New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. New Jersey lies entirely within the statistical areas of New York City. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, in the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. New Jersey was the site of decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Camden, Newark, around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey.
As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as rivers, swamps. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact, scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenape society was divided into clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign, Turtle and Wolf and they first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey, the Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of ownership was not recognized by the Lenape. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen, peter Minuits purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden.
During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and it was from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the states inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants
United States Park Police
The United States Park Police is one of the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agencies in the United States. It functions as a law enforcement agency with responsibilities and jurisdiction in those National Park Service areas primarily located in the Washington. San Francisco, and New York City areas and certain other government lands, the United States Park Police is one of the few full-service police departments in the federal government that possess both state and federal authority. The agency provides protection for the President, Secretary of the Interior, the Park Police is a unit of the National Park Service, which is a bureau of the Department of the Interior. The Park Watchmen were first recruited in 1791 by George Washington to protect federal property only in the District of Columbia. The Watchmen were given the powers and duties as the Metropolitan Police of Washington in 1882. Their authority first began to expand outside D. C and these sites include the National Mall, the C&O Canal towpath in the region, and the parallel roadways of the George Washington Memorial Parkway in Virginia and Clara Barton Parkway in Maryland.
The police functioned as an independent agency of the government until 1849. In 1867, Congress transferred the police to the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, in 1925, Congress placed the Park Police in the independent Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital. Headed by an Army officer, Lt. Col. Ulysses S. Grant III, in 1933, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt transferred the police to the National Park Service. C. Maryland, New Jersey, New York and California, One example would be the past deployment to the Dakotas to assist the Bureau of Indian Affairs. District 1, Officers at Hains Point provide policing for the downtown D. C. area, District 2, Officers provide coverage in three states at the GWMP Station. In Virginia, Fort Hunt, Mt. Vernon and the George Washington Memorial Parkway are primary responsibilities, in the District, Humpback Bridge and Lady Bird Johnson Parks. In Maryland, the Clara Barton Parkway is policed, the Presidio is exclusive federal jurisdiction.
District 9, This district is one of the two districts that make up the New York Field Office, District 9 provides patrol coverage for the Gateway National Recreation Area in Staten Island and Queens. Liberty Island is exclusive federal jurisdiction, in Virginia, USPP Officers are provided with Conservator of the Peace powers as set forth in 19. 2-12 of the Code of Virginia with powers and duties provided under 19. 2-18 of the Code of Virginia. In Washington, D. C. itself, USPP Officers have the same powers, USPP Officers possess a limited arrest authority in the State of Maryland. The U. S. Park Police hold state arrest authority in New York, in California, arrest powers are provided under California Penal Code Section 830.8
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same attributes as land, and enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the part by surrounding alien territory. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is partly surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states. The Azeri exclave of Naxçıvan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country, pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves.
Many pene-exclaves partially border their own territorial waters, a pene-enclave can exist entirely on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A commonly cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a part of Vorarlberg, Austria. The word enclave is French and first appeared in the century as a derivative of the verb enclaver. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land, the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526. Later, the term began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, parishes. This French word eventually entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept although local terms have continued to be used, in India, the word pocket is often used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were usually called detachments or detached parts, in English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars.
The word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a extension of the concept of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons, in particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, and these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states. Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory, over time enclaves have tended to be eliminated. This exchange thus effectively de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all, the residents in these enclaves had complained of being effectively stateless
The Battery (Manhattan)
Battery Park is a 25-acre public park located at the Battery, the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City, facing New York Harbor. The area and park are named for the batteries that were positioned there in the citys early years to protect the settlement behind them. The southern shoreline of Manhattan Island had long known as The Battery since the 17th century when the area was part of the Dutch Settlement of New Amsterdam. At the time, a battery there served to protect the seaward approaches to the town. The relatively modern park was created by landfill starting from 1855. Skyscrapers now occupy most of the land, stopping abruptly where the park begins. While the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel and Battery Park Underpass were under construction from 1940–52, peter Minuit Plaza was built in 1955, the East Coast Memorial was dedicated in 1963. Battery Park was included within a group of historic waterfront sites designated Harbor Park, by the government of New York State, the Battery Park Conservancy, founded in 1994 by still-current President Warrie Price, has undertaken and funded the restoration and improvement of the once shop-worn park.
In 2015, the New York City Department of Parks and the Battery Conservancy announced that the park would revert to its historic name, at the other end of the park is Battery Gardens restaurant, next to the United States Coast Guard Battery Building. Along the waterfront, Statue Cruises offers ferries to the Statue of Liberty, the park is the site of the East Coast Memorial which commemorates U. S. servicemen who died in coastal waters of the western Atlantic Ocean during World War II, and several other memorials. Castle Clinton, named for mayor DeWitt Clinton, now lies within the park, originally called the West Battery, it was built as a fort just prior to the War of 1812. It became property of the city after the war and was renamed Castle Clinton, when Leased by the city, it became a popular promenade and beer garden. Later roofed over, it one of the premier theatrical venues in the United States. The people who gathered at Battery Park to see a clipper ship get underway came partly to hear the sailors sing their sea songs, which originated early in the nineteenth century, with the Negro stevedores at Mobile and New Orleans.
The migration of the citys elite uptown increased concurrently with the mass European emigration of the middle 19th century, as immigrants settled the Battery area, the location was less favorable to theater patrons and Castle Garden was closed. The structure was made into the worlds first immigration depot, processing millions of immigrants beginning in 1855, almost 40 years before its successor, Ellis Island. This period coincided with immigration waves resulting from Irelands Great Famine, the structure housed the New York Aquarium from 1896 to 1941, when it was threatened with destruction under transportation planner Robert Mosess plans. Made a National Monument in 1946 and restored in 1975, it is known by its original name
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was the 30th President of the United States. A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics and his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th vice president in 1920, elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative, and as a man who said very little, although having a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessors administration, as a Coolidge biographer wrote, He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength, Coolidges retirement was relatively short, as he died at the age of 60 in January 1933, less than two months before his immediate successor, Herbert Hoover, left office.
Though his reputation underwent a renaissance during the Ronald Reagan administration, John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4,1872, the only U. S. president to be born on Independence Day. He held various offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector. Coolidges mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer and she was chronically ill and died, perhaps from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of fifteen, probably of appendicitis, Coolidges father remarried in 1891, to a schoolteacher, and lived to the age of eighty. Coolidges family had roots in New England, his earliest American ancestor, John Coolidge, emigrated from Cottenham, England, around 1630 and settled in Watertown. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638, Coolidges great-great-grandfather, named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth Notch.
His grandfather, Calvin Galusha Coolidge, served in the Vermont House of Representatives, many of Coolidges ancestors were farmers, and numerous distant cousins were prominent in politics. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the class, as a senior joined the fraternity Phi Gamma Delta. While there, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, the only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give. Yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry, what they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great. But the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service, at his fathers urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field.
John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County, in 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the bar, becoming a country lawyer
Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital
The Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, known as USPHS Hospital #43, was the United States’ first public health hospital, opened in 1902 and operating as a hospital until 1930. Constructed in phases, the facility encompassed both a hospital and a separate pavilion style contagious disease hospital. The hospital was one of the largest public hospitals in United States history and is still viewed today as an extraordinary endeavor in the public health field. Efforts to restore the buildings and others on the island are being made by government partner Save Ellis Island. In October 2014, the hospital opened to the public for small group hard hat tours, on June 15,1897, the wooden immigration station on Ellis Island was destroyed by fire. Plans were immediately made to build a new, fireproof immigration station on Ellis Island, however in September of that year, a Hamburg-America steamer S. S. Moravia arrived at quarantine with several confirmed cases of cholera. Every ship arriving in the port of New York was held at quarantine before being cleared to land, passengers found to have dangerous contagious diseases were taken off ships at quarantine and transferred to the hospital at either Hoffman or Swinburne Island.
Twenty-four of Moravias passengers were ill and twenty-two deaths had occurred during the voyage and it was believed that the outbreak occurred due to the ship taking on contaminated water from the Elbe river. The threat of a pandemic caused all shipping traffic to be suspended, utilizing the provisions of the Tarsney Act, Taylor decided to solicit designs from private architects via design competition. The island itself was to be increased in size utilizing landfill and this was in response to the prevailing germ theory that germs could not travel across a body of water. With the completion of the Main Building in 1900 and the the new hospital in 1901, plans were soon undertaken by James Knox Taylor to add a new Administration building, completed in 1907 and an additional hospital wing completed in 1909 to effectively double the number of wards. However more cases were arriving with contagious diseases, and plans were drawn up by Taylor, despite this, funding had not been appropriated by congress for the construction.
Successive appropriations did not provide money to build the entire facility. The buildings sat vacant for two years funding for the heating and electrical equipment was provided. As such the Contagious Disease Hospital was not completed or operational until 1911, ultimately over twelve million immigrants were processed through the new Ellis Island Immigration Center during its years of operation. Every immigrant had to go through a thirty-second health inspection upon arrival, only third class or steerage passengers were inspected at Ellis Island, as first and second class passengers were inspected onboard ship by medical officers at quarantine. Tens of thousands of immigrants, or one out of five, were pulled out of line for further evaluation. Half were for reasons, and the other half received a chalk mark on their clothing, signaling a health deficiency
The New Colossus
The New Colossus is a sonnet that American poet Emma Lazarus wrote in 1883 to raise money for the construction of the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. In 1903, the poem was engraved on a bronze plaque, Lazaruss contribution was solicited by fundraiser William Maxwell Evarts. Initially she refused but Constance Cary Harrison convinced her that the statue would be of significance to immigrants sailing into the harbor. The New Colossus was the first entry read at the exhibits opening, but was forgotten and played no role at the opening of the statue in 1886. The line Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp. is missing a comma, the original manuscript is held by the American Jewish Historical Society. The title of the poem and the first two refer to the Colossus of Rhodes, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The sea-washed, sunset gates are the mouths of the Hudson and East Rivers, the imprisoned lightning refers to the electric light in the torch, a novelty. The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame refers to New York Harbor between New York City and Brooklyn, which were consolidated into one unit in 1898,15 years after the poem was written, the huddled masses are the many immigrants coming to the United States.
John T. However, it was that permanently stamped on Miss Liberty the role of unofficial greeter of incoming immigrants, the poem has entered the political realm. It was quoted in John F. Kennedys book A Nation of Immigrants as well as a 2010 political speech by President Obama advocating immigration policy reform. Classical composer David Ludwig has set the poem to music, which was performed at the service of President Obamas 2013 inauguration ceremony. Parts of the poem appear in popular culture, the Broadway musical Miss Liberty, with music and lyrics by Irving Berlin, an immigrant himself, used the final stanza beginning Give me your tired, your poor as the basis for a song. It was read in the 1941 film Hold Back the Dawn as well as being recited by the heroine in Alfred Hitchcocks wartime film Saboteur. Harpist and singer Joanna Newsom indirectly references the poem in her 2015 song Sapokanikan, see Also Walt Kelly, The Pogo Papers,1953, p.152, for reference to right-wing policy & the Goldman quote.
What is the title of the poem displayed at the site of the Statue of Liberty. Lazarus, The new Colossus, A Century of Immigration, 1820–1924, the latter page says Courtesy of the American Jewish Historical Society, New York and Newton Centre, Massachusetts. The poem itself, having published in 1883 or at the very latest 1903 is in the public domain ———, Esther. Manuscript notebook from the Emma Lazarus collection at the American Jewish Historical Society, includes an undated manuscript version of The New Colossus
Port of New York and New Jersey
Considered one of the largest natural harbors in the world, the port is by tonnage the third largest in the United States and the busiest on the East Coast. The port is the nations top gateway for flights and its busiest center for overall passenger. There are two foreign-trade zones within the port, the port handled $208 billion in shipping cargo in 2011, and 3,342,286 containers and 393,931 automobiles in 2014. The port is one of the largest natural harbors globally, encompassing an area within an approximate 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, the port district comprises all or part of seventeen counties in the region. Abutting sections of Passaic, Monmouth and Somerset in New Jersey, the Atlantic Ocean is to the southeast of the port. The sea at the entrance to the port is called the New York Bight, in Lower New York Bay and its western arm, Raritan Bay, vessels orient themselves for passage to the east into Arthur Kill or Raritan River or to the north to The Narrows.
To the east lies the Rockaway Inlet, which leads to Jamaica Bay, the Narrows connects to the Upper New York Bay at the mouth of the Hudson River, which is sometimes called the North River. Large ships are able to navigate upstream to the Port of Albany-Rensselaer, to the west lies Kill van Kull, the strait leading to Newark Bay, fed by the Passaic River and Hackensack River, and the northern entrance of Arthur Kill. The Gowanus Canal and Buttermilk Channel are entered from the east, the East River is a broad strait that travels north to Newtown Creek and the Harlem River, turning east at Hell Gate before opening to Long Island Sound, which provides an outlet to the open sea. The port consists of a complex of approximately 240 miles of shipping channels, as well as anchorages, most vessels require pilotage, and larger vessels require tugboat assistance for the sharper channel turns. The Ambrose leads from the sea to the Upper Bay, where it becomes the Anchorage Channel. Connecting channels are the Bay Ridge, the Red Hook, the Buttermilk, the Claremont, the Port Jersey, the Kill Van Kull, the Newark Bay, the Port Newark, the Elizabeth, anchorages are known as Stapleton, Bay Ridge and Gravesend.
The natural depth of the harbor is about 17 feet, but it was deepened over the years, by 1891, the Main Ship Channel was minimally 30 feet deep. In 1914, Ambrose Channel became the entrance to the port. During World War II the main channel was dredged to 45 feet deep to accommodate ships up to Panamax size. This has been a source of environmental concern along channels connecting the facilities in Port Newark to the Atlantic. PCBs and other pollutants lay in a blanket just underneath the soil, in June 2009 it was announced that 200,000 cubic yards of dredged PCBs would be cleaned and stored en masse at the site of the former Yankee Stadium and at Brooklyn Bridge Park. In many areas the sandy bottom has been excavated down to rock, dredging equipment picks up the rock and disposes of it
It is part of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The National Park Service administers a portion of the north of the island as the Governors Island National Monument. The island is accessed by ferries from Brooklyn and Manhattan, the islands current name, made official in 1784, stems from the British colonial era, when the colonial assembly reserved the island for the exclusive use of New Yorks royal governors. In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, Continental Army troops raised defensive works on the island, from 1783 to 1966, the island was a United States Army post, and from 1966 to 1996 the island served as a major United States Coast Guard installation. About 103 acres of fill was added to the island by 1912, in 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano saw the island, becoming the first European to do so. It was called Paggank by the Native Americans, in May 1624, Noten Eylandt was the landing place of the first settlers in New Netherland. In 1633, the director of New Netherland, Wouter van Twiller.
Later he operated a farm on the island, New Netherland was conditionally ceded to the English in 1664, and the English renamed the settlement New York in June 1665. By 1674, the British had total control of the island. The harbor defenses on the continued to be improved over the summer. The Continental Army forces collapsed after being flanked and eventually withdrew from Brooklyn and from Governors Island as well, from September 2 to 14, the new British garrison would engage volleys with Washingtons guns on the battery in front of Fort George in Manhattan. The fort, along with the rest of New York City, was held by the British for the rest of the war until Evacuation Day at the end of the war in 1783. At the end of the Revolution, the island, as a holding of the Crown, came into ownership by the state of New York. Noten Island was renamed Governors Island in 1784 as the island, the Governors House survives as the oldest structure on the island. By the late 1790s, the Quasi-War with France prompted a national program of harbor fortifications and the state of New York began improvements as a credit for its Revolutionary War debt.
The first, Fort Jay, was built in 1794 by the state of New York on the site of the earlier Revolutionary War earthworks, a sandstone and brick gate house topped with a sculpture of an eagle dates to that time and is the oldest structure on the island. The second major fortification, Castle Williams, was based on a design by Colonel Jonathan Williams, construction started in 1807 and substantially completed in November 1811. Located on a shoal extending from the northwest corner of the island, it was inspired by then-modern French thinking on fortifications
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows through the Hudson Valley, the river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York, and further north between New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary occupying the Hudson Fjord, tidal waters influence the Hudsons flow from as far north as Troy. The river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, and after whom Canadas Hudson Bay is named. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River –, during the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream. From that point on, the stream is known as the Hudson River. Popular culture and convention, more often cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source, South of the confluence of Indian Pass Brook and Calamity Brook, the Hudson River flows south into Sanford Lake. South of the outlet of the lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson, the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties, in the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows entirely in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the forms the boundary between Warren and Saratoga Counties. The river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake, shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, and through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake.
It next goes through Hudson Falls, at this point the river forms the boundary between Washington and Saratoga Counties. At this point the river has an altitude of 200 feet, further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties, the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River, which extends into Massachusetts, shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford. Shortly thereafter, the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, at an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River