An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
The Grateful Dead Movie
The Grateful Dead Movie, released in 1977 and directed by Jerry Garcia, is a film that captures live performances from rock band the Grateful Dead during an October 1974 five-night run at Winterland in San Francisco. These concerts marked the beginning of a hiatus, with the October 20, 1974 show billed as "The Last One"; the band would return to touring in 1976. The film features the "Wall of Sound" concert sound system that the Dead used for all of 1974; the movie portrays the burgeoning Deadhead scene. Two albums have been released in conjunction with the film and the concert run: Steal Your Face and The Grateful Dead Movie Soundtrack. "There is nothing like a Grateful Dead concert" was a fan epithet, coined by Dead family member and building manager Willy Legate. In performance, the Dead emphasized musical improvisation and jamming, varying their set lists nightly. To Deadheads, their music was best appreciated at live concerts. Furthermore, Dead shows were known for their positive and celebratory atmosphere as the band and the audience interacted, fostering a special environment of musical celebration.
Capturing this phenomenon on film was the paradoxical goal of The Grateful Dead Movie. To document the Grateful Dead experience, the film showcases the fans more than was usual in a concert movie at the time, they are shown enjoying the show, discussing the music and the band, what it was like to be a Deadhead in the mid-1970s. The film includes interviews with members of the Dead and vintage footage from their colorful history and early days in the band; the film opens with a uniquely Grateful Dead animated sequence, featuring the "Uncle Sam skeleton". The psychedelic animation was created by Gary Gutierrez, using techniques that he developed for the project. By 1974, lead guitarist Jerry Garcia wanted to stop touring and take a break from performing with the Grateful Dead. Before beginning a hiatus of uncertain length, a five-show farewell run was set for October 16-20, 1974 at Winterland in San Francisco. An idea developed to film the shows and send the movie out on tour as a substitute. Manager Ron Rakow sold the idea for a soundtrack album to United Artists Records.
At the beginning of the second set of the final show on October 20, 1974, Mickey Hart joined the band on stage as a second drummer. Hart had been a member of the Dead from September 1967 to February 1971; this appearance would lead to his permanent return to the band in 1976. At various times during these shows, the band was joined by frequent guest keyboardist Ned Lagin. In contrast to Keith Godchaux, Lagin's array of instruments included a Rhodes, the ARP Odyssey and an Interdata 716-controlled E-mu Systems modular polyphonic synthesizer. Due to myriad recording and mixing problems that plagued the engagement, many of his parts were not recorded. Additionally, as many as two channels of his input would still be lost in the mix when the system was working properly. In the film, Lagin is only seen in silhouette during "Morning Dew" and "Johnny B. Goode", fulfilling a request he made to Jerry Garcia after estranging himself from the Grateful Dead in 1975. With filmmaker Leon Gast directing, the concert footage was shot on six film cameras and the audio recorded on two 16-track machines.
Gast remembered "They were at a point. What Jerry and Ron Rakow wanted to do was shoot a full Grateful Dead performance, from beginning to end, it was going to be five nights at the Winterland and they said,'Sometimes it happens and sometimes it doesn’t. There will be one night when it will be magic.' I liked the Dead. I wasn’t sure I knew what they were talking about... and it did happen on the third night or the fourth night.... At one point we were going to call it The Grateful Dead: Warts and All, but that’s not what happened, it became a movie about the crew and the Deadheads. We agreed that this should be about the Grateful Dead experience." When it became apparent that Garcia wanted to oversee all aspects of post-production, Gast excused himself from the project. Though unfamiliar with the band, Susan Crutcher was hired as an additional film editor. Crutcher said ``; that alone took five months. What did was introduce the television concept of, quite new then, he was hip enough to know about SMPTE timecode, a video thing.
So we were one of the first movies that tried to interface SMPTE timecode and film. It was kind of the crest of the wave."Garcia worked on the editing and synchronization for nearly three years. Those that knew the guitarist at the time say he was consumed by the completion of the project and stressed. Garcia called the process "two years of incredible doubt, crisis after crisis." Bassist Phil Lesh explained "I don’t think Jer had any idea at the beginning how much mind-numbing repetitive detail he would have to wade through just to storyboard the film’s structure.
Quadraphonic sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s, it was a commercial failure due to format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo. Playback required specially designed decoders and amplifiers. Quadraphonic audio reproduction on vinyl records was problematic; some systems used a demodulator to decode discrete sound channels. This allowed for full channel separation. Other systems used matrix decoding to recover four channels from the two channels cut on the record. Matrix systems do not have full channel separation, some information can be lost between the encoding and decoding processes. Both discrete and matrix quadrophonic recordings could be played in two channels on conventional stereo record players.
There were less sophisticated "derived" solutions that only provided back ambience channels, not a defined placement of individual instruments. Quadraphonic systems based on tape were introduced, based on new equipment capable of playing four discrete channels; these recordings were released in 8-track cartridge formats. A full, four-channel system will reproduce the Left Front, Left Back, Right Front, Right Back audio signals in each of four separate speakers. Regardless of discrete or matrix formats, in four-channel stereo the rear speakers should be of the same or almost-same size or quality and have the same or almost-same frequency range as the front speakers. Discrete reproduction is the only true Quadraphonic system; as its name suggests, with discrete formats the original four audio channels are passed through a four-channel transmission medium and presented to a four-channel reproduction system and fed to four speakers. This is defined as a 4–4–4 system. Q4 / Quadraphonic Reel to Reel Quad-8 / Quadraphonic 8-Track CD-4 / Quadradisc UD-4 / UMX / BMX With Matrix formats, the four channels are converted down to two channels.
These are passed through a two-channel transmission medium before being decoded back to four channels and presented to four speakers. To transmit four individual audio signals in a stereo-compatible manner, there must be four simultaneous linear equations to reproduce the original four audio signals at the output; the term "compatible" indicates that: A single-channel system will reproduce all four audio signals in its one speaker. A two-channel system will reproduce the Left Front & Left Back audio signals in the Left speaker and the Right Front & Right Back signals in the Right Speaker; the original systems were basic and suffered from low front L/R separation and a poor rear L/R separation of 2db. The decoders were designed more to give an effect rather than accurate decoding, due to limitations in both systems, although as both systems were closely related mathematically, users only needed one decoder of either system to play back albums of both systems; the aboves' poor decode performance was the main reason for their disappearance once the improved matrix systems arrived based on the work by Peter Scheiber.
His basic formula utilized 90-degree phase-shift circuitry to enable enhanced 4-2-4 matrix systems to be developed, of which the two main leaders were Columbia's SQ and Sansui's QS Systems. With Scheiber and Martin Willcocks, Jim Fosgate developed the Tate II 101 SQ decoder, which produced a accurate sound field by using gain riding and the Haas effect to mask decoding artifacts, it used custom, hand-assembled and -calibrated circuitry with components sorted to 1%, for exact performance. Sansui's QSD- series decoders and QRX- series receivers were good synthesizing L—R stereo into a ⋂ horseshoe topology. However, all these came too late in the game and were too expensive or difficult to procure for public purchase, to rescue matrix quad; the differences between the original systems and the new were so large that it made it impossible to decode DY/EV-4 with either SQ or QS decoders with any accuracy, the results being just a form of artificial quad. This 4:2:4 process could not be accomplished without some information loss.
That is to say, the four channels produced at the final stage were not identical to those with which the process had begun. Matrix H SQ / Stereo Quadraphonic QS / RM DY / Dynaquad EV / Stereo-4 Derived formats were inexpensive electronic solutions that provided back ambience channels from regular stereo records. There was no deliberate placement of individual instruments on the back channels. DY / Dynaquad Hafler circuit The first medium for 4-channel sound was reel-to-reel tape, used first in European electronic-music studios by 1954, an outstanding example of, the tape part of Karlheinz Stockhausen’s piece and was introduced to the American market by the Vanguard Recording Society in June 1969 as "Quadraphonic open reel tape" tapes. All available 4 tracks were used in one direction on the tape, running at twice the speed of the regular 4-Track reel-to-reel tapes. RCA Records followed, in April 1970, with its announcement of a 4 channel version of the 8-track tape, named Quad-8 or Quadra
Philip Chapman Lesh is a musician and a founding member of the Grateful Dead, with whom he played bass guitar throughout their 30-year career. After the band's disbanding in 1995, Lesh continued the tradition of Grateful Dead family music with side project Phil Lesh and Friends, which paid homage to the Dead's music by playing their originals, common covers, the songs of the members of his band. Lesh operates, he scaled back his touring regimen in 2014 but continues to perform with Phil Lesh & Friends at select venues. From 2009 to 2014, he performed in Furthur alongside his former Grateful Dead bandmate Bob Weir. Lesh was born in Berkeley and started out as a violin player. While enrolled at Berkeley High School, he switched to trumpet and participated in all of the school's music-related extracurricular activities. Studying the instrument under Bob Hansen, conductor of the symphonic Golden Gate Park Band, he developed a keen interest in avant-garde classical music and free jazz. After attending San Francisco State University for a semester, Lesh was unable to secure a favorable position in the school's band or orchestra and determined that he was not ready to pursue a higher education.
Upon dropping out, he auditioned for the renowned Sixth Army Band with the assistance of Hansen but was determined to be unfit for military service. Shortly thereafter, he enrolled at the College of San Mateo, where he wrote charts for the community college's well-regarded big band and ascended to the first trumpet chair. After transferring with sophomore standing to the University of California, Berkeley in 1961, he befriended future Grateful Dead keyboardist Tom Constanten before dropping out again after less than a semester. At the behest of Constanten, he studied under the Italian modernist Luciano Berio in a graduate-level course at Mills College in the spring of 1962. While volunteering for KPFA as a recording engineer during this period, he met bluegrass banjo player Jerry Garcia. Despite opposite musical interests, they soon formed a friendship. Following a brief period as a Post Office Department employee and keno marker in Las Vegas; this was a peculiar turn of events. According to Lesh, the first song he rehearsed with the band was "I Know You Rider".
He stayed until the end. Since Lesh had never played bass, it meant that to a great extent he learned "on the job", yet it meant he had no preconceived attitudes about the instrument's traditional rhythm section role. In his autobiography, he credits Jack Casady as a confirming influence on the direction his instincts were leading him into. While he has said that his playing style was influenced more by Bach counterpoint than by contemporaneous rock and soul bass players, one can hear the fluidity and power of a jazz bassist such as Charles Mingus or Jimmy Garrison in Lesh's work, along with stylistic allusions to Casady. Lesh has cited Jack Bruce of Cream as an influence. Lesh was an innovator in the new role. Contemporaries such as Casady, James Jamerson and Paul McCartney adopted a more melodic, contrapuntal approach to the instrument. While not abandoning these aspects, Lesh took his own improvised excursions during a song or instrumental; this was a characteristic aspect of the so-called San Francisco Sound in the new rock music.
In many Dead jams, Lesh's bass is, as much a lead instrument as Garcia's guitar. Lesh was not a prolific composer or singer with the Grateful Dead, although some of the songs he did contribute are among the best known in the band's repertoire. Lesh's high tenor voice contributed to the Grateful Dead's three-part harmony sections in their group vocals in the early days of the band, until he relinquished singing high parts to Donna Godchaux in 1976 due to vocal cord damage from improper singing technique. In 1985, he resumed singing lead vocals on select songs as a baritone. Throughout the Grateful Dead's career, his interest in avant-garde music remained a crucial influence on the group. In 1994, he was inducted into The Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Grateful Dead. After the disbanding of the Grateful Dead, Lesh continued to play with its offshoots The Other Ones and The Dead, as well as performing with his own band, Phil Lesh and Friends. In 1999, he co-headlined a tour with Bob Dylan.
Additionally and his wife Jill administer their charitable organization, the Unbroken Chain Foundation. The couple have two children together and Brian. Both Grahame and Brian follow in their father's musical foot
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California in 1967 by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason, it was first known for political reporting by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone Press is the magazine's associated book publishing imprint. Straight Arrow Press was the magazine's associated book publishing imprint, Straight Arrow Publishing Co. Inc. was the publishing company that published Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from his own family and from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim; the first issue carried a cover date of November 9, 1967, was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival.
The cover price was 25¢. In the first issue, Wenner explained that the title of the magazine referred to the 1950 blues song "Rollin' Stone", recorded by Muddy Waters, Bob Dylan's hit single "Like a Rolling Stone": You're wondering what we're trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a sort of a newspaper; the name of it is Rolling Stone which comes from an old saying, "A rolling stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song. The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song. "Like a Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record. We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll."—Jann Wenner, Rolling Stone, November 9, 1967, p. 2 Some authors have attributed the name to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone identified with and reported the hippie counterculture of the era. However, it distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press.
In the first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces". In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark with its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. Thompson first published his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine helped launch the careers of many prominent authors, including Cameron Crowe, Lester Bangs, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, Ben Fong-Torres, Patti Smith and P. J. O'Rourke, it was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. One interviewer, speaking for a large number of his peers, said that he bought his first copy of the magazine upon initial arrival on his college campus, describing it as a "rite of passage".
In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters from San Francisco to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater". During the 1980s, the magazine began to shift towards being a general "entertainment" magazine. Music was still a dominant topic, but there was increasing coverage of celebrities in television and the pop culture of the day; the magazine initiated its annual "Hot Issue" during this time. Rolling Stone was known for its musical coverage and for Thompson's political reporting. In the 1990s, the magazine changed its format to appeal to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors and popular music; this led to criticism. In recent years, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, it has expanded content to include coverage of financial and banking issues. As a result, the magazine has seen its circulation increase and its reporters invited as experts to network television programs of note.
The printed format has gone through several changes. The first publications, in 1967–72, were in folded tabloid newspaper format, with no staples, black ink text, a single color highlight that changed each edition. From 1973 onwards, editions were produced on a four-color press with a different newsprint paper size. In 1979, the bar code appeared. In 1980, it became a large format magazine; as of edition of October 30, 2008, Rolling Stone has had a smaller, standard-format magazine size. After years of declining readership, the magazine experienced a major resurgence of interest and relevance with the work of two young journalists in the late 2000s, Michael Hastings and Matt Taibbi. In 2005, Dana Leslie Fields, former publisher of Rolling Stone, who had worked at the magazine for 17 years, was an inaugural inductee into the Magazine Hall of Fame. In 2009, Taibbi unleashed an acclaimed series of scathing reports on the financial meltdown of the time, he famously described Goldman Sachs as "a great vampire squid".
Bigger headlines came at the end of June 2010. Rolling Stone caused a controversy in the White House by publishing in the July issue an article by journalist Michael Hastings entitled, "The Runaway General", quoting criticism by General Stanley A. McChrystal, commander of the International Security Assistance Force and U. S. Forces-Afghanistan commander, about Vice President Joe Biden and oth
Winterland Ballroom was an ice skating rink and music venue in San Francisco, California. Located at the corner of Post Street and Steiner Street, it was converted to exclusive use as a music venue in 1971 by concert promoter Bill Graham and became a common performance site for many famous rock artists. Graham formed a merchandising company called Winterland which sold concert shirts and official sports team merchandise. Winterland was built in 1928 for $1 million and operated through the Great Depression. Opened on June 29, 1928, it was known as the New Dreamland Auditorium. Sometime in the late 1930s, the name was changed to Winterland, it served as an ice skating rink, convertible into a seated entertainment venue. In 1936, Winterland began hosting the Johnson Ice Follies. In November 1944, the impresario Clifford C. Fischer staged an authorized production of the Folies Bergère, the Folies Bergère of 1944, at the Winterland Ballroom, it was host to opera and tennis matches. Starting on September 23, 1966, with a double bill of Jefferson Airplane and the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Bill Graham began to rent the venue for larger concerts that his nearby Fillmore Auditorium could not properly accommodate.
After closing the Fillmore West in 1971, he began to hold regular weekend shows at Winterland. Various popular rock acts played there, including such bands and musicians as Bruce Springsteen, The Rolling Stones, The J. Geils Band, The Who, Black Sabbath, James Gang, Mahogany Rush, Quicksilver Messenger Service, UFO, REO Speedwagon, Slade, Cream, Kiss, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Van Morrison, The Allman Brothers Band, Grateful Dead, The Band, Big Brother and the Holding Company w/ Janis Joplin, Jethro Tull, Pink Floyd, Ten Years After, Electric Light Orchestra, Jefferson Airplane, Golden Earring, Grand Funk Railroad, Humble Pie, Bob Seger and the Silver Bullet Band, Robin Trower, Sex Pistols, Lake & Palmer, Sha Na Na, Loggins and Messina, Lee Michaels, Journey, Deep Purple, J. J. Cale, Chambers Brothers, Alice Cooper, Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, Mountain, B. B. King, George Thorogood and the Delaware Destroyers and Elvis Costello. Led Zeppelin first performed their song Whole Lotta Love there.
Many of the best-known rock acts from the 1960s and 1970s played at Winterland or played two blocks away across Geary Boulevard at the original Fillmore Auditorium. Peter Frampton recorded parts of the fourth best-selling live album Frampton Comes Alive!, at Winterland. The Grateful Dead made Winterland their home base and The Band played their last show there on Thanksgiving Day 1976; that concert, featuring numerous guest performers including Neil Young, Eric Clapton, Bob Dylan, Joni Mitchell, many others, was filmed by Martin Scorsese and released in theaters and as a soundtrack under the name The Last Waltz. Winterland was host to the Sex Pistols' final show on January 14, 1978. During Winterland's final month of existence, shows were booked nearly every night. Acts included The Tubes, Smokey Robinson, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, on December 15–16, 1978, Bruce Springsteen & the E Street Band. Springsteen's December 15 show was simulcast on local radio station KSAN-FM. Winterland closed on New Year's Eve 1978 / New Year's Day 1979 with a concert by the Grateful Dead, New Riders of the Purple Sage, The Blues Brothers.
The show lasted for over eight hours, with the Grateful Dead's performance—documented on DVD and CD as The Closing of Winterland—lasting nearly six hours. After the show, the crowd was treated to a buffet-style breakfast; the final show was simulcast on radio station KSAN-FM and broadcast live on the local PBS TV station KQED. Winterland was razed in 1985 and replaced by apartments; the following films and recordings were made in whole or in part at the Winterland Ballroom: The Band – The Last Waltz Grateful Dead – The Grateful Dead Movie, The Closing of Winterland Sha Na Na – Live at Winterland Kiss – Kissology Volume One: 1974–1977 Sex Pistols – The Filth and the Fury The Allman Brothers Band – Wipe the Windows, Check the Oil, Dollar Gas Big Brother and the Holding Company – Live at Winterland'68 Cream – Wheels of Fire, Live Cream, Live Cream Volume II, Those Were the Days Electric Light Orchestra – Live at Winterland'76 Peter Frampton – Frampton Comes Alive! Grateful Dead – Steal Your Face, Dick's Picks Volume 10, So Many Roads, The Closing of Winterland, The Grateful Dead Movie Soundtrack, Winterland: 1973: The Complete Recordings, Road Trips Volume 1 Number 4, Winterland June 1977: The Complete Recordings, Dave's Picks Volume 13 Jimi Hendrix – Live at Winterland, The Jimi Hendrix Concerts, Winterland The Doors – Boot Yer Butt: The Doors Bootlegs Jefferson Airplane – Thirty Seconds Over Winterland Loggins and Messina - On Stage Sammy Hagar – All Night Long Bruce Springsteen – Live/1975–85 The Band – The Last Waltz Humble Pie – Live at Winterland Paul Butterfield's Better Days – Live at Winterland Ballroom Sha Na Na – The Golden Age of Rock'n' Roll Sutherland Brothers & Quiver – Winterland Winterland shows Winterland Ballroom Posters at www.janisjoplin.net "Grateful Dead – The Closing of Winterland" "SF Chronicle on Winterlands closing" Winterland photos and fan website
John Perry Barlow
John Perry Barlow was an American poet and essayist, a cattle rancher, a cyberlibertarian political activist, associated with both the Democratic and Republican parties. He was a lyricist for the Grateful Dead and a founding member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Freedom of the Press Foundation, he was Fellow Emeritus at Harvard University's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, where he had maintained an affiliation since 1998. Barlow was born near Cora, Wyoming, as the only child to Norman Walker Barlow, a Republican state legislator, his wife, Miriam "Mim" Adeline Barlow Bailey, who married in 1929. Barlow's paternal ancestors were Mormon pioneers, he grew up on Bar Cross Ranch near Pinedale, Wyoming, a 22,000-acre property founded by his great uncle in 1907, attended elementary school in a one-room schoolhouse. Raised as a "devout Mormon", he was prohibited from watching television until the sixth grade, when his parents allowed him to "absorb televangelists". Although Barlow's academic record was erratic throughout his secondary education, he "had his pick of top eastern universities... because he was from Wyoming, where few applications originated."
In 1969, he graduated with high honors in comparative religion from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. He claimed to have served as the University's student body president until the administration "tossed him into a sanitarium" following a drug-induced attempted suicide attack in Boston, Massachusetts. Following two weeks of rehabilitation, he returned to his studies. Prior to receiving his degree, Barlow was admitted to Harvard Law School and contracted to write a novel by Farrar and Giroux at the behest of his mentor, the autodidactic Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist and historian Paul Horgan. Supported by a $5,000 or $1,000 advance from the publisher, he decided to eschew these options in favor of spending the next two years traveling around the world, including a nine-month sojourn in India, a riotous winter in a summer cottage on Long Island Sound in Connecticut, a screenwriting foray in Los Angeles. Barlow finished the novel, but it remains unpublished. During this period, he "lived beside Needle Park on New York's Upper West Side and dealt cocaine in Spanish Harlem."
At age 15, Barlow became a student at the Fountain Valley School in Colorado. While there, he met Bob Weir, who would join the jam band the Grateful Dead. Weir and Barlow maintained their close friendship through the years; as a frequent visitor during college to Timothy Leary's facility in Millbrook, New York, Barlow was introduced to LSD. These transformative experiences led Barlow to distance himself from Mormonism, he went on to facilitate the first meeting between the Grateful Dead and the Leary organization in June 1967. While on his way to California to reunite with the Grateful Dead in 1971, he stopped at his family's ranch, though had not intended to stay, his father had suffered a debilitating stroke in 1966 before dying in 1972, resulting in a $700,000 business debt. Barlow ended up changing his plans, began practicing animal husbandry under the auspices of the Bar Cross Land and Livestock Company in Cora, for two decades. To support the ranch, he continued to sell spec scripts. In the meantime, Barlow was still able to play an active role in the Grateful Dead while recruiting many unconventional part-time ranch hands from the mainstream as well as the counterculture.
Prior to his death in 2017, John Byrne Cooke intended to produce a documentary film that documented this era. Barlow became interested in collaborating with Weir at a Grateful Dead show at the Capitol Theatre in Port Chester, New York, in February 1971; until Weir had worked with resident Dead lyricist Robert Hunter. Hunter preferred that those who sang his songs stick to his "canonical" lyrics rather than improvising additions or rearranging words. A feud erupted backstage over a couplet in "Sugar Magnolia" from the band's most recent release, culminating in a disgruntled Hunter summoning Barlow and telling him "take —he's yours". In late 1971, with a deal for a solo album in hand and only two songs completed and Barlow began to write together for the first time, they co-wrote such songs such as "Cassidy", "Mexicali Blues" and "Black-Throated Wind", all three of which would remain in the repertoires of the Grateful Dead and of Weir's varied solo projects. Barlow subsequently collaborated with Grateful Dead keyboardist Brent Mydland, a partnership that culminated in four songs on 1989's Built to Last.
He wrote one song with Vince Welnick. In 1986, Barlow joined The WELL, an online community known for a strong Deadhead presence, he served on the company's board of directors for several years. In 1990, Barlow founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation along with fellow digital-rights activists John Gilmore and Mitch Kapor; as a founder of EFF, Barlow helped publicize the Secret Service raid on Steve Jackson Games. His involvement is documented in The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier by Bruce Sterling. EFF sponsored the ground-breaking case Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service in support of Steve Jackson Games. Steve Jackson Games won the case in 1993. In 1996, Barlow was invited to speak about his