, the struggle over investiture and the reform movement legitimized all secular authorities, partly on the grounds of their obligation to enforce discipline
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, located in South Holland, within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270 when a dam was constructed in the Rotte river by people settled around it for safety, in 1340 Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland and slowly grew into a major logistic and economic centre. Nowadays it is home to Europes largest port and has a population of 633,471, ranking second in the Netherlands, just behind Amsterdam. The Greater Rijnmond area is home to approximately 1.4 million people, Rotterdam is part of the yet larger Randstad conurbation with a total population of 7,100,000. The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life, the near-complete destruction of Rotterdams city centre during World War II has resulted in a varied architectural landscape including sky-scrapers, which are an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities. Rotterdam is home to some world-famous architecture from renowned architects like Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, Ben van Berkel and others.
Recently Rotterdam was listed eighth in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit, the port of Rotterdam is the largest cargo port in Europe and the 10th largest in the world. Rotterdams logistic success is based on its location on the North Sea. The rivers Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nickname Gateway to Europe, conversely, Gateway to the World in Europe. The settlement at the end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. A dam on the Rotte or Rotterdam was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat, on 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which had approximately 2,000 inhabitants. The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six chambers of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdams rapid growth, when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the worlds largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality, many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes, from there the British coordinated espionage in Germany and occupied Belgium. In WWI an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters, during World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, the Dutch army was finally forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following Hitlers bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and threatening to bomb other Dutch cities
Schoonhoven is a city and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Since 2015 it has been a part of the municipality of Krimpenerwaard, the former municipality had a population of 11,900 in 2014, and covered an area of 6.92 km2 of which 0.65 km2 water. From 2010 to 2014, it was the smallest municipality in the Netherlands in land area, the first winner of the Dutch version of Pop Idol, Jamai Loman, is from this town. Also Jan-Arie van der Heijden, football player for Feyenoord, lives in Schoonhoven, circa 1220 a castle was built on the north side of a small stream called Zevender, near its mouth at the Lek River. The city of Schoonhoven was formed near the castle, the oldest reference to the city is in a document from 1247, where it is referred to as Sconhoven. In 1280, it was granted city rights, around 1350, city walls and gates were constructed. The citys economy depended on shipping, brewing and agriculture, Schoonhoven was the marketplace for the region.
In 1518, the burned down and its remnants were removed in subsequent decades. Between 1582 and 1601 the citys walls were renewed and expanded to include the shipyards as well. At this point, the fortifications mainly faced eastward, because of the historically strategical location on the border between the County of Holland and the Bishopric of Utrecht, following the Disaster Year of 1672, they were reinforced once again and expanded on the west and north sides. Yet in 1816, when fortifications were no longer relevant to the warfare of the time, they were mostly demolished and made way for a cemetery. Nowadays, most of the city walls and gates too have disappeared, the only remaining medieval entrance gate of Schoonhoven is the Veerpoort that faces the Lek River. This Veerpoort has protected Schoonhoven from the floods of the river Rhine, by 1860, the city had 2900 inhabitants. Not until the middle of the 20th century did the city expand beyond the former limits, firstly in a north-westerly direction.
Schoonhoven is known for its silver and therefore carries the nickname, since the 17th century and gold smiths have been working here. Today, Schoonhoven is still known for its silver and it is the host of Het Nederlands Zilvermuseum and the International Silver School. Schoonhoven is known for is its production of clocks, there still is a variety of clock makers in Schoonhoven, some of which can be visited. A beautiful example of a large clockwork is the Van den Gheyn Beiaard in the tower of the town hall of Schoonhoven
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles
Hoorn is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is located on the Markermeer,35 kilometres north of Amsterdam, Hoorn had a population of 71,888 in 2014. The area of the municipality is 53.25 km2 of which 33.00 km2 consists of water, the municipality consists of the following villages and/or districts, Hoorn and parts of Bangert and De Hulk. Cape Horn, the most southerly point of the Americas, was named after the town by Willem Schouten, the Hoorn Islands of the Oceanian nation of Wallis and Futuna are named after this city. The origin of the name Hoorn, even in old spelling Hoern or Hoirne, is surrounded in myths, Hoorns name, according to Old Frisian legends, is derived from the stepson of King Redbad, called Hornus. A third version says that the name was derived from the shape of one of its first ports. The author of the Origo Civitatis Hornensis assumes that name Hoorn was derived from Damphoorn, Damphoorn is the medieval name for a weed that could be made into whistles, which grew in abundance in the area outside the dykes of Hoorn.
Chronicler Velius rejects this statement because there are no old historical entries that Hoorn was called Damphoorn and he wrote, The name was from the start Hoorn, not derived from the weed Damphoorn, as the current sentiment holds. Velius rejects the assertion that the origin is Dampter Horn, a neighbourhood of the village Dampten. The name is most probably derived from Hornicwed, a name that is popping up in early mediaeval documents, the medieval meaning of hornic is corner, with wed or wedor being the medieval word for water. Many places and neighbourhoods in the Netherlands are called, even today, Huurne, Hornicwed would therefore refer to the location of a corner on the coastline, the location of Hoorn at the Zuiderzee. We see hornic in the meaning of corner reflected in another municipality in the mediaeval County of Holland, meaning uithoek and this area was abandoned and flooded after 1391, following the abandonment of the old dyke. A new dyke was built inland, resulting in a bay which is now the Hoornse Hop.
Hoorn was already in existence then, founded in 716, Hoorn rapidly grew to become a major harbour town. During Hollands Golden Age, Hoorn was an important home base for the Dutch East India Company, the Hoorn fleet plied the seven seas and returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg and mace were sold at vast profits, with their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the towns name far and wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies and he has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn. In 1618 Willem Bontekoe undertook his first and only voyage for the VOC, Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam, the city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the Delf, which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court, from a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century received its charter. The towns association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, at the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years War. By Delft was one of the cities of Holland. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled, after the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion, known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district, cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague, Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include, Oude Kerk, buried here, Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496 and it contains the Dutch royal familys burial vault, which between funerals is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius made by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886 and this is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645, the Vermeer Centre in the rebuilt Guild house of St. Luke. Windmill De Roos, a mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013, another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century, the city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft
Count of Holland
The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. The first count of Holland, Dirk I, was the son or foster-son of Gerolf and he received land around Egmond from Charles the Fat at a place called Bladella in 922. This is seen as the beginning of the county of Holland, until about 1100, the usual names for the county were West-Friesland, Frisia or Kennemerland, in spite of this the counts from Dirk I onwards are named of Holland. Note that the chronology of the first few counts is uncertain and this third Count Dirk is placed between Dirk I and II and numbered as Dirk I bis to avoid confusion with the already established numbering referring to the other counts of Holland named Dirk. John of Avesnes was a son of Adelaide of Holland, sister of William II of Holland, during the rule of Margaret, her son William V had the real power in the county. He became ruler in his own right as a result of the Hook and he was Duke of Bavaria-Straubing as William I.
This war was won by Philip of Burgundy in 1432. Philip was a nephew of William VI, who had married a daughter of Philip the Bold of Burgundy, in 1432 he forced Jacqueline to abdicate from Hainaut and Holland on his behalf. In 1581, the Estates General of the United Provinces declared themselves independent from the Spanish rule of Philip II. Until the Treaty of Münster in 1648, the kings of Spain still used the title Count of Holland, but they had lost the actual power over the county to the States of Holland. Philip IV, King Philip III of Spain Philip V, King Philip IV of Spain The County remained in existence as a constituent member state of the Dutch Republic until 1795. There were no more Counts however since the Estates of Holland, the Stadtholders, who were servants of the Estates were the de facto Chief-Executives during this period. Counts of Holland family tree A book of 32 plates of the counts of Holland published in Amsterdam in 1663, engraved by Adriaen Matham B. K. S. Dijkstra, Een stamboom in been, Amsterdam 1991
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. From the 10th to the 16th century, Holland proper was a political region within the Holy Roman Empire as a county ruled by the Counts of Holland. By the 17th century, Holland had risen to become a maritime and economic power, the name Holland first appeared in sources in 866 for the region around Haarlem, and by 1064 was being used as the name of the entire county. By this time, the inhabitants of Holland were referring to themselves as Hollanders, Holland is derived from the Middle Dutch term holtland. This spelling variation remained in use until around the 14th century, a popular folk etymology holds that Holland is derived from hol land and was inspired by the low-lying geography of Holland. The proper name of the area in both Dutch and English is Holland, Holland is a part of the Netherlands. Holland is informally used in English and other languages, including sometimes the Dutch language itself, the people of Holland are referred to as Hollanders in both Dutch and English.
Today this refers specifically to people from the current provinces of North Holland, strictly speaking, the term Hollanders does not refer to people from the other provinces in the Netherlands, but colloquially Hollanders is sometimes used in this wider sense. In Dutch, the Dutch word Hollands is the form for Holland. In English, Dutch refers to the Netherlands as a whole, the word Hollandish is no longer in common use. Hollandic is the name give to the dialect spoken in Holland, and is occasionally used by historians. Initially, Holland was a corner of the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, its importance increased until it began to have a decisive. Until the start of the 12th century, the inhabitants of the area that became Holland were known as Frisians, the area was initially part of Frisia. At the end of the 9th century, West-Frisia became a county in the Holy Roman Empire. The first Count known about with certainty was Dirk I, who ruled from 896 to 931 and he was succeeded by a long line of counts in the House of Holland.
When John I, count of Holland, died childless in 1299, by the time of William V the count of Holland was the count of Hainaut and Zealand
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Lord of Berkel en Rodenrijs and Bakkum was a Dutch statesman who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. Van Oldenbarnevelt was born in Amersfoort and he studied law at Leuven, Bourges and Padua, and traveled in France and Italy before settling in The Hague. He supported William the Silent in his revolt against Spain, in his years he was a supporter of the Arminians, in the religious-political controversy which split the young Dutch Republic. Van Oldenbarnevelt served as a volunteer for the relief of Haarlem and he was married in 1575 to Maria van Utrecht. In 1576 he obtained the important post of pensionary of Rotterdam, in this capacity his industry, singular grasp of affairs, and persuasive powers of speech speedily gained for him a position of influence. He was active in promoting the Union of Utrecht and the offer of the countship of Holland and Zeeland to William the Silent. He was an opponent of the policies of the Earl of Leicester, the governor‐general at the time, and instead favoured Maurice of Nassau.
Leicester left in 1587, leaving the power in the Netherlands to Maurice. During the governorship of Leicester, Van Oldenbarnevelt was the leader of the opposition offered by the States of Holland to the centralizing policy of the governor. On 16 March 1586, Van Oldenbarnevelt, in succession to Paulus Buys, became Lands Advocate of Holland for the States of Holland and this great office, given to a man of commanding ability and industry, offered unbounded influence in a multi-headed republic without any central executive authority. Though nominally the servant of the States of Holland, Van Oldenbarnevelt made himself the political personification of the province which bore more than half the charge of the union. As mouthpiece of the States-General, he dominated the assembly. In a brief period, he entrusted with such large and far-reaching authority in all details of administration. During the two years following the withdrawal of Leicester, the Advocates statesmanship kept the United Provinces from collapsing under their own inherent separatist tendencies.
This prevented the United Provinces from becoming an easy conquest for the army of Alexander of Parma. Also of good fortune for the Netherlands, the attention of Philip II of Spain was at its greatest weakness, spains lack of attention coupled with the United Provinces lack of central, organized government allowed Van Oldenbarnevelt to gain control of administrative affairs. His task was made easier by receiving whole-hearted support from Maurice of Nassau and he was Captain-General and Admiral of the Union. The interests and ambitions of Van Oldenbarnevelt and Maurice did not clash, Maurices thoughts were centered on training and leading armies, and he had no special capacity as a statesman or desire for politics
The Batavian Revolution was a political and cultural turmoil at the end of the 18th century that marked the end of the Dutch Republic and saw the proclamation of the Batavian Republic. The period of Dutch history that followed the revolution is referred to as the Batavian-French era even though the time spanned was only 20 years, by the end of the 18th century, the Netherlands found themselves in a deep economic crisis, caused by the devastating Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Like in much of Europe, the people of the Netherlands grew increasingly discontent with the regime of the stadtholder. During this time, the banks of the Dutch Republic held much of the worlds capital, the government sponsored banks owned up to 40% of Great Britains national debt. This concentration of wealth led to the formation of the Dutch Patriots by a minor Dutch noble named Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol and they were seeking to reduce the amount of power held by the stadtholder. The Patriots held Holland and the city of Utrecht, while the Orangists held the states of Guelders and Utrecht.
In 1785, stadtholder William V fled his palace in the west of the country for Nijmegen in the east, in May 1787, the stadholders troops were defeated by the militia of Utrecht near Vreeswijk. When Princess Wilhelmina was stopped by militia near Goejanverwellesluis on June 28,1787. On September 13 a Prussian army of 20,000 men under the command of Duke of Brunswick crossed the border, the fortress of Vianen was deserted, the city of Utrecht opened its gates. At the fortress of Woerden preparations for defense were made, in Amsterdam several houses of patriot regents were plundered by mob. The stadholder returned to Gravenhage and Amsterdam, the last city to hold out, the Patriots continued urging citizens to resist the government by distributing pamphlets, creating Patriot Clubs and holding public demonstrations. The government responded by pillaging those towns where the opposition was concentrated, most Patriots went into exile in France, while Hollands own Ancien Régime strengthened its grip on Dutch government chiefly through the Orangist Grand Pensionary Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel.
Only two years later, the French Revolution began, which embraced many of the ideas that the Patriots had espoused in their own revolt. The Stadtholder joined the ill-fated First Coalition of countries in their attempt to subdue the suddenly anti-Austrian French First Republic, however, in many cities revolution broke out even before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees took over the city governments, and the national government also. The Batavian Revolution ended with the proclamation of the Batavian Republic in 1795, William was forced to flee to England, where he issued the Kew Letters proclaiming that all Dutch colonies were to fall under British rule, as they had declared war on the Batavian Republic. A number of colonies, such as Sri Lanka and the Cape Colony, never returned to Dutch rule. Several coups followed in 1798,1801 and 1805 which brought different groups of Patriots to power, though the French presented themselves as liberators, they behaved like conquerors. The Batavian Republic saw its end in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was founded, with Napoleons brother, Louis Napoleon as King of Holland
States General of the Netherlands
The States General is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The parliament meets at the Binnenhof in The Hague, the States General originated in the 15th century as an assembly of all the provincial states of the Burgundian Netherlands. The States General were replaced by the National Assembly after the Batavian Revolution of 1795, only to be restored in 1814, the States General was divided into a Senate and a House of Representatives in 1815, with the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. On exceptional occasions, the two form a joint session known as the United Assembly. The President of the Senate serves as President of the States General during a United Assembly, ankie Broekers-Knol has been President of the Senate since 2013. The archaic Dutch word staten originally related to the classes in which medieval European societies were stratified, the clergy, the nobility. The word eventually came to mean the political body in which the estates were represented.
Each province in the Habsburg Netherlands had its own staten and these representative bodies in turn were represented in the assembly that came to be known as Staten-Generaal, or Algemene Staten. The English word states may have a meaning as the Dutch word staten. The English phrases States General is probably a translation of the Dutch word. Historically, the term was used for the name of other national legislatures as, for example, the Catalan and Valencian Generalitat. Several geographic place names are derived from the States General, in 1609, Henry Hudson established Dutch trade in Staten Island, New York City and named the island Staaten Eylandt after the States General. Isla de los Estados, now an Argentine island, was named after this institution. Abel Tasman originally gave the name Staten Landt to what would become New Zealand, Staaten River is a river in the Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Later, regular sessions were held at Coudenberg in Brussels, the next important event was the convocation of the States General by the ducal Council for 3 February 1477 after the death of Charles the Bold.
In this session the States General forced the grant of the Great Privilege by Mary of Burgundy in which the right of the States General to convene on their own initiative was recognised, in 1576 the States General as a whole, openly rebelled against the Spanish crown. In 1579 the States General split as a number of provinces, united in the Union of Arras returned to obedience, while other provinces. After the Act of Abjuration in 1581 the northern States General replaced Philip II as the authority of the northern Netherlands
Gorinchem, called Gorkum, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 21.93 km2 of which 3.01 km2 is water and it had a population of 35,271 in 2014. The municipality of Gorinchem includes the centre of Dalem. It is assumed that Gorinchem was founded circa the year 1000 by fishermen, goriks Heem is first mentioned in a document from 1224 in which Floris IV granted people from Gorinchem exemption of toll payments throughout Holland. Somewhere between 1247 and 1267, Gorinchem became property of the Lords of Arkel, at the end of the 13th century earthen mounts reinforced with palisades were built around the settlement to protect it from domination by the neighboring counties of Holland and Gelre. Half a century real city walls were complete with 7 gates and 23 watchtowers. Otto van Arkel granted it city rights on 11 November 1322, jan van Arkel had a dispute with Albert I, brother of Willem V of Holland, leading to war and subsequently to the annexation of Gorinchem to Holland in 1417.
This resulted in increased trade and Gorinchem grew to be the city of Holland. On 9 July 1572, the Watergeuzen conquered the city and captured 19 Catholic priests, because they refused to renounce their faith, these priests and monks were brought to Brielle where they were hanged and were from on known among Catholics as the Martyrs of Gorkum. In the 16th century the city walls were so deteriorated that they were replaced with new fortifications and eleven bastions, the new walls were rounded off in 1609 and were placed farther from the town centre, making the city twice as large. In 1673 Gorinchem became part of the old Dutch Water Line, the city walls had four city gates, the Arkel Gate in the north, the Dalem Gate in the east, the Water Gate in the south, and the Kansel Gate in the west. Of these four only the Dalem Gate remains. The others were removed in the 19th century to make way for vehicular traffic, a portion of the Water Gate was preserved in the gardens of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
In the 18th century, the economy went into decline, after the French domination, the retreating French troops took station in the bastion fortress of Gorinchem. After a three-month siege they capitulated but the city was heavily damaged, during the Industrial Revolution, Gorinchem recovered. Increased shipping led to new canals being dug and a connection to the city. Its population quickly rose, filling the innercity and new neighbourhoods had to be built outside the city walls, at the beginning of the 20th century, expansion took place in the Lingewijk and West neighbourhoods. After World War II, expansion started in the portion of the municipality which was completed in the 1970s