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Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory is a type of semiconductor random-access memory that uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. SRAM exhibits data remanence, but it is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is lost when the memory is not powered; the term static differentiates SRAM from DRAM. SRAM is faster and more expensive than DRAM. In 1965, Arnold Farber and Eugene Schlig, working for IBM, created a hard-wired memory cell, using a transistor gate and tunnel diode latch, they replaced the latch with two transistors and two resistors, a configuration that became known as the Farber-Schlig cell. In 1965, Benjamin Agusta and his team at IBM created a 16-bit silicon memory chip based on the Farber-Schlig cell, with 80 transistors, 64 resistors, 4 diodes; the first commercial DRAM was produced the same year, 1965. Advantages: Simplicity – a refresh circuit is not needed Performance Reliability Low idle power consumptionDisadvantages: Price Density High operational power consumption The power consumption of SRAM varies depending on how it is accessed.

On the other hand, static RAM used at a somewhat slower pace, such as in applications with moderately clocked microprocessors, draws little power and can have a nearly negligible power consumption when sitting idle – in the region of a few micro-watts. Several techniques have been proposed to manage power consumption of SRAM-based memory structures. General purpose products with asynchronous interface, such as the ubiquitous 28-pin 8K × 8 and 32K × 8 chips, as well as similar products up to 16 Mbit per chip with synchronous interface used for caches and other applications requiring burst transfers, up to 18 Mbit per chip integrated on chip as RAM or cache memory in micro-controllers as the primary caches in powerful microprocessors, such as the x86 family, many others to store the registers and parts of the state-machines used in some microprocessors on application specific ICs, or ASICs in Field Programmable Gate Array and Complex Programmable Logic Device Many categories of industrial and scientific subsystems, automotive electronics, similar, contain static RAM.

Some amount is embedded in all modern appliances, etc. that implement an electronic user interface. Several megabytes may be used in complex products such as digital cameras, cell phones, etc. SRAM in its dual-ported form is sometimes used for real-time digital signal processing circuits. SRAM is used in personal computers, workstations and peripheral equipment: CPU register files, internal CPU caches and external burst mode SRAM caches, hard disk buffers, router buffers, etc. LCD screens and printers normally employ static RAM to hold the image displayed. Static RAM was used for the main memory of some early personal computers such as the ZX80, TRS-80 Model 100 and Commodore VIC-20. Hobbyists home-built processor enthusiasts prefer SRAM due to the ease of interfacing, it is much easier to work with than DRAM as there are no refresh cycles and the address and data buses are directly accessible. In addition to buses and power connections, SRAM requires only three controls: Chip Enable, Write Enable and Output Enable.

In synchronous SRAM, Clock is included. Non-volatile SRAMs, or nvSRAMs, have standard SRAM functionality, but they save the data when the power supply is lost, ensuring preservation of critical information. NvSRAMs are used in a wide range of situations – networking and medical, among many others – where the preservation of data is critical and where batteries are impractical. PSRAMs have a DRAM storage core, combined with a self refresh circuit, they appear externally as a slower SRAM. They have a density/cost advantage over true SRAM, without the access complexity of DRAM. Bipolar junction transistor – fast but consumes a lot of power MOSFET – low power and common today Asynchronous – independent of clock frequency. Synchronous – all timings are initiated by the clock edge. Address, data in and other control signals are associated with the clock signals. In 1990s, asynchronous SRAM used to be employed for fast access time. Asynchronous SRAM was used as main memory for small cache-less embedded processors used in everything from industrial electronics and measurement systems to hard disks and networking equipment, among many other applications.

Nowadays, synchronous SRAM is rather employed like Synchronous DRAMDDR SDRAM memory is rather used than asynchronous DRAM. Synchronous memory interface is much faster as access time can be reduced by employing pipeline architecture. Furthermore, as DRAM is much cheaper than SRAM, SRAM is replaced by DRAM in the case when large volume of data is required. SRAM memory is however much faster for random access. Therefore, SRAM memory is used for CPU cache, small on-chip memory, FIFOs or other small buffers. Zero bus turnaround – the turnaround is the number of clock cycles it take

Kincardine O'Neil Hospital, Aberdeenshire

Kincardine O'Neil Hospital was founded in the 13th century in the village of Kincardine O'Neil in Scotland. It served as a traveler's inn and as a hospice for elderly and "poor" men; the hospital was situated adjacent to a bridge over the River Dee and may have been a chantry for the early Bishops of Mortlach. Remains of a building can be seen abutted to the Auld Parish Church in Kincardine O'Neil; this building may have been a or second hospital. It is possible that these ruins may have been part of St Erchard's Church - a.k.a. St Marys' or the Auld Kirk. There is no certainty with regard to its location; the first reference to a hospital being built comes from the 1233 Charter by Alan the Durward. Confirmatory evidence can be found in 1296 in the Second Ragman Roll. On 28 August 1296 " …Wautier master of the hospital of Kincardine ou Neel …" signed the Roll at Berwick on Tweed. Two possible sites have been identified. Most it was founded by Alan or Thomas Durward between 1241 and 1244 abutting St Erchard's Church.

It was built near St Mary's Church – the "Auld Kirk" in Kincardine O'Neil. In 1330 the hospital and its church was erected into a prebend of Aberdeen Cathedral, it may have stood in a field known locally as "Bladernach" near a 19th-century ferryboat station on the river Dee at NO 5874 9933. There was no local knowledge of Bladernach in June 1972; the following description comes from Places of Worship in Scotland: The church is thought to stand on, or near, the site of the first church established by St Erchard, the patron saint of Kincardine O'Neil, who brought Christianity here in the 5th century. He was taught at nearby Banchory by St Ternan; the church is located in this case the River Dee. There was an important river crossing point here, on the main route between Mar.. The current church remains are thought to date to the 14th century, it was recorded that the church was built as a gift by Earl of Fife. Alexander Kyninmund, Bishop of Aberdeen, rebuilt the church some time in the mid 14th century.

A hospital was attached to the east of the church but was demolished some time before the church itself went out of use, leaving just the foundation stones. The church became ruinous after a new church was built in 1862; the interior was converted into burial plots. The graveyard surrounding the church has many gravestones from the 19th century; the most comprehensive archaeological survey of the Church and the remains of the hospital are found in Douglas Simpson's book. In this he identifies the lancet windows in the east gable as strong evidence for the existence of the abutted building - the hospital, his argument is that the residents of the hospital - both travellers and the sick or needy would be able to hear Mass from the Church through the windows. The windows, when viewed from the outside of the church ruins are internal windows. See the photograph alongside. Douglas Simpson writes as follows: on the outside of the present east gable are three aumbries... and above this the gable is traversed by a scarcement for a floor.... on the other side of the inserted windows are the sides of two original windows opening into the church....

There can be little doubt the eastern... portion of the building contained the hospital, a two storied annex of which the upper room will have formed the dormitory in which bed-ridden inmates would have herd services … a somewhat similar structural association of hospital and chapel is known in Belgium… or in the Preceptory of the Knights Templar at Torphican in Midlothian. The definitive account of medieval hospitals in Scotland by Cowan & Easson concurs with this assessment. Circumstantial evidence with regard to the location of the hospital being abutted to the church comes from several other medieval hospitals. In England, the monastic infirmary at Christ Church Canterbury; the infirmary hall of St Mary Magdalene at Glastonbury follows this structure. The 19th-century volume Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis provides further evidence. Alan Durward is recorded making provision for an existing Hospital founded by his father Thomas de Lundin or Thomas Durward; the first occasion is in 1233 when he makes a grant of a "davach/davoch" of land called Slutheluthy to support the Hospital.

The 1845 transcription into Latin reads: "…. Alanus Hostiarius omnibus amicis et hominibus suis salutem Sciant presentes et futuri me dedisse concessisse et hac presenti carta mea confirmasse Deo et beate Marie et hospitali eiusdem genetricis Dei sito iuxta pontem quem pater meus fecit construi super Dee et fratribus in eodem hospitali Deo seruientibus et seruituris in perpetuum in puram et perpetuam elemosinam ad sustentationem eorundem et pauperum receptionem unam dauacham terre que dictur Sutheluthy per suas rectas diuisas et cum omnibus iustis pertinenciis suis et ecclesiam de Kyncardyn in Marr cum omnibus iustis pertinenciis suis Quare uolo et concedo ut predictum hospitale et fratres in eo seruientes Deo et seruituri in perpetuum predictam ecclesiam et predictam terram habeant tenneant et possideant in puram et perpetuam elemosinam per suas rectas diuisas et cum onmibus iustis pertinenciis suis in terris et aquis in bosco et plano in pratis et pascuis in moris et marresiis in lacubus et piscariis in viis et semitis in feris et auibus in stagnis et molendinis adeo libere quiete plenarie et honorifice sicut aliqua elemosina in regno Sco

Tribal Research Institute Museum

Tribal Research Institute Museum, Museum of Tribal Arts and Artifacts, is a museum in Bhubaneswar, Odisha inside the campus of Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Research & Training Institute. It is popularly conceptually labeled as Museum of Man, it has life-sized authentic tribal dwellings, created by the tribal craftsmen offers a view of the State's tribal heritage. It has sections which showcase tribal artifacts and objects, focusing on well researched, documented cultural life of tribals of Odisha, it is headed by a Director, in the rank of a University Professor, the administrative control lies in the hands of ST, SC, Backward Classes Welfare Department, Government of Odisha. This Museum is an integrated part of the Scheduled Castles and Scheduled Tribes Research and Training Institute, which disseminates knowledge covering the human species in totality. Conceptually labeled as "Museum of Man", it was established in the year 1953. In 1986, 5 tribal huts, representing Santal, Gadaba and Kandha communities, were constructed and the tribal artifacts were displayed here for visitors.

On 5 March 2001, the new museum building was inaugurated. There are 5 halls in the museum and the displays are categorised the following way - Hall I - Personal Adornments Hall II - Personal Belongings, Paintings & Photographs Hall III - Hunting & Fishing Implements & Weapons of Offence and Defense Hall IV - Household Objects and Agricultural Implements Hall V - Dance, Musical Instruments and Dhokra Items

Naval Support Activity Philadelphia

Naval Support Activity Philadelphia is a 134 acres United States Navy base located in the Lawncrest section of Northeast Philadelphia and located 113 miles east of its parent command, NSA Mechanicsburg. With the exception of a few buildings, much of the base is industrial in style, consists of office-converted warehouses for the various Naval supply commands located on the installation. According to the base guide, its warehouse offices and other buildings amount to 2,250,000 square feet of cubic space on the base, it provides support services to Navy units that are situated at the old Philadelphia Navy Yard. The history of what is now Naval Support Activity Philadelphia began during World War II as the Naval Aviation Supply Depot in 1942. Prior to its purchase by the Navy in 1942, NSA Philadelphia was home to the Keystone Brick Company. A bustling enterprise that provided many facades throughout the city. One of the company’s most famous buildings was its headquarters. With elaborate brickwork, both interior and exterior, it was a structure of regional prominence.

After purchasing the brickyard site, the Navy refurbished the building into “Quarters A” home to the highest-ranking officer on the installation. From its inception, the Depot would act as not just a home to Naval Aviation parts, but was the headquarters of Defense Industrial Supply Center, the predecessor to Defense Logistics Agency. Who operated out of the Schuylkill Arsenal in Philadelphia. Built to function as a quartermaster and provide the U. S. military with supplies, one of its most famous tasks was outfitting the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This organization would grow and transition into the Defense Industrial Supply Center, its headquarters would locate at the Naval Aviation Supply Depot Compound in Northeast Philadelphia in the mid-1940s. In the late 1940s, the supply depot mission at NSA Philadelphia began to phase out. In response, the Navy converted storehouse space into a trend that continued for decades. Through its more recent history the Naval Support Activity has grown as Base Realignment and Closure Commission actions consolidated missions and moved them to the installation.

Defense Logistics Agency and the Naval Supply Systems Command are the two major tenants of the installations. Navy Recruiting Command's District Philadelphia is headquartered here as well, along with Civil Air Patrol Squadron 104, U. S. Naval Sea Cadet Corps's San Antonio Division and the Navy Special Emphasis Office of the Defense Contract Management Agency; the Navy Office of Civilian Human Resources has maintained its Philadelphia Operations Center on the base, since it moved from the Philadelphia Bourse building in 2011 after a BRAC decision. Base Guide for NSA Mechanicsburg - NSA Philadelphia - Philadelphia Naval Yard

Calcutta Youth Choir

Calcutta Youth Choir was set up in 1958 by Ruma Guha Thakurta with Salil Chowdhury and Satyajit Ray. Calcutta Youth Choir is known for their performance of mass songs. Several years ago, the choir broke out with the song'Aaj joto juddhabaaj'. Shibdas Bandopadhyay wrote V. Balsara composed the music; the songs performed by choir under the direction of Ruma Guha Thakurta includes song of Dwijendralal Ray, Rabindranath Tagore, Rajanikanta Sen, Nazrul Islam, Prem Dhawan, Sudhin Dasgupta, Salil Chowdhury and Sibdas Banerjee. In the year, July, 1974 20-member folk song and dance troupe of Calcutta Youth Choir led by Ruma Guha Thakurta, won the first prize in the Copenhagen Youth Festival; the choir took part in the 25th anniversary of Independence Day of India in Delhi. Opening song by Calcutta Youth Choir to welcome Nelson Mandela in India in 1990 and to honour Amartya Sen for Nobel in the year 1998, 21 June 2007 performing for 30 years Communist Party of India in West Bengal are the Laurels. More than 5000 shows have been performed by the choir led by Ruma Guha Thakurta.

There are more than 300 members in the choir involved in various activities like singing, playing musical instruments, etc. 3 December 1994, Calcutta Youth Choir celebrated its 36th anniversary to celebrate 50 years of Ruma Guha Thakurta's association with music and cinema where sitting chief minister of West Bengal Jyoti Basu, Bijoya Ray, Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, singer Usha Uthup, Amit Kumar and many other legend were present. In spite of her major heart attack since 2004 Ruma Guhathakurta is still performing; this is the only leading choir troupe of Calcutta performing continuously for the last 55 years. Former chief minister of West Bengal Buddhadeb Bhattacharya inaugurated the new building of the choir in South Calcutta on 29 December 2006. 2 May 2008 in the birthday of Satyajit Ray, Calcutta Youth Choir celebrated 50 years anniversary at Rabindrasadan, Kolkata in presence of Manna Dey, sitting speaker of Parliament Somenath Chatterjee, Sabita Chowdury, Mayor of Kolkata Bikash Bhattacharia, Suchitra Mitra and others.

Manna Dey and Sabita Chowdury participated in the song Janeywaleey Sipahi under the direction of Ruma Guha Thakurta. 16 September 2010, choir celebrated its 52nd anniversary where 6 members of Calcutta Youth Choir were honoured for performing with the choir for more than 50 years by Ruma Guha Thakurta. 9 April 2012, choir celebrated its 54th anniversary of Calcutta Youth Choir headed by Ruma Guha Thakurta. This was the last show Guha Thakurta conducted the show. 11 June 2013, choir celebrated its 55th anniversary of Calcutta Youth Choir. For the first time Ruma Guha Thakurta was not present in the Annual Show due to her deteriorating health condition. 27 January 2013, the choir hosted a Dance and Music Festival held at the Uttarpara Jaikrishna Ground. This event showcased the true culture of Bengali music accompanied with folk dance. 5 May 2013, the choir performed a collection of patriotic songs at the Gitanjali Stadium. 23 January 2014, the choir made their next appearance at the Mother Teresa International Award Ceremony and performed various folk songs to keep the audience and dignitaries entertained.

In May 2014, they performed hit numbers at Pete Seeger's Tribute Concert at the Tollygunge Club. On 4 July and 17 October 2014 the choir performed in St. James’ School and on both the occasions and performed their trademark folk and mass songs. 8 January 2015, the choir performed at Bhantala High School and entertained the crowd with their enthralling music. On 12 September 2015, the Calcutta Youth choir performed at the Golden Jubilee Celebration of Naragole Raj College in Midnapur. In July 2016, the choir performed at Rabindra Sadan to celebrate the birth anniversary of D. L. Roy, Atul Prasad Sen and Rajani Ratan Sen. On 30 December 2016, the Calcutta Youth Choir performed in a Sangeet Anusthan held in the district of Hedua; the Calcutta Youth Choir has performed at the Bangla Sangeet Mela organised by the Govt. of West Bengal on several occasions: 9 April 2013, the choir participated in the Bangla Sangeet Mela held at the Rabitirtha Hall in Newtown. In February 2014, 17 February 2015 and 18 December 2016 the choir yet again performed at the historic Bangla Sangeet Mela organised by the Govt. of West Bengal and held at Rabindra Sadan.

19 July 2015, the choir performed to celebrate the birth anniversary of D. L. Roy and Atul Prasad Sen at Rabindra Sadan. Beje Uthlo Ki Somoyer Ghori, A collection of mass songs released by HMV in 1976 Waqt Ki Awaz, A collection of modern songs released by HMV Prarthna Sangeet, A collection of devotional songs released by CBS All times Great Calcutta Youth Choir, A collection of selected track from HMV Amra Tori Beye Jai, A collection of mass songs released by HMV in 1981 Manusher Gaan Gai, A collection of mass songs released by HMV in 1982 Pochis Bochor Dhore, Released by HMV in the year 1983 on 25th Anniversary of the Choir Bharatbarsho Surger Ek Naam, A collection of Bengali modern songs released by HMV Swadesi Juger Gaan, a collection of patriotic songs released by HMV Chetonar Gaan, A collection of songs to welcome Nelson Mandela in India released by CBS in 1988 Besh Sotoker Gaan, A collection of Bengali mass songs released by Hindustan Records in 1990 celebrating 300th birthday of Calcutta Deshatobodok Gaan, A collection of patriotic songs released by Gathani in 1993 Din Agato Oi, A collection of modern songs released by Gathani in 1994 for the celebration of Bengali New Year Kadam Kadam Badaye Ja, A collection of INA songs by HMV n 100th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Bose in 1996 Mile Sobe Bharat Santan, A collection of

Gregory H. Johnson

Gregory Harold "Box" Johnson is a British-Born NASA astronaut and a retired colonel in the United States Air Force. Johnson is a veteran of two space flights, STS-123 and STS-134, he served as pilot on his first mission, which delivered the Kibo logistics module and the Dextre robot arm to the International Space Station. Johnson was assigned as the pilot to the STS-134 mission, which launched on May 16, 2011 and landed on June 1, 2011. Greg Johnson has served in numerous roles for NASA including as a Capcom for several missions. At present time Gregory H. Johnson is the President and Executive Director for the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space. Johnson was born in Greater London, United Kingdom, he graduated from Park Hills High School, Ohio in 1980. He is an Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering from the United States Air Force Academy in 1984, a Master of Science in flight structures engineering from Columbia University in 1985, a Master of Business Administration from the University of Texas at Austin in 2005.

Johnson is married to the former Cari M. Harbaugh, they have three children, Matthew and Rachel. Johnson received his commission from the United States Air Force Academy in May 1984 and attended pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Texas, he was retained as a T-38A instructor pilot until 1989, when he was selected for an F-15E Eagle assignment. After completing initial F-15E training, Johnson was assigned to the 335th Fighter Squadron, at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. In December 1990, Johnson deployed to Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia, flying 34 combat missions in support of Operation Desert Storm. In December 1992, he was again deployed to Saudi Arabia for three months, flying an additional 27 combat missions in support of Operation Southern Watch. In 1993, he was selected for Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base. After graduation, he was assigned to the 445th Flight Test Squadron at Edwards, where he flew and tested F-15C/E, NF-15B, T-38A/B aircraft, he has logged over 5,000 flight hours in more than 50 different aircraft.

The story of the name "Box" has been a mystery. During an interview with a group of Executive Management students at the University of Texas, Johnson stated that the origination of the name "Box Johnson" came from his tour in Desert Storm. Johnson incurred a back injury, he put all of his belongings in a box and he was taken back to the states. The box was left in the barracks as a reminder to all his fellow soldiers to stare at thinking about how he was at home. So after a while they wrote "Box Johnson" on the name stuck. Selected by NASA in June 1998, he reported for training in August 1998, he completed Astronaut Candidate Training in 2000. Following initial training and evaluation, astronaut candidates receive technical assignments within the Flight Crew Operations Directorate before being assigned to a space flight. In 2000, Johnson was assigned as a Technical Assistant to the Director, Flight Crew Operations Directorate. In conjunction with that position, Johnson was assigned to the Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade council – redesigning cockpit displays for future Space Shuttle missions.

His design and evaluation work with CAU has continued to the present. In 2001, Johnson was reassigned from FCOD to the Space Shuttle Branch, where he has held various positions including direct support to the crews of STS-100 and STS-108, chief of shuttle abort planning and procedures for contingency scenarios, ascent procedure development, he was a key player on several "tiger teams" during the investigation into the cause of the Columbia accident in 2003. Johnson was the astronaut representative to the External Tank foam impact test team that proved that ET foam debris on ascent could critically damage the shuttle's leading edge thermal protection system. In 2004, Johnson was designated as the Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Safety Branch, focusing on all aspects of Space Shuttle, ISS, T-38 safety, with special emphasis on improving specific operational procedures and techniques to make astronauts safer in all three vehicles. In 2005, Johnson was appointed as a crew representative supporting the design and testing of NASA's newest spacecraft, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

Johnson was the pilot on STS-123. The launch of STS-123 was March 11, 2008. Johnson was picked to be the mission's primary robotic arm operator, he continued to serve NASA as a civilian. Johnson was the pilot of STS-134, the final flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour and the penultimate flight of the Space Shuttle Program. Johnson has been awarded the 2005 Stephen D. Thorne Top Fox Safety Award, the 2005 Dean's Award for Academic Excellence, McCombs School of Business, NASA Superior Performance Award, the 1996 Lieutenant General Bobby Bond Award for the top Air Force test pilot. Johnson was a distinguished graduate of U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School and the U. S. Air Force Academy, his military decorations include the Distinguished Flying Cross, Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal, Aerial Achievement Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal, the Air Force Achievement Medal. Biography portal Spaceflight portal NASA bio of Gregory H. Johnson Spacefacts biography of Gregory H. Johnson