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Ste. Genevieve, Missouri

Ste. Genevieve is a city in Ste. Genevieve Township and is the county seat of Ste. Genevieve County, United States; the population was 4,410 at the 2010 census. Founded in 1735 by French Canadian colonists and settlers from east of the river, it was the first organized European settlement west of the Mississippi River in present-day Missouri. Founded around 1740 by Canadien settlers and migrants from settlements in the Illinois Country just east of the Mississippi River, Ste. Geneviève is the oldest permanent European settlement in Missouri, it was named for the patron saint of Paris, the capital of France. While most residents were of French-Canadian descent, many of the founding families had been in the Illinois Country for two or three generations, it is one of the oldest colonial settlements west of the Mississippi River. This area was known as Illinois Country, or the Upper Louisiana territory. Traditional accounts suggested a founding of 1735 or so, but the historian Carl Ekberg has documented a more founding about 1750.

The population to the east of the river needed more land, as the soils in the older villages had become exhausted. Improved relations with hostile Native Americans, such as the Osage, made settlement possible. Prior to the French Canadian settlers, indigenous peoples known as the Mississippian culture and earlier cultures had been living in the region for more than a thousand years. At the time of settlement, however, no Indian tribe lived nearby on the west bank. Jacques-Nicolas Bellin's map of 1755, the first to show Ste. Genevieve in the Illinois Country, showed the Kaskaskia natives on the east side of the river, but no Indian village on the west side within 100 miles of Ste. Genevieve. Osage hunting and war parties did enter the area from the north and west; the region had been abandoned by 1500 due to environmental exhaustion, after the peak of Mississippian-culture civilization at Cahokia, the center of the mounds culture. At the time of its founding, Ste. Genevieve was the last of a triad of French Canadian settlements in this area of the mid-Mississippi Valley region.

About five miles northeast of Ste. Genevieve on the east side of the river was Fort de Chartres. Kaskaskia, which became Illinois’ first capital upon statehood, was located about five miles southeast. Prairie du Rocher and Cahokia, Illinois were early local French colonial settlements on the east side of the river. Following defeat by the British in the French and Indian War, in 1762 with the Treaty of Fontainebleau, France secretly ceded the area of the west bank of the Mississippi River to Spain, which formed Louisiana; the Spanish moved the capital of Upper Louisiana from Fort de Chartres fifty miles upriver to St. Louis, they ruled with a light hand and through French-speaking officials. Although under Spanish control for more than 40 years, Ste. Genevieve retained its French language and character. In 1763, the French ceded the land east of the Mississippi to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris that ended Europe's Seven Years' War known on the North American front as the French and Indian War.

French-speaking people from Canada and settlers east of the Mississippi went west to escape British rule. Genevieve after George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763; this transformed all of the captured French land between the Mississippi and the Appalachian Mountains, except Quebec, into an Indian Reserve. The king required settlers to leave or get British permission to stay; these requirements were violated by European-American settlers, who resented efforts to restrict their expansion. During the 1770s, Little Osage and Missouri tribes raided Ste. Genevieve to steal settlers' horses, but the fur trade, marriage of French-Canadian men with Native American women, other commercial dealings created many ties between Native Americans and the Canadiens. During the 1780s, some Shawnee and Lenape migrated to the west side of the Mississippi following American victory in its Revolutionary War; the tribes established villages south of Ste. Genevieve; the Peoria moved near Ste. Genevieve in the 1780s but had a peaceful relationship with the village.

It was not until the 1790s. In addition, they attacked the Shawnee. While at one point Spanish administrators wanted to attack the Big Osage, there were not sufficient French settlers to recruit for a militia to do so; the Big Osage had 1250 men in their village, lived in the prairie. In 1794 Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, the Spanish governor at New Orleans, appointed brothers Pierre Chouteau and Auguste Chouteau of St. Louis to have exclusive trading privileges with the Big Osage, they built a trading post on the Osage River in Big Osage territory. While the natives did not cease their raids on Ste. Genevieve, commercial diplomacy and rewards of the fur trade eased some relations. Following the great flood of 1785, the town moved from its initial location on the floodplain of the Mississippi River, to its present location two miles north and about a half mile inland, it continued to prosper as a village devoted to agriculture wheat and tobacco production. Most of the families were yeomen farmers.

The village raised sufficient grain to send many tons of flour annually for sale to Lower Louisiana and New Orleans. This was essential to the survival of the southern colonies, which could not grow sufficient grain in their cli

Eddy Mazzoleni

Eddy Mazzoleni is an Italian professional road bicycle racer who most rode for UCI ProTour Astana Team. He lives in Almenno San Bartolomeo, Italy. Mazzoleni is a talented climber and was a higher finisher on the General Classification in the 2005 Tour de France, notably he finished 3rd on stage 16 to Pau, he finished 3rd overall in the 2007 Giro d'Italia behind 1st-place winner Danilo Di Luca and 2nd place Andy Schleck. His brother in-law is Ivan Basso. Mazzoleni left Astana on 16 July 2007, following implication in the Italian Oil for Drugs case. On 8 April 2008 Mazzoleni was given a two-year suspension due to his involvement in this case, his name was on the list of doping tests published by the French Senate on 24 July 2013 that were collected during the 1998 Tour de France and found positive for EPO when retested in 2004. List of doping cases in cycling

Mass dimension one fermions

In theoretical physics and cosmology the mass dimension one fermions of spin one half are a dark matter candidate. These fermions are fundamentally different from the hitherto known matter particles, like electrons or neutrinos. Despite being endowed with spin one half they are not described by the celebrated Dirac formalism but, instead, by a spinorial Klein-Gordon formalism. In 2004 Dharam Vir Ahluwalia in collaboration with Daniel Grumiller presented an unexpected theoretical discovery of spin one-half fermions with mass dimension one. See, and. In the decade that followed a significant number of groups explored intriguing mathematical and physical properties of the new construct while Ahluwalia and his students developed the formalism further, and However, the formalism suffered from two troubling features, that of non-locality and a subtle violation of Lorentz symmetry. The origin of both of these issues has now been traced to a hidden freedom in the definition of duals of spinors and the associated field adjoints.

As a result there now exists an new quantum theory of spin one-half fermions, free from all the mentioned issues. The interactions of the new fermions are restricted to dimension-four quartic self interaction, to a dimension-four coupling with the Higgs. A generalised Yukawa coupling of the new fermions with neutrinos provides an hitherto unsuspected source of lepton-number violation; the new fermions thus present a first-principle dark matter partner to Dirac fermions of the standard model with contrasting mass dimensions — that of three halves for the latter versus one of the former without mutating the statistics from fermionic to bosonic. Mass dimension one fermionic field of spin one half uses ELKO as its expansion coefficients. ELKO is an acronym of the original German term "Eigenspinoren des Ladungskonjugationsoperators", designating spinors that are eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator. Since the new fermions have a mass dimensionality mismatch with standard model matter fields they were suggested as a dark matter candidate.

As a result of their scalar-like mass dimension they differ from the mass dimension 3/2 Dirac fermions. Mass dimension one fermions have unexpected implications for cosmology by providing first principle dark matter and dark energy fields. After the publication of the Ahluwalia-Grumiller papers in 2005, Christian Boehmer pioneered application of Elko to cosmology and argued that Elko "are not only prime dark matter candidates but prime candidates for inflation." Einstein–Cartan–Elko system was first introduced in cosmology by Boehmer. Saulo Pereira and colleagues have shown that Elko can induce a time varying cosmological constant. Abhishek Basak and colleagues have argued that the fast-roll inflation attractor point is unique for Elko and it is independent of the form of the potential; the subject is further pursued in references and. Roldao da Rocha has argued that Elko can be used as a tool for probing exotic topological features of spacetime. Elko localization on the branes has been investigated in, and.

The following references serve as a guide to the lively activity on Elko, mass dimension one fermions:Earlier history of Elko is summarized in references: and. How Weinberg no go theorem is evaded is explained by Ahluwalia in 2017.. In 2017, it was shown that mass-dimension-one fermions in the absence of a cosmological constant, can induce a'cosmological constant' term by quantum effects; these effects, leading to the non-vanishing Λ could be responsible for the inflationary phase at early universe stages. Furthermore, for the late time evolution, corresponding to a model with a time varying cosmological term, such quantum effects are in agreement with a previous recent work. Detailed discussion of the subject can be found in