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Statute of Anne

The Statute of Anne known as the Copyright Act 1710, is an act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1710, the first statute to provide for copyright regulated by the government and courts, rather than by private parties. Prior to the statute's enactment in 1710, copying restrictions were authorized by the Licensing of the Press Act 1662; these restrictions were enforced by the Stationers' Company, a guild of printers given the exclusive power to print—and the responsibility to censor—literary works. The censorship administered under the Licensing Act led to public protest. In 1694, Parliament refused to renew the Licensing Act, ending the Stationers' monopoly and press restrictions. Over the next 10 years the Stationers advocated bills to re-authorize the old licensing system, but Parliament declined to enact them. Faced with this failure, the Stationers decided to emphasise the benefits of licensing to authors rather than publishers, the Stationers succeeded in getting Parliament to consider a new bill.

This bill, which after substantial amendments was granted Royal Assent on 5 April 1710, became known as the Statute of Anne owing to its passage during the reign of Queen Anne. The new law prescribed a copyright term of 14 years, with a provision for renewal for a similar term, during which only the author and the printers to whom they chose to license their works could publish the author's creations. Following this, the work's copyright would expire, with the material falling into the public domain. Despite a period of instability known as the Battle of the Booksellers when the initial copyright terms under the Statute began to expire, the Statute of Anne remained in force until the Copyright Act 1842 replaced it; the statute is considered a "watershed event in Anglo-American copyright history... transforming what had been the publishers' private law copyright into a public law grant". Under the statute, copyright was for the first time vested in authors rather than publishers; the Statute was an influence on copyright law in several other nations, including the United States, in the 21st century is "frequently invoked by modern judges and academics as embodying the utilitarian underpinnings of copyright law".

With the introduction of the printing press to England by William Caxton in 1476, printed works became both more common and more economically important. As early as 1483, Richard III recognised the value of literary works by exempting them from the government's protectionist legislation. Over the next fifty years, the government moved further towards economic regulation, abolishing the provision with the Printers and Binders Act 1534, which banned the import of foreign works and empowered the Lord Chancellor to set maximum pricing for English books; this was followed by increasing degrees of censorship. A further proclamation of 1538, aiming to stop the spread of Lutheran doctrine, saw Henry VIII note that "sondry contentious and sinyster opiniones, have by wrong teachynge and naughtye bokes increaced and growen within this his realme of England", declare that all authors and printers must allow the Privy Council or their agents to read and censor books before publication; this censorship peaked on 4 May 1557, when Mary I issued a royal warrant formally incorporating the Stationers' Company.

The old method of censorship had been limited by the Second Statute of Repeal, with Mary's increasing unpopularity the existing system was unable to cope with the number of critical works being printed. Instead, the royal warrant devolved this power to the Company; this was done by decreeing that only the Company's publishers could distribute books. Their Wardens were given the power to enter any printing premises, destroy illegal works and imprison anyone found manufacturing them. In this way the government "harnessed the self interest of the publishers to the yoke of royal incentive", guaranteeing that the Company would follow the rules due to the economic monopoly it gave their members. With the abolition of the Star Chamber and Court of High Commission by the Long Parliament, the legal basis for this warrant was removed, but the Long Parliament chose to replace it with the Licensing Act 1662; this provided that the Company would retain their original powers, imposed additional restrictions on printing.

The legislation required renewal every two years, was reapproved. This was not "copyright" as is understood. A member of the Company would register the book, would have a perpetual copyright over its printing and publication, which could be leased, transferred to others or given to heirs upon the member's death; the only exception to this was that, if a book was out of print for more than 6 months and the publisher ignored a warning to make it available, the copyright would be released and other publishers would be permitted to copy it. Authors themselves were not respected until the 18th century, were not permitted to be members of the Company, playing no role in the development or use of its licences despite the Company's sovereign authority to decide what was published. There is evidence that some authors were recognised by the Company itself to have the right to copy and the right to alter their works.

Pegaso BMR

The Pegaso 3560 BMR is a 6x6 wheeled armoured personnel carrier produced in Spain by Enasa since 1979. Powered by a Pegaso 9157/8 306 hp diesel engine, it has an automatic gearbox, torque converter, independent suspension in all six wheels and amphibious capability, it can be transported by air. It has received different kind of weapons throughout its life and there is a field ambulance version; as part of its optional amphibious equipment, it has two hydrojets for travel through water. Pegaso BMRs are used by Spanish, Saudi Arabian and Peruvian Armies; the Spanish Army BMRs have been instrumental in the performance of Spanish forces in international interventions in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Lebanon. In the last few years, all of them had their original Pegaso engines replaced by new 310 hp Scania DS9 61A 24S engines, as part of the "BMR 2" programme. Furthermore, the vehicles were fitted with an air conditioning unit, they are now known as BMR M1. The Austrian Pandur I is based on the BMR-600.

BMR 3560.50 - Basic APC. Can be armed with machine guns.50cal M2HB, 7.62mm MG1A1 or an automatic grenade launcher 40mm LAG-40. BMR EDEX - Version for EOD teams with higher roofline and equipped with special boxes to transport explosives. BMR C/C MILAN - Tank hunter with MILAN ATGM. BMR C/C TOW - Tank hunter with TOW ATGM. BMR VCZ - Combat engineer vehicle with light bulldozer blade and winch. BMR VRAC-NBQ - NBC reconnaissance vehicle. BMR GEL - Version fitted with specialised equipment for electronic warfare. BMR 3560.51 - Command post vehicle. BMR 3560.53E - Mortar platform with 81mm mortar LN M-86 and 100 rounds. BMR 3560.54 - Ambulance. BMR 3560.55 - Light repair vehicle with crane and tow bars. BMR 3560.56 - Signals vehicle. BMR 3560.57 - Tank hunter with HOT ATGM. Prototype. BMR 3560.59E - Mortar carrier with 120mm mortar L-65. VMA - With improved amphibious capabilities. Prototype. Spain: 682 Egypt: 260 Mexico: 7 with the Mexican Marines. Peru: 20 Saudi Arabia: 200 with the Royal Saudi Navy Morocco: 100 Pegaso VEC BMR 3562.03 BMR data Santa Barbara's website

The Very Best of The Smiths

The Very Best of The Smiths is a compilation album by English rock band The Smiths. It was released in June 2001 without consent or input from the band, it reached number 30 on the UK Albums Chart. The album was not released in the United States. After Singles, the previous Smiths compilation album that WEA had issued, went out of print in Europe and Taiwan, the record company decided to revamp the package and release it under the name The Very Best of The Smiths. WEA scrambled the running order and added five tracks, enticed the record buyers with the incentive of digital remastering; the album was criticised by the British music press, after stopping to praise the actual music, went on to condemn what they saw as a money grabbing exercise. They were joined by singer Morrissey and guitarist Johnny Marr, who distanced themselves from the album, stating they had had no input whatsoever and that it should be ignored by fans. Both ridiculed the cover design and Marr additionally denounced the sound quality.

In the tradition of other Smiths compilations which overlapped except for a few songs, this album does contain two versions not available on any other of The Smiths' albums: a new edit of "Ask" and the original 7" version of "Last Night I Dreamt That Somebody Loved Me". The Singles compilation used the album versions of these songs; the sleeve for The Very Best of The Smiths features Charles Hawtrey of Carry On fame, one of Morrissey's favourite actors. The band members had no say in the cover, described as "an adman's approximation of a Smiths cover" by Mojo magazine. All songs written by Morrissey/Marr. Songs marked "*" are exclusive to this compilation. "Panic" – 2:20 "The Boy with the Thorn in His Side" – 3:17 "Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now" – 3:35 "Ask" * – 3:09 "Bigmouth Strikes Again" – 3:13 "How Soon Is Now?" – 6:45 "This Charming Man" – 2:42 "What Difference Does It Make?" – 3:51 "William, It Was Really Nothing" – 2:12 "Some Girls Are Bigger Than Others" – 3:17 "Girlfriend in a Coma" – 2:02 "Hand in Glove" – 3:24 "There Is a Light That Never Goes Out" – 4:04 "Please, Please, Let Me Get What I Want" – 1:53 "That Joke Isn't Funny Anymore" – 4:59 "I Know It's Over" – 5:49 "Sheila Take a Bow" – 2:41 "I Started Something I Couldn't Finish" – 3:47 "Still Ill" – 3:22 "Shakespeare's Sister" – 2:09 "Shoplifters of the World Unite" – 2:58 "Last Night I Dreamt That Somebody Loved Me" * – 3:10 "Stop Me If You Think You've Heard This One Before" – 3:33Tracks 7, 8, 12 and 19 – The Smiths Tracks 3, 6, 9 and 14 – Hatful of Hollow Tracks 6 and 15 – Meat Is Murder Tracks 5, 10, 13 and 16 – The Queen Is Dead Tracks 1, 3, 4, 14, 17, 20 and 21 – Louder Than Bombs Tracks 1, 2, 3, 9, 14, 17, 20 and 21 – The World Won't Listen Tracks 11, 18 and 23 – Strangeways, Here We Come Morrissey – vocals Johnny Marr – guitars, keyboard instruments, mandolins, synthesized saxophone and flute arrangements Andy Rourkebass guitar, cello on "Shakespeare's Sister" Mike Joycedrums Craig Gannon – rhythm guitar on "Panic" and "Ask" Kirsty MacColl – backing vocals on "Ask" John Porter – slide guitar on "Sheila Take a Bow" Stephen Street – drum machine on "I Started Something I Couldn't Finish" and synthesized string arrangements on "Girlfriend in a Coma" John Porter – producer, remixer The Smiths – producers Morrissey and Marr – producers Johnny Marr – producer Johnny Marr and Stephen Street – producers Steve Lillywhite – remixer