Stećak is the name for monumental medieval tombstones, that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina, the border parts of Croatia and Serbia. An estimated 60,000 are found within the borders of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of 10,000 are found in what are today Croatia and Serbia, at more than 3,300 odd sites with over 90% in poor condition. Appearing in the mid 12th century, with the first phase in the 13th century, the tombstones reached their peak in the 14th and 15th century, before disappearing during the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early 16th century, they were a common tradition amongst Bosnian and Orthodox Church followers alike, are sometimes related to the Vlach, or Croatian population, however the original ethnic and religious affiliation is still undetermined. The one of the best preserved collection of these tombstones is named Radimlja, west of Stolac in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Stećci were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016.
It includes a selection of 4,000 stećci at 28 necropolises – of which 22 from Bosnia and Herzegovina, two from Croatia, three from Montenegro, three from Serbia. The word itself is a contracted form of the older word *stojećak, derived from the South Slavic verb stajati, it means the "tall, standing thing". In Herzegovina they are called as mašeti / mašete, in Central and Western Bosnia as mramori / mramorje / mramorovi, while in Serbia and Montenegro as usađenik. On the stećci inscriptions they are called as bilig, kamen bilig, kâm / kami / kamen, zlamen, kuća, greb/grob. In 1495 lectionary they are recorded as kamy. Although under the name stećak is meant high monolithic standing stones, in the 20th century the word stećak was accepted in science as general term, including for plate tombstones; the original reference to the word stećak itself is uncertain and seems to be modern invention as it can only be traced from the note by Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski from 1851, dictionary by Vuk Karadžić from 1852, although he contradicted himself as the commoners from Zagvozd called them starovirsko, dictionary by Bogoslav Šulek from 1860 and so on, while academic dictionaries mention it only from 1956/58.
It is considered that the term was used in East Herzegovina and in the area of Stari Vlah in Serbia. Until the early 20th century there was wandering in terminology, some scholars proposed general terms like nadgrobni biljezi and mramorje to be more appropriate; the term stećak is uncommon in regional dialects and without etiological value, semantically incorrect and contradicting as it derives from the verb "to stand", while the chest-type to which it refers predominantly is laid down, while another sub-type of pillars and crosses is the one predominantly upright. The term kamik is more close to the original meaning and sometime is used instead of stećak in professional literature; the stećci area or cemetery folk names show respect and admiration for their dimensions, age or representations: Divsko groblje, Mašete, Mramori/Mramorje, Grčko groblje, Tursko groblje, Kaursko groblje. They are characteristic for the territory of present-day Herzegovina, central Bosnia and Dalmatia, some minor parts of Montenegro and Western Serbia and Northwestern Bosnia.
Stećci are described as horizontal and vertical tombstones, made of stone, with a flat or gable-top surface, with or without a pedestal. The common classification was established by Dmitrij Sergejevski in 1952, who divided them into recumbent stećci and standing stećci; the systematization of stećci is not complete. According to Šefik Bešlagić, there are seven main shapes: slab, chest with pedestal, ridge/gable, ridge/gable with pedestal and cross. For instance, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, according to UNESCO, "about 40,000 chests, 13,000 slabs, 5,500 gabled tombstones, 2,500 pillars/obelisks, 300 cruciform tombstones and about 300 tombstones of indeterminate shape have been identified. Of these, more than 5,000 bear carved decorations"; the chronology established by Marian Wenzel assumes they developed from the plate headstones, the oldest one dating back to 1220, the monumental ones emerged somewhere around 1360, those with visual representations around 1435–1477, that total production ended circa 1505.
However, some consider that it lasted until the late 16th century, with rare examples that continued until the 18th century. Stećci in the form of chest and ridge/saddle-roofed do not seem to have appeared before the middle or the end of the 14th century, while
"Jennifer Juniper" is a song and single by the Scottish singer-songwriter, released in 1968. It peaked at number 5 in the UK Singles Chart, at number 26 in the Billboard Hot 100. AllMusic journalist, Matthew Greenwald, noted that "capturing all of the innocence of the era it's one of his finest singles"; the track was written about Jenny Boyd, sister of Pattie Boyd, in the throes of a heroin overdose, shortly before they went with The Beatles to Rishikesh. She married Mick Fleetwood and was, at one time, the sister-in-law of George Harrison and Eric Clapton; the song features a wind section with oboe and bassoon. The last stanza of the song is sung in French. Donovan performed on a novelty cover of the single released in Britain in 1990, by comedy duo Trevor and Simon, as "The Singing Corner Meets Donovan", it spent one week at number 68 in the UK Singles Chart in December 1990. The B-side "Poor Cow" is a song produced for the film Poor Cow by Ken Loach; the original title of the song was "Poor Love".
The title was changed. It retained that title when released as the B-side to "Jennifer Juniper" in February 1968. "Poor Cow" is introduced by Donovan as "Poor Love" on his live album Donovan in Concert. The song features in The Simpsons episode "Flaming Moe", along with a character called Miss Juniper. Theodore Bikel covered the song on his album A New Day. Natalie Portman's character plays this song on the piano in Mr. Magorium's Wonder Emporium; the song was featured in the 1999 film Election. Jennifer Juniper - Donovan Unofficial Site
Alexander George Fraser was a Scottish genre and domestic painter who exhibited his paintings at the Royal Academy in London for many years. His son, Alexander Fraser, was a prominent artist with whom he is sometimes confused. Fraser was born in Edinburgh on 7 April 1786, his father was Alexander Fraser, a grocer, his mother, Madgalane Davie. He studied painting under John Graham at the Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh, his fellow pupils included William Allan, John Burnet, David Wilkie. He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1810 and moved to London in 1813. David Wilkie had preceded him to London and he employed Fraser as an assistant to paint details and still life in his pictures. Of Wilkie's many followers, Fraser was the most capable. Many of his paintings were humorous and on a small scale, for example, The Scotch Fair or Music Makers. On 30 June 1826, he married Janet William Moir in Edinburgh, Alexander Fraser was their son. In 1840, Fraser was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, an institution he had helped to found.
In 1842, his Naaman Cured of the Leprosy obtained the premium at the British Institution for best picture of the year. From 1848, ill-health prevented him from painting and he ceased exhibiting at the Royal Academy, he died at Wood Green, London on 15 February 1865. 15 paintings by or after Alexander George Fraser at the Art UK site. Retrieved 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2015-12-08
Darryl White is an Australian rules footballer whose career with the Brisbane Bears and Lions in the Australian Football League lasted from 1992 to 2005. An Indigenous Australian, in 2005 he was named at fullback in the Australian rules football Indigenous Team of the Century. Beyond his AFL career, White continues to be involved in football, having forged one of the most successful careers of any Australian rules footballer, with six premierships across three competitions, he is an indigenous role model for many aboriginal Australians. White, of Indigenous Australian descent, grew up in Alice Springs in central Australia, playing junior football for the Pioneer Football Club. Like many of his peers he had a natural talent for football. In 1990 he represented the Northern Territory at the Teal Cup under-17 national football carnival held in Brisbane, where he came to the attention of Brisbane Bears coach Robert Walls and his football manager Scott Clayton. Impressed with his clean ball handling skills, his leap and his ability to play tall, the Bears drafted him at the end of the season with a priority draft pick from their Queensland-Northern Territory recruiting zone.
Despite initial reluctance to move to the Bears—a club which, in White's words, "only won two games a year", the future football star was persuaded to give the club a chance. He found the transition from Alice Springs football to training under strict disciplinarian Walls difficult once there, for example, his first season of football was an announcement of a rare talent, leading the Brownlow Medal count after three rounds with two best-on-ground performances and kicking the official goal of the year with his first-ever goal. However White suffered continual problems with homesickness. At the end of the season he returned to Alice Springs and did not return for the start of pre-season training a month later; when Walls telephoned him to ask him if he was coming back, the response was: "I'm busy—call me again in a couple of weeks."White soon became a crowd favourite, with a marking ability well beyond that which his height would allow. Fans grew to recognise his loping running style, his casual but pinpoint foot passing, his idiosyncratic pose after a mark, holding the ball aloft on its point as if to show the world he'd caught it.
He found citywide fame when a photo of a spectacular White mark was published on the cover of the 1996 Brisbane White Pages telephone directory. White's vertical jump allowed his coaches to take advantage of his flexibility by positioning him in a variety of key positions—even, when injuries to teammates demanded it, the ruck. White's opponents were much taller and stronger but his leap and flexibility allowed him to hold his own in such contests. White survived the 1996 merger between Fitzroy and the Bears which formed the Brisbane Lions, was an integral member of its first premiership victory in 2001 playing off half-back, he played in the Lions' flag wins in 2002 and 2003, as well as its Grand Final loss in 2004. By now, White had become an inspiration to other indigenous players those from his former home of the Northern Territory. On one occasion, he found himself approached by a young indigenous player from another club after a match who asked him to pose for a photograph with him before leaving the ground.
His progression from erratic youth to responsible adult had been guided by mentor and former teammate, fellow aborigine Michael McLean. A trip to South Africa in 1997 and a 36-hour gaol term for assault in the same year opened his eyes to what his life could have been. "I used to be out stealing handbags," he said in 2001. "I was just starting to get into better stuff. Back I was stealing BMWs. Luckily I got sent away for six months in juvenile detention centre in Perth. Look at me now, it's all changed."In 2005 he was named captain of the Indigenous All-Stars, an all-Aboriginal team, selected to play the Western Bulldogs in Darwin that February. White was devastated when he ruptured a thumb ligament at Lions training in the weeks before the game, was unable to play. Desperate to play a part, he flew in for the occasion and acted as the team's runner during the game. However, in 2003 and 2004 his form had been patchy, spending increasing time in the club's seconds side, at the end of each season there was increasing speculation that he would retire.
The Lions continued to show their loyalty to the player who had served them so well and re-signed him for the 2005 season, but he added only ten games to his career tally. In the second-last home-and-away game of that season, with the Lions struggling to make the finals, White played in the seconds and kicked nine goals, ensuring his recall for one last game; the Lions were thrashed by St Kilda in Melbourne in a disappointing finish to a spectacular and entertaining career. In the last quarter, White held it skyward in trademark fashion, he drilled a no-look pass forward to Jared Brennan, a player who had idolised White as a boy. Brennan goaled. White's shellshocked teammates flocked around him to offer congratulations. After the siren, he was carried from the ground by indigenous teammates Chris Johnson and Ash McGrath, signifying the respect in which he had been held by his community. White's contribution to football and his community was recogn
Der Messias is an epic poem published from 1748 to 1773 by German poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. The poem consists of 19,458 dactylic hexameters, as compared with the 15,693 of Homer's Iliad. At Schulpforta, the classical school Klopstock attended 1739–1745, the plan for the poem was formulated; the project reflected the influence of Johann Jakob Bodmer's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost, which Klopstock had read at the school. After developing his plan, Klopstock wrote a prose version of the first three cantos. After going to Leipzig in 1747, he recast the prose into dactylic hexameters. In 1748, this verse for the first three cantos appeared anonymously in the Bremer Beiträge; the next two cantos appeared in 1750, the next five appeared in 1755. Ten more cantos appeared later: five in 1768 and five in 1773; when the first three cantos appeared, it took the public a year to get accustomed to the novelty of the form and content, after which the poem's success was unprecedented. The poem became regarded in some circles as equal to the epics of Dante and Milton by women and religious people.
In using hexameters for his verse, Klopstock had abandoned the traditional Alexandrines. This loosed a storm of criticism on his head from the school of Johann Christoph Gottsched, who ridiculed what he called Klopstock's "seraphic spirit of fanaticism", his strictures on Gottsched's dogmatism, his effeminate and morbid tenderness, his religious sentimentality; these criticisms were confirmed by Lessing, although in a milder and more dignified spirit. On the other hand, the school of Bodmer applauded, it has been said. Goethe's Autobiography tells us that his father banished the book from the house because of its blank verse; the fame of the work rests on the first ten cantos. By the time the last ten cantos came out, interest in the work had ebbed. A flood of epic imitations on various biblical subjects attested to his contemporary influence, all the younger poets of his day learned from Klopstock, but the 19th century admired him from an ever-increasing distance; the theme of the poem is the redemption of mankind, the poem starts with Jesus's entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday.
Klopstock's work shows. However, instead of strong contrasts, going from darkness to light, from misery to bliss, Klopstock attempts to portray a mental state of continuous, dazzling brilliancy. Instead of an alternation of clashes, there is contemplation. Notable descriptions are those of hell, the council of the devils, their punishment through transformation, the trips through the universe made by angels and devils, the vision of the last judgment. Wilhelm Scherer, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur Franz Muncker, Klopstocks Leben G. E. Lessing, “Ueber das Heldengedicht: Der Messias,” XV from Briefe A prose English translation was completed by Mrs. Mary Collyer and completed by her husband Joseph Collyer after her death 1763. A translation into English blank verse was made by Solomon Halling and published in 1810. An excellent English verse translation was completed by G. H. C. Egestorff in 1826, is available online via Google Books in two parts: volumes 1&2 | volumes 3&4. Eggert, Carl E.. "Messiah, The.
McDonald's Israel is the Israeli master franchise of the fast food restaurant chain McDonald's. Operated and licensed by Alonyal Limited, McDonald's Israel is the largest of Israel's burger chains with a 60% market share; the company sells hamburgers, chicken nuggets, French fries and soft drinks in branches across the country. Since its opening in Israel in 1993, McDonald's Israel has been in competition with Burger Ranch, Israel's second largest burger chain; the world's first kosher McDonald's opened in Mevaseret Zion in October 1995. McDonald's Israel is run by Israeli businessman Omri Padan. Padan is President of Alonyal Limited, local licensee for McDonald's. McDonald's has 180 restaurants in Israel, with 50 of them under Kosher supervision, meaning they are closed on Shabbat and Jewish holidays, have no mixed meat and dairy products, for Passover serve the meat on Passover buns. In Israel, most branches are non-kosher since they serve cheeseburgers by special request and they serve milk-based desserts.
Some of the kosher branches serve milk products in a separate section of the restaurant. McDonald's Israel does not operate restaurants in the West Golan Heights. McDonald's Israel sources over 80% of its ingredients locally; this includes kosher beef patties, lettuce and milkshake mix. All McDonald's Israel restaurants are equipped with free wifi Internet access. Due to the Arab League boycott of Israel, McDonald's did not open in Israel until 1993; the first branch was at the Ayalon Mall in Ramat Gan. In the wake of a controversy over importing French fries to Israel, the American fast food chain built a plant to manufacture frozen French fries in Israel at a cost of $5 million US. In 1994, the Golani Interchange branch aroused controversy when the restaurant installed a large'golden arches' sign in front of the Golani Brigade museum and memorial. Bereaved families and other citizens claimed; the sign was reduced in size. In 1997, McDonald's Israel opened its first branch in an Israeli Arab city.
The restaurant was in Tamra, 27 kilometers northeast of Nazareth, the menu was bilingual, in Hebrew and Arabic. In 1998, McDonald's Israel decided to barbecue hamburgers on charcoal instead of frying; this represented a shift in McDonald's policy, which required uniformity at all the locations. In the wake of this decision, grilling equipment was installed at the restaurants, the size of the patty and bun were increased. In 2004, the company was criticized for ordering its Arabic and Russian-speaking staff to speak only Hebrew during work hours, to "prevent uncomfortable situations for workers and clients who speak Hebrew," but the order was subsequently withdrawn. In 2006, the international chain's trademark yellow and red signs were replaced at two branches in Tel Aviv with blue and white signs with the Hebrew word "kosher" in order to avoid confusion over which branches were kosher; this redesign is the most radical departure from McDonald's standard logo although they have made minor changes in places such as the Champs-Elysées and Hampstead to meet local regulations.
McDonald's Israel, in June 2013, turned down an offer to open a restaurant in Ariel in June 2013, citing its declared policy not to open any branches in West Bank settlements across the Green Line. In 2015, McDonald's Israel developed the McApp that enables customers to order on line and pick up their order when ready. In January 2017, McDonald's Israel introduced McTouch stands, which are positioned in certain restaurants giving the customers the ability to order their meals for themselves without having to stand in line to order; the McTouch offers the'My Mac' option, allowing customers to create their own hamburgers with their preferences and favorites, choosing from various dressings and extra components such as guacamole and fried onion rings. In 2017, McDonald's Israel's McRoyal hamburger was chosen by Channel 10's "Osot Cheshbon" program as "The Most Outstanding & Healthiest Hamburger in Israel", following laboratory exam. While McDonald's operates several Kosher and non-Kosher restaurants, all the meat served in the restaurants is kosher beef.
The difference is that the non-Kosher branches open on Shabbat and Jewish holidays, in addition to serving dairy products. A kosher McDonald's was opened in Argentina, at the Abasto de Buenos Aires shopping mall. Argentina and Israel are the only branches in the world. Similar to McDonald's charitable efforts in the other countries they operate, McDonald's Israel has donated hundreds of thousands of NIS to charities which benefit children such as Schneider Children's Hospital, "Make A Wish Association", "The Fighting Cancer Association." In 2000, McDonald's Israel participated in the global children's recognition program, McDonald's/Disney Millennium Dreamers, which celebrated 2000 children from around the world for their achievements. Six children represented Israel at a global youth summit in Orlando, United States. McDonald's Israel has its own "McSmile Program," which sponsors trips for children recovering from cancer; the regular McDonald's menu has some additions catering to local tastes.
McKebab is served in tortilla. Israeli salad was added to the menu in 2007. In January 2011, McDonald's Israel introduced McFalafel in all its restaurants, but has been removed from the menu in July 2011. McDonald's Israel serves the Big America series, which consists of six burgers