Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel; the statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue is a figure of a robed Roman liberty goddess, she holds a torch above her head with her right hand, in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI, the date of the U. S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery. After its dedication, the statue became an icon of the United States. Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U. S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.

S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U. S. build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was designed, these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions; the torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult for the Americans, by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar; the statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, assembled on the completed pedestal on what was called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.

The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and by the Department of War. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916. According to the National Park Service, the idea of a monument presented by the French people to the United States was first proposed by Édouard René de Laboulaye, president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent and important political thinker of his time; the project is traced to a mid-1865 conversation between Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist, Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. In after-dinner conversation at his home near Versailles, Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War, is supposed to have said: "If a monument should rise in the United States, as a memorial to their independence, I should think it only natural if it were built by united effort—a common work of both our nations." The National Park Service, in a 2000 report, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, that the statue was most conceived in 1870.

In another essay on their website, the Park Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences, "With the abolition of slavery and the Union's victory in the Civil War in 1865, Laboulaye's wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into a reality in the United States. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy." According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who recounted the story, Laboulaye's alleged comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi. Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other possible projects. Sketches and models were made of the proposed work.

There was a classical precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: an ancient bronze statue of the Greek god of the sun, Helios. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet high, it stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships. Both the khedive and Lesseps declined the proposed statue from Bartholdi; the Port Said Lighthouse was built instead, by François Coignet in 1869. Any large project was further delayed by the Franco-Prussian War, in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia. In the war, Napoleon III was deposed. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians, a more liberal republic was installed in France; as Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans. In June 1871, Bartholdi crossed the Atlantic, with letters of introduction signed by Laboulaye. Arri

Clanton Park, Toronto

Clanton Park, sometimes referred to as Dublin Heights or Wilson Heights, is a neighbourhood in the North York area of Toronto, Canada. It is part of federal and provincial electoral district York Centre, Toronto electoral wards 9: York Centre and 10: York Centre. In 2006, it had a population of 13,035, it is bordered on the north by Sheppard Avenue West, on the west by the Downsview Airport whose border includes Wilson Heights Boulevard and Dufferin Street, on the east by Bathurst Street, on the south by Highway 401. Clanton Park is sandwiched between Downsview Park CFB Downsview, Earl Bales Park, named after a former reeve of North York, it contains several smaller parks. William Duncan, a linen merchant from Ireland, settled a farm near the crossroads of Sheppard Avenue and Dufferin Street in 1827. A crossroads village was named Dublin after this farm. A general store was constructed in the late 1830s. Duncan built the one-room Dublin schoolhouse in 1872; the Neil Family Cottage, built circa 1900 and moved to its current location circa 1910 appears on Toronto's inventory of heritage properties.

The Beth David Synagogue, designed by Irving Grossman in 1959, is an example of cast concrete construction. The reliefs on the large concrete panels were designed by Canadian Artist Graham Coughtry; the neighbourhood used to be home to the Anglican Church of the Apostles on Sheppard Avenue until it was closed in 2012. The neighbourhood became part of the Township of North York which became a borough and a city, was incorporated into the city of Toronto. A large tract of land between Wilson Heights Boulevard and Faywood Boulevard that belonged to the Downsview airport was developed into housing around the 1990s; the neighbourhood is one of the largest Jewish areas of the city, but contains a large number of residents of Italian and Russian origin. The housing ranges from 1950s bungalow style homes to new medium rise condominiums. There is some low income high rise housing. Clanton Park's top ten ethnic and cultural groups in 2006: 24% - Jewish 16% - Italian 15% - Filipino 9% - Polish 9% - Canadian 7% - English 7% - Russian 5% - Irish 4% - Scottish 4% - ChineseThe percentage of population below the poverty line dropped from 24% to 21%.

Two public school boards operate schools in Clanton Park, the separate Toronto Catholic District School Board, the secular Toronto District School Board. Both TCDSB, TDSB operate public institutions that provide primary education in the neighbourhood. TCDSB operates St. Robert Catholic School, whereas TDSB operate Dublin Heights Elementary and Middle School, Faywood Arts-Based Curriculum School. Neither school board operates a secondary school in the neighbourhood, with TDSB secondary school students residing in Clanton Park attending institutions in adjacent neighbourhoods; the French first language public secular school board, Conseil scolaire Viamonde, it separate counterpart, Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir offer schooling to applicable residents of Clanton Park, although they do not operate a school in the neighbourhood. CSCM and CSV students attend schools situated in other neighbourhoods in Toronto. In addition to public schools, the neighbourhood is home to The Toronto Heschel School.

The school is a private school that occupies a building that housed Dublin Elementary and St. Robert Catholic School and Hudson College. Several major roadways serve as the neighbourhood's boundaries. Sheppard Avenue bounds the neighbourhood in the north, Bathurst Street to the east, Highway 401 to the south, Allen Road to the west. Highway 401, portions of Allen Road, south of Transit Road, are controlled access highway. Public transportation in Clanton Park is provided by the Toronto Transit Commission; the TTC operates several services in the neighbourhood, including bus routes, Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway. Two subway stations are located in the neighbourhood, Sheppard West, Wilson station. In addition to the TTC, bus routes operated by York Region Transit may be accessed from Sheppard West station. P. W. Hart, Pioneering in North York: A History of the Borough, General Publishing Company, Toronto, 1968. Clanton Park neighbourhood profile

Mechanics Hall (Boston, Massachusetts)

Mechanics Hall was a building and community institution on Huntington Avenue at West Newton Street, from 1881 to 1959. Commissioned by the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, it was built by the noted architect William Gibbons Preston; the building was located between Huntington avenue. It was razed for the Prudential Center urban renewal project of the early 1960s; the site is on the north side of Huntington Avenue, since 1941 has been served by Prudential Station of the MBTA Green Line "E" Branch. The building's sizable auditorium was host to conventions. Over the years the building was host to events such as boat shows, auto shows, dog shows, flower shows and sporting shows. For example, in 1883 the Foreign Exhibition Association held a large exhibit of "foreign arts and products". In 1883 the Olympian Club held a "floral display and costume carnival" that included indoor rollerskating, it was the home court of the Boston Whirlwinds of the American Basketball League. Today, the site is the location of the 111 Huntington Avenue.

Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association Mechanics Hall, Huntington Avenue History and images from the Boston Public Library Image of exhibit interior, c. 1881 Documents related to the razing of buildings for Prudential site Library of Congress, Historic American Buildings Survey. Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Suffolk County, MA Library of Congress. Photo of Creatore's Band on steps of Mechanics Building, Huntington Ave, Mass, 1903, by E. Chickering