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Stealth game

A stealth game is a type of video game in which the player uses stealth to avoid or overcome antagonists. Games in the genre allow the player to remain undetected by hiding, sneaking, or using disguises; some games allow the player to choose between a stealthy approach or directly attacking antagonists, but rewarding the player for greater use of stealth. The genre has employed espionage, counter-terrorism, rogue themes, with protagonists who are special forces operatives, thieves, ninjas, or assassins; some games have combined stealth elements with other genres, such as first-person shooters and platformers. Elements of "stealth" gameplay, by way of avoiding confrontation with enemies, can be attributed to a diverse range of games, including Pac Man. Early maze games have been credited with spawning the genre, including Manbiki Shounen, Lupin III, Castle Wolfenstein, 005 and Metal Gear; the genre became a mainstream success in 1998, with Tenchu: Stealth Assassins, Metal Gear Solid and Thief: The Dark Project all being released in that year.

These games were followed by other successful stealth series, such as Splinter Cell. Unlike most action games, stealth games challenge the player to avoid alerting enemies altogether; the core gameplay elements of the modern stealth game are to avoid combat, minimize making noise, strike enemies from the shadows and behind. Completing objectives without being detected by any enemy, sometimes referred to as "ghosting" is a common approach to stealth games. Avoiding detection may be the only way to complete a game, but there are multiple ways to achieve a goal with different pathways or styles of play. Players can hide behind objects or in shadows, can strike or run past an enemy when the enemy is facing the other way. If the player attracts the attention of enemies, they may be able to hide and wait until the enemies abandon their search. Thus, planning becomes important; some stealth games put more emphasis on physical combat skill. Some games offer a choice between killing or knocking out an enemy.

When ghosting is optional, or not well-supported by a game, players may still attempt to avoid combat for moral reasons or as a demonstration of skill. Early on in the development of the stealth genre these games were referred to; when hiding in the dark is a gameplay element and shadow become important parts of the level design. The player is able to disable certain light sources. Stealth games emphasize the audio design when players must be able to hear the subtle sound effects that may alert enemies to their actions. Players who move recklessly will attract more attention. In order for a game to include stealth gameplay, the knowledge of the artificial intelligence must be restricted to make it ignorant to parts of the game world; the AI in stealth games takes into specific consideration the enemies' reactions to the effects of the player's actions, such as turning off the lights, as opposed to reacting to the player directly. Enemies have a line of sight which the player can avoid by hiding behind objects, staying in the shadows or moving while the enemy is facing another direction.

Enemies can typically detect when the player touches them or moves within a small, fixed distance. Overall, stealth games vary in what player actions the AI will perceive and react to, with more recent games offering a wider range of enemy reactions; the AI's movements are predictable and regular, allowing the player to devise a strategy to overcome his adversaries. Players are given limited methods of engaging opponents directly in stealth games, either by restricting the player to ineffective or non-lethal weapons, equipping adversaries with far superior equipment and numbers, or providing the player with a limited amount of health that makes most combat scenarios dangerous. Stealth games sometimes overlap with the survival horror genre, in which players are forced to hide from and evade supernatural or mundane enemies as they attempt to track down the player. According to Retro Gamer's John Szczepaniak, the first stealth game was Manbiki Shounen, published in November 1979; the PET 2001 personal computer game was developed by Hiroshi Suzuki and involves a boy entering a convenience store and attempting to shoplift by stealing "$" symbols while avoiding the line-of-sight detection of the owner.

If caught, the player is led away by the police. Suzuki presented the game to developer Taito, which used it as inspiration for their similar stealth arcade game, Lupin III, released in April 1980. In November 1980, Suzuki developed Manbiki Shoujo. Castle Wolfenstein available in 1981, employed stealth elements as a focus of the gameplay. Players were charged with traversing the levels of Castle Wolfenstein, stealing secret plans and escaping. Players could acquire uniforms to walk by guards undetected. Beyond Castle Wolfenstein, released in 1984, included some additions to its predecessor, such as a dagger for close-range kills and a greater emphasis on disguising in enemy uniform. Id Software's updated 1992 remake Wolfenstein 3D was going to feature some of the original's stealth gameplay, such as body hiding, but this was cut to make the game faster paced; as a result of these changes, Wolfenstein would instead pave the way for 3D action games first-person shooters. In 1981, Sega released an arcade game called 005 in which the player's mis

Lease audit

Lease audit is referred to as Rent Audit, CAM Audit and Escalation Expense Audit. However, as the audit involves the inspection of other rights and obligations, names such as Lease Compliance Consulting and Lease Review are more appropriate. Lease Audit is a systematic process consisting of the examination of all documents associated with the lease, the measurement of space and the interpretation of lease language, it is the landlord who overcharged a tenant and the tenant therefore needs to perform a lease audit. Landlords, on the other hand, may perform a lease audit against a tenant. Lease audit services originated from the United States when Marc Betesh, a real estate attorney from New York City, began his own consulting practice in 1985. There are only a few books. Articles are limited. Documents such as invoices, amendment to lease and other correspondence from the landlord, as well as data from other sources will be audited to determine whether charges assessed by the landlord under a tenant’s lease have been proper.

Actual measurement of the tenant’s space and the total space in the property may be required while architectural drawings and surveys will be studied in order to find out the actual rental space of the tenant and the total rental space of the building. This will directly affect the tenant’s shares on the additional rental payments; the lease will be studied and interpreted in order to find out all the rights and obligations associated with it the lease auditor will find out and advise the client if those obligations have been properly met and rights have never been lost. Lease auditors will look at items like base rent, percentage rent, proportion on additional rent, real estate taxes and maintenance, exclusive right etc. Lease audit involves different kind of proficiency: audit and real estate. Lease auditors need to have in-depth knowledge in general ledgers. Lease auditors are expected to have excellent lease interpretation skills. In the past, when lease audit was a new term, lease auditors were traditionally lawyers and leasing managers who wanted to develop their career path on lease audit.

Nowadays, lease audit is a distinctive profession and its expertise is so special that it goes beyond the scope of each of those professions. One has to combine the knowledge of legal and auditing together in order to become a competent lease auditor. Broad leasing knowledge is needed to perform a professional lease audit and the lease auditors have to be professionally trained for years. Regardless of the original professions, all lease auditors have to be trained in all the accounting and real estate fields. Lease auditors are sensitive to figures and lease provisions, so that they can find out the “red flag” in the lease and locate the problems. A lease auditor can be an independent contractor. For independent contractors, there are 3 different type of fee structure: flat fee, hourly charge and contingent fee; the first one is a piece job, the lease auditor will evaluate the time needed to perform the lease audit and quote a price. The second one is like; the last one is a percentage charge based on the saving that the customer can get from the lease audit.

That is, the lease auditor will split the money saved from performing the audit with the customer. The split is 70/30 and the customer takes the majority. Since the customers do not have to pay any out of pocket money and the obligation to pay only exists when the audits can get them the savings, most customers will choose the contingency basis one. International Association of Real Estate Lease Auditors The Association of Canadian Lease Auditors Lease Audit Knowledge Center Lease Audit Tips Lease Audit Case Studies Lease Audit Cycle

Combat stress reaction

Combat stress reaction is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war. Known as "combat fatigue" or "battle neurosis", it has some overlap with the diagnosis of acute stress reaction used in civilian psychiatry, it is linked to shell shock and can sometimes precurse post-traumatic stress disorder. Combat stress reaction is an acute reaction that includes a range of behaviors resulting from the stress of battle that decrease the combatant's fighting efficiency; the most common symptoms are fatigue, slower reaction times, disconnection from one's surroundings, the inability to prioritize. Combat stress reaction is short-term and should not be confused with acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other long-term disorders attributable to combat stress, although any of these may commence as a combat stress reaction; the US Army uses the term/acronym COSR in official medical reports.

This term can be applied to any stress reaction in the military unit environment. Many reactions look like symptoms of mental illness, but they are only transient reactions to the traumatic stress of combat and the cumulative stresses of military operations. In World War I, shell shock was considered a psychiatric illness resulting from injury to the nerves during combat; the horrors of trench warfare meant that about 10% of the fighting soldiers were killed and the total proportion of troops who became casualties was 56%. Whether a shell-shock sufferer was considered "wounded" or "sick" depended on the circumstances; when faced with the phenomenon of a minority of soldiers mentally breaking down, there was an expectation that the root of this problem lay in character of the individual soldier, not because of what they experienced on the front lines during the war. These sorts of attitudes helped fuel the main argument, accepted after the war and going forward that there was a social root to shell shock that consisted of soldiers finding the only way allowed by the military to show weakness and get out of the front, claiming that their mental anguish constituted a legitimate medical diagnosis as a disease.

The large proportion of World War I veterans in the European population meant that the symptoms were common to the culture. Combat stress reaction symptoms align with the symptoms found in psychological trauma, related to post-traumatic stress disorder. CSR differs from PTSD in that a PTSD diagnosis requires a duration of symptoms over one month, which CSR does not; the most common stress reactions include: The ratio of stress casualties to battle casualties varies with the intensity of the fighting. With intense fighting, it can be as high as 1:1. In low-level conflicts, it can drop to 1:10. Modern warfare embodies the principles of continuous operations with an expectation of higher combat stress casualties; the World War II European Army rate of stress casualties of 101:1,000 troops per annum is biased by data from the last years of the war where the rates were low. The following PIE principles were in place for the "not yet diagnosed nervous" cases: Proximity – treat the casualties close to the front and within sound of the fighting.

Immediacy -- treat them without delay and not wait. Expectancy – ensure that everyone had the expectation of their return to the front after a rest and replenishment. United States medical officer Thomas W. Salmon is quoted as the originator of these PIE principles. However, his real strength came from going to Europe and learning from the Allies and instituting the lessons. By the end of the war, Salmon had set up a complete system of units and procedures, the "world's best practice". After the war, he maintained his efforts in educating the military, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for his contributions. Effectiveness of the PIE approach has not been confirmed by studies of CSR, there is some evidence that it is not effective in preventing PTSD. US services now use the more developed BICEPS principles: Brevity Immediacy Centrality or contact Expectancy Proximity Simplicity The British government produced a Report of the War Office Committee of Inquiry into "Shell-Shock", published in 1922.

Recommendations from this included: In forward areas No soldier should be allowed to think that loss of nervous or mental control provides an honorable avenue of escape from the battlefield, every endeavor should be made to prevent slight cases leaving the battalion or divisional area, where treatment should be confined to provision of rest and comfort for those who need it and to heartening them for return to the front line. In neurological centers When cases are sufficiently severe to necessitate more scientific and elaborate treatment they should be sent to special Neurological Centers as near the front as possible, to be under the care of an expert in nervous disorders. No such case should, however, be so labelled on evacuation as to fix the idea of nervous breakdown in the patient's mind. In base hospitals When evacuation to the base hospital is necessary, cases should be treated in a separate hospital or separate sections of a hospital, not with the ordinary sick and wounded patients.

Only in exceptional circumstances should cases be sent to the United Kingdom, as, for instance, men to be unfit for further service of any kind with the forces in the field. This policy should be known throughout the Force. Forms of treatment The establishment of an atmosphere of cure is th

Louis Charles Folliot de Crenneville

Louis Charles Folliot de Crenneville joined the French royal navy in the 1770s. During the French Revolution he abandoned the First French Republic and became an Émigré. Soon afterward, he tendered his services to Habsburg Austria, he earned promotion to general officer during the Napoleonic Wars and fought in all the major campaigns against his former country. He led a division during the War of the Sixth Coalition and remained in Austrian service until his death. Louis Charles Folliot de Crenneville was born in Metz on July 3, 1763. Early, he chose a military career. In 1778, he became an officer in the French Navy, where he remained until 1791. In 1792, he searched for a way to remain loyal to his King, he remained in the Royal Navy and fought in various French colonies against the French revolutionaries. In 1793, Charles Folliot became a cadet in the 1st regiment of light horse "Kaiser". In 1794, he was promoted to lieutenant. Charles Folliot was promoted to lieutenant. In 1797, he was promoted to captain, was put in charge of the shipment of Austrian troops for the expedition of Istria and Dalmatia.

In 1798, Folliot was sent to St. Petersburg with Prince Ferdinand of Württemberg. On his return, he was promoted to Major and was appointed orderly officer to Prince Ferdinand of Austria. In 1800, he served with the 6th Regiment of Dragoons of Saxe-Coburg, he fought at Hohen. Louis Folliot was promoted to colonel and took command of his regiment; when this regiment was disbanded in 1801, Charles Folliot was appointed Generaladjutant by the Austrian Archduke Charles Louis of Austria. The March 9, 1805, he was promoted to Generalmajor. In April 1805 he was sent to Venice to defend the city against the French. After this mission, Folliot was named "Adlatus" the headquarters of the army in Germany. In 1806, Louis was appointed Croatia. During the winter of 1807 he fought in Slavonia, he went to Bohemia, as commander of a brigade. During the 1809 campaign, Folliot commanded the vanguard of the army corps of General Johann Kollowrat, he fought in Regen, on the river Naab, near Linz. In spring 1813, the Earl of Crenneville was promoted Feldmarschalleutnant.

As division commander, he distinguished himself at the battle of Dresden at the battle of Leipzig. He took a redoubt in Hochheim am Main, near Mainz, November 9, with a flag. In 1814, he fought at Laferté-sur-Aube, he participated in the fighting at Arcis-sur-Aube, 20 March 1814. On 1 June, the Emperor of Austria awarded him the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, made him the second colonel proprietor of the Erzherzog Franz Cuirassier Regiment Nr. 2. In 1815, Folliot of Crenneville commanded the vanguard of the Austrian army in Piedmont and fought Meillerie, June 21, Saxons and Great St Genix, June 28 He captured the towns of Chalon-sur-Saône and Lyon. In 1823, Count Crenneville was appointed advisor to the Rainier Archduke of Austria, viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia. In 1831 he was promoted to the rank of "General der Kavallerie, he was appointed commander of the Austrian Gardes du Corps Regiment in Vienna. He kept this honorific title until his death, on 21 June 1840. Folliot de Crenneville was the great-grandfather of Austrian writer and translator Hermynia Zur Mühlen.

Major: 1798 Oberstleutnant: 1800 Oberst: 1800 Generalmajor: 09.03.1805 Feldmarschalleutnant: 27.04.1813 General der Kavallerie: 09.03.1831 Orders, Honorary Appointments Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 01.06.1814 Military Honor Cross 1813/14: ~ 1814 2nd Colonel-Proprietor of the Cuirassier Regiment N°2: 1814 – 21.06.1840 I. R. Privy Councillor: 1823 I. R. Chamberlain: 1798 Civil Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown – GC: 1833 Constantinian Order of St. George – GC: 1826 Order of St. Alexander Nevskij: 1833 Order of St. Anne 2nd cl.: 1814 / 1st cl.: before 1826 Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus – GC: before 1826 Salis-Samaden,: General der Cavallerie Ludwig Carl Graf Folliot de Crenneville. Biographische Skizze, Vienne, 1885. Petiot, Alain: Les Lorrains et l'Empire, LORE, 2005 Biography on napoleon-series.org

Pithom

Pithom called Per-Atum or Heroöpolis or Heroonopolis was an ancient city of Egypt. Multiple references in ancient Greek and Hebrew Bible sources exist for this city, but its exact location remains somewhat uncertain. A number of scholars identified it as the archaeological site of Tell El Maskhuta. Others identified it as the earlier archeological site of Tell El Retabeh; this name comes from Hebrew פיתום Pithom, taken from the Late Egyptian name *Pi-ʔAtōm'House of Atum'. Atum, a solar deity, was one of the major gods of ancient Egypt, a sun-god of Heliopolis. Pithom is one of the cities which, according to Exodus 1:11, was built for the Pharaoh of the oppression by the forced labor of the Israelites; the other city was Ramses. These cities are called by a Hebrew term rendered in the Authorized Version "treasure cities" and in the Revised Version "store cities." The Septuagint renders it πόλεις ὀχυραί "strong cities." The same term is used of certain cities of King Solomon in I Kings 9:19. Heroöpolis was a large city east of the Nile Delta, situated near the mouth of the Royal Canal which connected the Nile with the Red Sea.

Although not upon the coast, but nearly due north of the Bitter Lakes, Heroöpolis was of sufficient importance, as a trading station, to confer its name upon the arm of the Red Sea which runs up the Egyptian mainland as far as Arsinoë -- the modern Gulf of Suez. It was the capital of the 8th nome of Lower Egypt. Early on, the location of Pithom—just like the locations of other similar sites, such as Tanis—had been the subject of much conjecture and debate; the 10th century Jewish scholar, Saadia Gaon, identified the place in his Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch as Faiyum, 100 kilometres southwest of Cairo.Édouard Naville and Flinders Petrie were looking for Pithom along the Wadi Tumilat, an arable strip of land serving as the ancient transit route between Egypt and Canaan across the Sinai—the biblical'Way of Shur'. In the spring of 1883, Naville believed he had identified Pithom as the archaeological site Tell El Maskhuta; the site of Pithom, as identified by Naville, is at the eastern edge of Wadi Tumilat, south-west of Ismaïlia.

Petrie agreed with this identification. John Holladay, a more recent investigator of the site supports this opinion. Eight miles west from Tell El Maskhuta is the site of Tell El Retabeh; this is the midpoint of Wadi Tumilat. Here was found a group of granite statues representing Ramesses II, two inscriptions naming Pr-Itm and bricks made without straw. So archeologists concluded; the excavations carried on by Naville for the Egypt Exploration Fund uncovered a city wall, a ruined temple, the remains of a series of brick buildings with thick walls and consisting of rectangular chambers of various sizes, opening only at the top and without any entrances to one another. Some scholars, such as Manfred Bietak and Kenneth Kitchen, have argued that this was the ancient Pithom; this opinion goes back to the 19th century, when Alan Gardiner first identified Pithom with the site of Tell El Retaba, this was accepted by William F. Albright, Kenneth Kitchen, yet archeological excavations seem to show that Tell El Retaba had been unoccupied during the period when we find monuments relating to a town called Pithom.

Naville identified all these locations as being in the region of the 8th Lower Egypt nome. The joint Polish-Slovak mission has carried out a systematic research at Tell El Retaba since 2007. More recent analyses have demonstrated that the designation for the temple of Atum, pr-itm, can be found in inscriptions at both sites—both at Tell El Retaba and at Tell El Maskhuta; this seems to demonstrate that the name'Pithom' was used for the earlier site, Tell El Retaba, before it was abandoned. And when the newer city of Tel El Maskhuta was built, the same name was applied to it as well – as the temple of Atum was moved to El Maskhuta. Thus, in effect,'Pithom' was moved to a new location, which phenomenon is attested with some other cities as well, such as Migdol. Modern excavations at Tel El Maskhuta were carried out by the University of Toronto'Wadi Tumilat Project' under the direction of John Holladay, they worked over five seasons between 1978 and 1985. These excavations have shown. There was a Middle Bronze IIB settlement there, associated with the Hyksos, followed by a long break until the late 7th century BC, when there was rebuilding.

This construction at the end of the 7th century may have been carried out by Pharaoh Necho II as part of his uncompleted canal building project from the Nile to the Gulf of Suez. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Pithom". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Pithom". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Sarna, Nahum M. “Exploring Exodus: The Oppression,” Biblical Archaeologist, Volume 49: 1986 M. I. Bakr and H. Brandl, "Various Sites in the Eastern Nile Delta: Tell el-Maskhuta", in: M. I. Bakr and H. Brandl, with F. Kalloniatis, Egyptian Antiquities from the Eastern Nile Delta. Cairo/Berlin 2014, pp. 78 and 266-267, cat. 72. ISBN 9783000453182

1977–78 Cypriot Cup

The 1977–78 Cypriot Cup was the 36th edition of the Cypriot Cup. A total of 40 clubs entered the competition, it began on 14 December 1977 with the preliminary round and concluded on 11 June 1978 with the final, held at GSP Stadium. APOEL won their 10th Cypriot Cup trophy after beating Olympiakos Nicosia 3–0 in the final. In the 1977–78 Cypriot Cup, participated all the teams of the Cypriot First Division, the Cypriot Second Division and the Cypriot Third Division; the competition consisted of six knock-out rounds. In all rounds each tie was played as a single leg and was held at the home ground of the one of the two teams, according to the draw results; each tie winner was qualifying to the next round. If a match was drawn, extra time was following. If extra time was drawn, there was a replay at the ground of the team who were away for the first game. If the rematch was drawn extra time was following and if the match remained drawn after extra time the winner was decided by penalty shoot-out; the cup winner secured a place in the 1978–79 European Cup Winners' Cup.

In the preliminary round participated all the 6 teams of the 1977–78 Cypriot First Division, 5 teams of the 1977–78 Cypriot Second Division and 4 teams of the 1977–78 Cypriot Third Division. 10 clubs from the 1977–78 Cypriot First Division, 8 clubs from the 1977–78 Cypriot Second Division and 5 clubs from the 1977–78 Cypriot Third Division were added. APOEL: G. Pantziaras, Stephanou, Stavrou, N. Pantziaras, Mamielioti, K. Pantziaras, P. Chatzithomas, Antoniou. Olympiacos: Barnabas, Lucas, Faketti, Mario, Koulis, Savvidis. "1977/78 Cyprus Cup". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. 2017-08-24. Retrieved 2017-09-08. ΚΟΠ, 30 March 2016, p. 72 Gavreilides, Michalis. Ένας αιώνας Κυπριακό ποδόσφαιρο. Nicosia: The writer. P. 102-103. ISBN 9963-8720-1-8. Stephanidis, Giorgos. 40 χρόνια κυπριακές ομάδες στην Ευρώπη. Nicosia: Haravgi. P. 110. ISBN 9963-8841-1-3. Cypriot Cup 1977–78 Cypriot First Division