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Steampunk

Steampunk is a retrofuturistic subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy that incorporates technology and aesthetic designs inspired by 19th-century industrial steam-powered machinery. Although its literary origins are sometimes associated with the cyberpunk genre, steampunk works are set in an alternative history of the 19th century British Victorian era or the American "Wild West", in a future during which steam power has maintained mainstream usage, or in a fantasy world that employs steam power; however and neo-Victorian are different in that the neo-Victorian movement does not extrapolate on technology while technology is a key aspect of steampunk. Steampunk most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retrofuturistic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, is rooted in the era's perspective on fashion, architectural style, art; such technologies may include fictional machines like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, or of the modern authors Philip Pullman, Scott Westerfeld, Stephen Hunt, China Miéville.

Other examples of steampunk contain alternative-history-style presentations of such technology as steam cannons, lighter-than-air airships, analogue computers, or such digital mechanical computers as Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Steampunk may incorporate additional elements from the genres of fantasy, historical fiction, alternate history, or other branches of speculative fiction, making it a hybrid genre; the first known appearance of the term steampunk was in 1987, though it now retroactively refers to many works of fiction created as far back as the 1950s or earlier. Steampunk refers to any of the artistic styles, clothing fashions, or subcultures that have developed from the aesthetics of steampunk fiction, Victorian-era fiction, art nouveau design, films from the mid-20th century. Various modern utilitarian objects have been modded by individual artisans into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical "steampunk" style, a number of visual and musical artists have been described as steampunk.

Steampunk is influenced by and adopts the style of the 19th-century scientific romances of Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, Mary Shelley, Edward S. Ellis's The Steam Man of the Prairies. Several more modern works of art and fiction significant to the development of the genre were produced before the genre had a name. Titus Alone, by Mervyn Peake, is regarded by scholars as the first novel in the genre proper, while others point to Michael Moorcock's 1971 novel The Warlord of the Air, influenced by Peake's work; the film Brazil was an important early cinematic influence that helped codify the aesthetics of the genre. The Adventures of Luther Arkwright was an early comic version of the Moorcock-style mover between timestreams. In fine art, Remedios Varo's paintings combine elements of Victorian dress and technofantasy imagery. In television, one of the earliest manifestations of the steampunk ethos in the mainstream media was the CBS television series The Wild Wild West, which inspired the film. Although many works now considered seminal to the genre were published in the 1960s and 1970s, the term steampunk originated in the late 1980s as a tongue-in-cheek variant of cyberpunk.

It was coined by science fiction author K. W. Jeter, trying to find a general term for works by Tim Powers, James Blaylock, himself —all of which took place in a 19th-century setting and imitated conventions of such actual Victorian speculative fiction as H. G. Wells' The Time Machine. In a letter to science fiction magazine Locus, printed in the April 1987 issue, Jeter wrote: Dear Locus, Enclosed is a copy of my 1979 novel Morlock Night. Though of course, I did find her review in the March Locus to be quite flattering. I think Victorian fantasies are going to be the next big thing, as long as we can come up with a fitting collective term for Powers and myself. Something based on the appropriate technology of the era. While Jeter's Morlock Night and Infernal Devices, Powers' The Anubis Gates, Blaylock's Lord Kelvin's Machine were the first novels to which Jeter's neologism would be applied, the three authors gave the term little thought at the time, they were far from the first modern science fiction writers to speculate on the development of steam-based technology or alternative histories.

Keith Laumer's Worlds of the Imperium and Ronald W. Clark's Queen Victoria's Bomb apply modern speculation to past-age technology and society. Michael Moorcock's Warlord of the Air is another early example. Professor Finbarr Calamitous quote is relevant here. Harry Harrison's novel A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! Portrays a British Empire of an alternative year 1973, full of atomic locomotives, coal-powered flying boats, ornate submarines, Victorian dialogue; the Adventures of Luther Arkwright was the first steampunk comic. In February 1980, Richard A. Lupoff and Steve Stiles published the first "chapter" of their 10-part comic strip The Adventures of Professor Thintwhistle and His Incredible Aether Flyer; the first use of the word in a title was in Paul Di Filippo's 1995 Steampunk Trilogy, consisting of three short novels: "Victoria", "Hottentots", "Walt and Emily", which imagine th

Stress in Spanish

Stress in Spanish is functional: to change the placement of stress changes the meaning of a sentence or phrase: for example, célebre and celebré contrast by stress. There is some variance between Spanish dialects. Spanish has only two degrees of stress. In traditional transcription, primary stress is marked with an acute accent over the vowel. Unstressed parts of a word are emphasized by placing a breve over the vowel if a mark is needed, or it is left unmarked. Stress occurs in three positions in Spanish: on the final syllable, the penultimate syllable, the antepenultimate syllable. Vowel-final words and those ending in -s or -n are stressed on the penultimate syllable; that accounts for around 80% of Spanish vocabulary. All Spanish words have at least one stressed syllable; the word para can be a preposition. When words are used the stress can be dropped depending on the part of speech. Para el coche can mean "stop the car". If the stress is removed, it means "for the car". In English, contrasts are made by reducing vowels, changing the volume of the word, or changing the intonation of the phrase.

For example, this is her car. If the stress is changed to say this is her car, the emphasis is on showing what object belongs to a specific person. In Spanish, the stress is always changed by reordering the words. Using the same example este coche es suyo emphasizes the owner and éste es su coche emphasizes the object. All Spanish words can be classified into one of four groups based on the position of their stress. If the last syllable is stressed it falls into the aguda category. Aguda words end in a consonant other than n or s, or are a conjugated verb that ends in an accented, stressed vowel. If the stress falls on the second to last syllable, it is classified as a grave. Llanas are words that end in n, s, or a vowel. Any exceptions have a written accent. If the stress is placed on the third to last or the fourth to last syllable, they are categorized as esdrújulas or sobresdrújulas, respectively. In either of the last two categories, the stressed syllable must be accented to break the rules of the first two categories.

No single Spanish word is classified as a sobresdrújula, only compound verbs like diciéndonosla. Dalbor, John B.. Spanish Pronunciation: Theory and Practice. Fort Worth, TX: Holt and Winston. ISBN 9780030180774. Erichson, Gerald. "Stress and Accent Marks". About.com: Spanish Language. About.com

Vaughn Corley

Vaughn D. Corley was an American football coach, he served as the head football coach at New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts—now known as New Mexico State University—from 1948 to 1950, compiling a record of 9–20. Corley played football and ran track at Texas Technological College—now known as Texas Tech University, he began his coaching career in 1929 at Las Cruces High School in New Mexico. Corley moved to New Mexico A&M as an assistant football coach in 1933 and coached the linemen there under head coach Jerry Hines until 1938, he coached the line at the University of Oregon, from 1939 to 1942 and again from 1945 to 1946, at the University of Arizona in 1947 before returning to Mexico A&M as head coach in 1948. Corley coached at the Saint Mary's Pre-Flight School during World War II. Corley died on November 1977, at a hospital in Las Cruces. Vaughn Corley at Find a Grave