click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Statutory corporation

A statutory corporation is a corporation created by the state. Their precise nature varies by jurisdiction, they might be ordinary companies/corporations owned by a government with or without other shareholders, or they might be a body without shareholders, controlled by national or sub-national government to the extent provided for in the creating legislation. Bodies described in the English language as "statutory corporations" exist in the following countries in accordance with the associated descriptions. In Australia, statutory corporations are a type of statutory authority created by Acts of state or federal parliaments. A statutory corporation is defined in the government glossary as a "statutory body, a body corporate, including an entity created under section 87 of the PGPA Act". An earlier definition describes a statutory corporation as "a statutory authority, a body corporate", the New South Wales Government's Land Registry Services defines a state-owned corporation as "a statutory authority that has corporate status".

Current statutory corporations include Australia Post, Airservices Australia, the Australian Rail Track Corporation and the Australian Egg Corporation. The purpose of their separation from normal government operations is to ensure profitability, in theory, independence of decision making from the state or national government As statutory corporations, their regulatory and business conditions may be different from private-sector companies. A significant number of the statutory corporations are private commercial operations, a number of which have been privatised, in part or in whole, since the 1980s: these have included the national airline Qantas and the Commonwealth Bank of Australia. A statutory corporation in Germany is called a Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts. An example of a statutory corporation is a Kassenärztliche Vereinigung, a body involved in the provision of out-patient medical services in a German state. Other examples include public broadcasters, Jewish communities and Christian churches established in Germany.

In Hong Kong, some corporations are incorporated by legislation. An example is the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation, which owns the railway network and was also an operator; the MTR Corporation Limited was such a company named as Mass Transit Railway Corporation. Other examples include the former Land Development Corporation, the Industrial Estates Corporation. Statutory corporations are public enterprises brought into existence by a Special Act of the Parliament; the Act defines its powers and functions and regulations governing its employees and its relationship with government departments. This is a body corporate created by the legislature with defined powers and functions and is financially independent with a clear control over a specified area or a particular type of commercial activity, it has the capacity of acting in its own name. Statutory corporations therefore have the power of the government and the considerable amount of operating flexibility of private enterprises. A few are: Airports Authority of India Damodar Valley Corporation National Highways Authority of India Central Warehousing Corporation Inland Waterways Authority of India Food Corporation of India National Human Rights Commission Features: Generally financed by the central or state government.

May borrow funds from the public and government organisation through statutory sources. They have separate legal entity, they have to frame their own procedures within the scope of state legislature. Provide better services to public and make adequate profit, they are autonomous in their functioning, they enjoy operational flexibility. They can recruit and appoint their employees with their service condition, since they are a corporate body, they have to follow the special statute strictly. There is less government interference in matters of the corporation; the members of the corporation have limited liability. In the Republic of Ireland, a statutory corporation is a body corporate, created under a particular Act of the Oireachtas; some statutory corporations are expected to operate. Such bodies do not have shareholders, but are boards appointed by a sponsor minister; the provisions of the Companies' Acts do not directly apply to such bodies, although their founding legislation may specify similar requirements.

The statutory corporation format was the form most state-sponsored bodies of the Republic of Ireland took until recent years. Nonetheless, as of 2007 several prominent statutory corporations continue to exist, such as Raidió Teilifís Éireann, the Electricity Supply Board, Bord Gáis Éireann, An Bord Pleanála, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland. In Northern Ireland, statutory corporations operate. In the Netherlands, the term "public body" is the general denomination for administrative divisions within the Dutch state or certain other types of governmental organisations. In the United Kingdom, a statutory corporation is a corporate body created b

Stratified charge engine

A stratified charge engine describes a certain type of internal combustion engine spark ignition engine that can be used in trucks, automobiles and stationary equipment. The term "stratified charge" refers to fuel vapors entering the cylinder; the fuel is injected into the cylinder or enters as a fuel rich vapor where a spark or other means are used to initiate ignition where the fuel rich zone interacts with the air to promote complete combustion. A stratified charge can allow for higher compression ratios without "knock," and leaner air/fuel ratio than in conventional internal combustion engines. Conventionally, a four-stroke Otto cycle engine is fueled by drawing a mixture of air and fuel into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke; this produces a homogeneous charge: a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel, ignited by a spark plug at a predetermined moment near the top of the compression stroke. In a homogeneous charge system, the air/fuel ratio is kept close to stoichiometric, meaning it contains the exact amount of air necessary for complete combustion of the fuel.

This gives stable combustion, but it places an upper limit on the engine's efficiency: any attempt to improve fuel economy by running a much leaner mixture with a homogeneous charge results in slower combustion and a higher engine temperature. Direct fueling of petrol engines offers considerable advantages over port-fueling, a type of fuel injection in which the fuel injectors are placed in the intake ports, giving homogeneous charges. Powerful electronic management systems mean. With the further impetus of tightening emissions legislation, about half of all 2016 MY North American light duty vehicles used direct injection. First, a higher mechanical compression ratio may be used for better thermodynamic efficiency. Since fuel is not present in the combustion chamber until the point at which combustion is required to begin, there is no risk of pre-ignition or engine knock; the engine may run on a much leaner overall air/fuel ratio, using stratified charge, in which a small charge of a rich fuel mixture is ignited first and used to improve combustion of a larger charge of a lean fuel mixture.

Disadvantages include: Increased injector cost and complexity Higher fuel pressure requirements Carbon build-up on the back of the intake valve due to the lack of gasoline passing by the intake valve to act as a cleaning agent for the valve on traditional multi-port injection designs Increased NOx formation, due to the presence of lean zones. These zones are not present in a gasoline engine, because the air and fuel is better mixed. Combustion can be problematic. However, fueling a petrol engine directly allows more fuel to be directed towards the spark-plug than elsewhere in the combustion-chamber; this results in a stratified charge: one in which the air/fuel ratio is not homogeneous throughout the combustion-chamber, but varies in a controlled way across the volume of the cylinder. Charge stratification can be achieved where there is no'in cylinder' stratification: the inlet mixture can be so lean that it is unable to be ignited by the limited energy provided by a conventional spark plug.

This exceptionally lean mixture can, however, be ignited by the use of a conventional mixture strength of 12-15:1, in the case of a petrol fuelled engine, being fed into a small combustion chamber adjacent to and connected to the main lean-mixture chamber. The large flame front from this burning mixture is sufficient to combust the charge, it can be seen from this method of charge stratification that the lean charge is'burnt' and the engine utilising this form of stratification is no longer subject to' knock' or uncontrolled combustion. The fuel being burnt in the lean charge is therefore not octane restricted; this type of stratification therefore can utilise a wide variety of fuels. A rich air/fuel mixture is directed to the spark-plug using multi-hole injectors; this mixture is sparked, giving a strong and predictable flame-front. This in turn results in a high-quality combustion of the much weaker mixture elsewhere in the cylinder, it is worth comparing contemporary directly fueled petrol engines with direct-injection diesel engines.

Petrol can burn faster than diesel fuel, allowing higher maximum engine speeds and thus greater maximum power for sporting engines. Diesel fuel, on the other hand, has a higher energy density, in combination with higher combustion pressures can deliver strong torque and high thermodynamic efficiency for more "normal" road vehicles; this comparison of'burn' rates is a rather simplistic view. Although Petrol and Diesel engines appear similar in operation, the two types operate on different principles. In earlier manufactured editions the external characteristics were obvious. Most petrol engines were carbureted, sucking the fuel/air mixture into the engine, while the diesel only sucked in air and the fuel was directly injected at high pressure into the cylinder. In the conventional four-stroke petrol engine the spark plug commences to ignite the mixture in the cylinder at up to forty degrees before top dead centre while the piston is still travelling up the bore. Within this movement of the piston up the bore, controlled combustion of the mixture takes place and the maximum pressure occurs just after top dead centre, with the pressure dimini

Disasterpieces

Disasterpieces is the second video album by American heavy metal band Slipknot. Unveiled at an advance screening in New York City on November 1, 2002, released on November 22, the two-disc set features a concert at London Dockland Arena, all the band's music videos to date, including songs from Slipknot and Iowa; the concert was filmed by 26 cameras, including one on the headstock of Mick Thomson's guitar and a "first person" point of view of several band-members. The show was edited in part by band member Shawn Crahan who watched all the footage recorded at the show. Disasterpieces met a positive critical reception, with many citing the quick editing and sound quality as strong points. Certified quadruple platinum by the RIAA in 2005, it is the band's highest-selling DVD to date, shipping at least 400,000 units as a longform video. Disasterpieces was filmed at the now defunct London Dockland Arena in England on February 16, 2002 – one of the final European dates on the Iowa World Tour. "It was one of my favourite concerts," said frontman Corey Taylor.

"England has always been special for us because it's one of the first places that understood us. The show was incredible: the fans went nuts and we did too; the whole place became unglued. Afterwards, we were like,'Wow – where do we go from here?'"The concert was shot with 26 different cameras under the direction of Matthew Amos and documents the show, backstage action and an in-store signing in Paris, France. In addition to operated cameras each band member had an individual camera, attached to the side of their masks, apart from Joey Jordison and Mick Thomson whose camera was attached to the headstock of his guitar; the concept behind these cameras was to allow the viewer to see the show from the band member's point of view. However they did cause some discomfort and problems for some band members. Bassist Paul Gray removed his after four songs, explaining that "they gave us this big pack to wear around our waist. So when I was jumping around, the thing started sliding down my leg". During the song "Spit It Out" DJ Sid Wilson had his camera stolen when he was in the crowd, however it was returned at the end of the show, all of this is documented on the DVD.

The performance was edited by percussionist Shawn Paul Richardson. Crahan explained. Additional content on the two-disc set includes all music videos by the band at the time of release and, in audio form, "Purity", removed from Slipknot for legal reasons; the DVD gives the ability to the viewer to use the remote to change the viewing angle during "Disasterpiece" and to view individual band member mask cameras during "People=Shit" and "The Heretic Anthem". Disasterpieces was well received by critics. Kirk Miller of Rolling Stone complimented the multitude of camera angles and quick edits, which take "advantage of the masked metal giants' sprawling live show". Ottawa XPress reviewer Mitch Joel wrote that the sound was "mixed perfectly... songs like'People = Shit','Spit It Out' and'Surfacing' rocket". He concluded, "Disasterpieces is an awesome and all-embracing package."Disasterpieces peaked at number three in the Billboard Top Music Videos chart and rose to number one in Finland. On January 6, 2003, the RIAA certified Disasterpieces platinum in the United States, it was declared quadruple platinum on November 18, 2005.

It was honored with a 2002 Metal Edge Readers' Choice Award for DVD/Home Video of the Year. Aside from their real names, members of the band are referred to by numbers zero through eight. Disasterpieces on IMDb

Damascus, Maryland

Damascus is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Montgomery County, United States. In the early 20th century, there existed an incorporated municipality lasting a quarter century; the name was first used in an official document in 1816, when the United States Congress approved a postal route through the area, operated by Edward Hughes. The area known as Damascus was granted by the new U. S. state of Maryland to Nathaniel Pigman in 1783. On February 14, 1819, War of 1812 veteran Edward Hughes bought a 40-acre section of the grant and began subdividing lots for sale. James Madison, the fourth U. S. president, appointed Hughes postmaster of the developing community of Damascus in 1816. Damascus is located at the intersection of two major roads in upper Montgomery County: Ridge Road and Damascus Road. Hughes received permission from Congress for a postal route through the town. Hughes called his town "The Pleasant Plains of Damascus" after Syria. A newspaper in Frederick wrote of Hughes's growing town: "There is at this place an extensive opening for mechanics of all the different kinds, it bids fair to improve fast.

There is at present two blacksmith shops, a saddler's shop and a store in the place -- a tailor, a wheel wright, a shoemaker are much wanted, would meet with great encouragement." This was the Damascus of 1816. The new township drew settlers from Anne Arundel County as well as from Montgomery County. On September 12, 1862, U. S. Army troops marched through the "village" of Damascus via what is now Route 27 on their way to the town of Sharpsburg, where they engaged Confederate troops commanded by General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Antietam; the town was incorporated from 1890 to 1914, when the townspeople requested the incorporation be withdrawn so that Old Quaker Road, used since Revolutionary times and before, could be paved into a state highway. The town remains a commercial center for rural communities like Clagettsville, Cedar Grove, King's Valley and Lewisdale, although it is more developed today. In spite of spiraling population growth and encroaching urban development, old-timers feel like Damascus retains its rural, small-town character.

The Damascus Community Fair—a agricultural fair, in operation since 1940—attracts thousands of visitors annually in the first weekend of September. 4-H clubs are thriving, in the past 10 years three new equestrian centers have opened within 5 miles of downtown Damascus. November 17, 2009, marked the grand opening of the Damascus Heritage Society Museum—a project years in the making that aims to preserve the history of Damascus; the original idea for the museum belonged to John Grigg, in attendance at the opening along with fellow supporters, sharing apple cider and cookies in celebration of their efforts. The museum is located in a small building behind the Damascus Public Library, is open from noon to 5pm on Wednesdays and Saturdays; the grand-opening featured a ribbon cutting ceremony, Damascus’s first fire truck, presented by the current fire chief Darron Long. On display is an exhibit highlighting the Damascus Volunteer Fire department, but the exhibits are scheduled to change every few months.

As an unincorporated area, Damascus' boundaries are not defined. Damascus is recognized by the United States Census Bureau as a census-designated place, by the United States Geological Survey as a populated place located at 39°16′16″N 77°12′22″W. Damascus has the highest point in the county at 866 ft above sea level, it is the highest elevation in the adjacent Washington D. C. suburbs. Damascus is west of the fall line between the Piedmont of the Atlantic coastal plain. Damascus is known for family-owned farms. According to the United States Census Bureau, the place has a total area of 9.6 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by warm, humid summers and cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Damascus has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Due to its higher elevation and northern location in Montgomery County, its 32-inch average snowfall is the highest in the county and the adjacent Washington D. C. suburbs. In the record-breaking winter of 2009-2010, 98.4 inches of snow fell and a maximum depth of 37 inches was recorded, the greatest snow depth in the area's history.

Intense blizzards fed by coastal waters can paralyze the area. In average winters, snow-covered ground goes. In more severe winters, ponds may stay frozen and the ground will remain snow-covered for a month or two. Rainfall is plentiful and well distributed throughout the year. In an average year, about 46 inches is recorded. Thunderstorms are quite common during June to August. Sometimes they produce hail and damaging winds. Temperatures are moderate. January's average monthly temperature is 31 °F, July's is 74 °F. Occasionally, frigid Arctic outbreaks from Canada can drive minimum temperatures below 0 °F for a morning or two. During the summer months, heat waves can produce two of 90 °F or higher afternoon days. Summer morning temperatures are pleasant, averaging in the mid-60s. Damascus High School is well-known regionally and nationally for its championship athletic teams, known as the Swarmin' Hornets. Damascus High School is one of the few remaining schools in the state to still hold its graduation ceremonies on the school's football field.

A rite of passage for many graduating seniors is to walk on th

Second Coming (The Stone Roses album)

Second Coming is the second and final studio album by English rock band The Stone Roses, released through Geffen Records on 5 December 1994 in the UK and in early 1995 in the US. It was recorded at Forge Studios in Oswestry and Rockfield Studios near Monmouth in Wales between 1992 and 1994, it went platinum in the UK and sold over 1 million copies worldwide and was dedicated to Philip Hall, the band's publicist, who died of cancer in 1993. The second album by the Manchester four-piece, it suffered at the time from the sheer weight of expectation generated by both the 5½ year gap between it and the band's eponymous debut, the band's withdrawal from the live arena for 4½ of those years. There had been speculation in the British press that the high expectations from their debut record had left the band "paralyzed with self-doubt" according to LA Times pop music critic Robert Hilburn. In addition, The Stone Roses made their return in a changed musical environment, with the UK newly ensconced in Britpop with the "big four" of Suede, Blur and Pulp as the premier rock bands of the day.

The album reached number 4 in the UK Album Chart. Second Coming features tribal rhythms, 1970s-style extended guitar riffs, funky rock/blues numbers with jazz elements and campfire style songs such as "Your Star Will Shine" and "Tightrope" that hint at the band's rural surroundings at the time. Three singles from the album were released in the UK. Second Coming was released to mixed reviews in the UK and US. Rolling Stone awarded the record two out of five stars, calling its songs "tuneless retropsychedelic grooves bloated to six-plus minutes in length." The Los Angeles Times were more positive, praising John Squire's "inspired guitar work" and concluding that "while the album's impact is undercut by some tunes that seem little more than fragments, the standouts offer a soulful earnestness as they speak of the search for salvation and comfort amid the tension and uncertainty of contemporary life."Select ranked the album at number twelve in its end-of-year list of the 50 best albums of 1995.

All tracks are written except where noted. After "Love Spreads" are 77 silent tracks, each lasting 4 seconds; these are followed by an untitled hidden track referred to as "Foz". This is, in turn, followed by a further 9 silent tracks bringing the total number of tracks to 99. In the digital version, there are no silent tracks before or after "Foz." The silent tracks and "Foz" are omitted from the LP & cassette version. The U. S. & Canada CD version, after "Love Spreads" are 18 silent tracks, with each lasting 4 seconds. And "Foz" turns into track 32, followed with 9 silent tracks bringing the total number of tracks to 41. Album The Stone RosesIan Brown – lead vocals, recording of running water on "Breaking into Heaven" John Squire – electric and acoustic guitars, vocals on "Tightrope", backing vocals on "How Do You Sleep", recording of jets on "Begging You", collage Mani – bass guitar Reni – drums, backing vocals, vocals on "Tightrope", recording of running water on "Breaking into Heaven"Technical personnelSimon Dawson – keyboards, Jew's harp on "Straight to the Man", Wurlitzer electric piano on "Straight to the Man" and "Tears", acoustic piano on "How Do You Sleep" and "Love Spreads".

Theodore Havermeyer Northrup

Theodore Havermeyer Northrup composed one of the earliest rags, "Louisiana Rag" in 1897. The Thompson Music Company of Chicago in November, 1897 stated in a promo ad that it was "composed by Theo H. Northrup, the greatest living ragtime pianist; this piece has made an instantaneous hit and has become a great favorite everywhere." His other compositions in 1897 included "A Night on the Levee" and "Savannah Jubilee". Avon Waltzes La Tosca Waltzes Just Ten All the Go Two Happy Coons The Moon's Pale Light is Beaming In the Ball Room: Schottische The Possum Patrol The Tennis Mazurka Dancing Waves Irene Slumbers, with W. Hill Turn Texas Loose, with C. C. DeZouche The Angelus Bell Dolores In Lover's Lane, with E. Field The Flower Gardener Waltzes I'm A Sport Carrie and Her Wheel A Kiss at Home The Waif on the Street Regret The Golden Gate Brigade: March The Loreley The Golden Treasury of Music from the World's Famous Composers and arrangement Eaoline, with Louie Blosser Papa, Be Good to Mama Trilby Pat Wiley's Old Back Stoop, with William Lewis Elliot One Night, with Lawrence Oxenford Years Ago My Heart's Desire The Sweetest Girl in Town My Eileen The Anvil of Blacksmith John It Is Better to Have Loved and Lost Than Ne'er to Have Loved at All, with Walter M. Auerbach The Palms Down in Maiden Lane, with Colin C.

Hamand I Love You So Over The Fence Sweet Polly Ben Harney's Ragtime Instructor, as arranger Savannah Jubilee Schottische A Night On The Levee Louisiana Rag Only a Pair of Worn-Out Shoes, with William Fisher One Sweetly Solemn Thought Plantation Echoes Susanna from Savannah, with George Evans Happy Hannah On the Bayou I Cert'nly Was a Very Busy Man My Dearest Girl Virginia Capers After What He Done To Me, with Nellie Smith Ravell Where the Branches Kissed the River Chester and Dorothy, with William S. Lord The Lass and the Highland Plaid Sue, Ma Sue, with Charles W. Doty Over the Hills to Jersey Dost Thou Remember Loquatias Moll Suzanne from Gay Paree, with Harry Werner I'm Glad to See You're Back, with Will D. Cobb Pucker Up Your Lips Miss Lucy A Good Run's Better Than a Bad Stand The Conjure Man When I'se By Her Side She's Ma Little Sugar Plum My Little Jungle Queen: A Congo Love She's the Real Thing My Baby Lou Lou: Sérénade United Confederate Veterans March Gladys Parthenia Polly Pry Silas and the New York Girl Lucy The Broadway Brigade Uncle Sammy In the Forest Sometimes in Dreams List of ragtime composers Blesh and Janis, Harriett.

They All Played Ragtime. Terry Waldo, This is Ragtime, 1991. Http://ragpiano.com/comps/northrup.shtml