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Google App Runtime for Chrome

Android Runtime for Chrome is a compatibility layer and sandboxing technology for running Android applications on desktop and laptop computers in an isolated environment. It allows applications to be safely run from a web browser, independent of user operating system, at near-native speeds; the Android Runtime for Chrome is a open-sourced project under development by Google. It was announced by Sundar Pichai at the Google I/O 2014 developer conference. In a limited beta consumer release in September 2014, Evernote, Sight Words, Vine Android applications were made available in the Chrome Web Store for installation on Chromebook devices running OS version 37 or higher; as of January 2015, the development by Google is taking place behind closed doors with individual repository commits, code reviews and most issue tracking being kept internal to the company. The open sourced parts of ARC are licensed under a BSD-style license. In a limited beta consumer release in September 2014, Evernote, Sight Words, Vine Android applications were made available in the Chrome Web Store for installation on Chromebook devices running OS version 37 or higher.

In October 2014, three more apps were added: CloudMagic and Podcast Addict. In March 2015, Anandtech reported. On April 1, 2015, Google released ARC Welder, a Chrome Packaged App providing the ARC runtime and application packager, it is intended to give Android developers a preview of the upcoming technology and a chance to test their Android apps on the Chrome platform. ARC builds upon the Google Native Client; the Native Client platform is being extended with a POSIX-compatible layer on top of the NaCl Integrated Runtime and Pepper APIs which emulate the Linux environment in the foundation of an Android phone. This allows running an unchanged Dalvik VM in a sandboxed environment. ARC uses the Chrome permission system, not the Android one. According to a security evaluation by Meng Xu, ARC apps may communicate with other installed Chrome Extensions and the files stored on the underlying operating system which might open avenues to various attacks; these threats are mitigated by the sandboxed environment of ARC.

During the second half of 2014, before any developer tools or documentation was released by Google, several community efforts about ARC appeared. Vlad Filippov maintains ARChon, an unofficial distribution of the ARC runtime which can be installed to non-chromebook computers; the same developer maintains a JavaScript tool to automate packaging Android apps for use with ARC. Other developers created more user-friendly tools beyond chromeos-apk to simplify packaging applications for the ARCon runtime; the first of them is a Chrome Packaged App called twerk and the other is an Android application ARCon Packager It used to be named Chrome APK Packager but the name was changed at Google's request. There is an active Reddit community which maintains a list of Android apps that work with the ARCon runtime. Vlad Filippov published a guide; the reception has been positive. Some developers expressed confusion about the wide scale of competing development platforms which Google now offers: Web apps, Chrome Packaged Apps and Android Apps delivered through ARC.

Google responded that they are committed to all those platforms and encourage developers to choose the one that fits them best. Google Native Client BlueStacks Android-x86 App Runtime for Chrome extension on Google Web Market Arc Welder developer tool on Google Web Market Arc Git repository

Product testing

Product testing called consumer testing or comparative testing, is a process of measuring the properties or performance of products. The theory is that since the advent of mass production manufacturers produce branded products which they assert and advertise to be identical within some technical standard. Product testing seeks to ensure that consumers can understand what products will do for them and which products are the best value. Product testing is a strategy to increase consumer protection by checking the claims made during marketing strategies such as advertising, which by their nature are in the interest of the entity distributing the service and not in the interest of the consumer; the advent of product testing was the beginning of the modern consumer movement. Product testing might be accomplished by a manufacturer, an independent laboratory, a government agency, etc. An existing formal test method is used as a basis for testing. Other times engineers develop methods of test. Comparative testing subjects several replicate samples of similar products to identical test conditions.

Product testing might have a variety of purposes, such as: Determine if, or verify that, the requirements of a specification, regulation, or contract are met Decide if a new product development program is on track: Demonstrate proof of concept Provide standard data for other scientific and quality assurance functions Validate suitability for end-use Provide a basis for technical communication Provide a technical means of comparison of several options Provide evidence in legal proceedings: product liability, product claims, etc. Help solve problems with current product Help identify potential cost savings in productsProduct tests can be used for: Subjecting products to stresses and dynamics expected in use Reproducing the types of damage to products found from consumer usage Controlling the uniformity of production of products or components Product testing is any process by means of which a researcher measures a product's performance, safety and compliance with established standards; the primary element which constitutes an objective comparative test program is the extent to which the researchers can perform tests with independence from the manufacturers and marketers of the products.

As industrialization proliferated various manufacturers began exploring concepts of what is now called lean manufacturing to maximize industrial efficiency. This included a trend to produce goods with certain specifications and according to standards for production. Government agencies in the United States in particular started demanding that manufacturers who bid on government contracts fulfill the work according to predefined standards. Early thinkers, such as Frederick J. Schlink, began to imagine a system for applying similar expectations for standards to consumer needs in order to allow people to make purchases according to product merit rather than rival advertising claims or marketing propaganda. Schlink met Stuart Chase and together they published Your Money's Worth, a national guide to fraud and manipulation of the American marketplace due to lack of consumer representation in the regulation process. At the end of this book, there was a description of a theoretical "consumers' club" which would test products and serve only the interests of consumers.

The success of the book led to the founding of Consumers' Research as the world's first consumer organization. This began the consumer movement; the most common government role in product testing is creating laws for the creation of products with the intent of ensuring that manufacturers describe the products they are selling and that products are safe for consumers to use. Lawmakers introduce government regulation when the industry's voluntary system will not or can not solve a serious problem. Government standards are always more strict than voluntary standards and always have the goal of reducing the hazard. Most governments put responsibility to test products on the manufacturer; the most common industry role is to provide services according to industry standards. In any industry, some standards will be voluntary, or mandatory; every major consumer product industry has an associated trade organization whose duties include developing voluntary standards and promoting the industry. A trade association may facilitate compliance testing or certification that a particular manufacturer's products meet certain standards.

"Voluntary" standards may seem either optional or mandatory from the perspective of a manufacturer, in many cases when an industry adopts a standard it puts pressure on all manufacturers to comply with the standard. Industry voluntary standards are minimal performance criteria with no reference to quality. An example of industry regulation could be Underwriters Laboratories' founding in the United States in 1894 and its creation of standards with reference to the National Electrical Code published in 1897 are early examples of standards being made with reference to government regulation. Underwriters Laboratories publishes and enforces hundreds of safety standards but no quality standards, it is difficult or impossible to find an industry, able to review its members' products and supply unbiased comparative product information on them. Trade associations exist to serve the members' interests and if information which consumers want is contrary to the needs of members the distribution of that information may harm the industry.

The information which an industry provides is integral to the market but the nature of industry information is not to b

Nominal group (functional grammar)

In systemic functional grammar, a nominal group is a group of words which represents or describes an entity, for example "The nice old English police inspector, sitting at the table with Mr Morse". Grammatically, the wording "The nice old English police inspector, sitting at the table" can be understood as a nominal group, which functions as the subject of the information exchange and as the person being identified as "Mr Morse". A nominal group is regarded as synonymous to noun phrase in other grammatical models. However, there are two major differences between the functional notion of a nominal group and the formal notion of a noun phrase that must be taken into account. Firstly, the coiner of the term and some of his followers draw a theoretical distinction between the terms group and phrase. Halliday argues that "A phrase is different from a group in that, whereas a group is an expansion of a word, a phrase is a contraction of a clause". Halliday borrowed the term group from the linguist/classicist Sydney Allen.

In the second place, the functional notion of nominal group differs from the formal notion of noun phrase because the first is anchored on the thing being described whereas the second is anchored on word classes. For that reason, one can analyse the nominal groups some friends and a couple of friends similarly in terms of function: a thing/entity quantified in an imprecise fashion. In short, these notions are different if formalists do not perceive them as different. SFG postulates a rank scale, in which the highest unit is the clause and the lowest is the morpheme: coming from the largest unit down, we can divide the parts of a clause into groups and phrases. Groups are made out of words while phrases are made out of groups: e.g. clause constituents, phrase constituents, group constituents, word constituents. In that sense, each unit of a rank consists of one or more units of the rank below, not of the same rank. At group/phrase rank besides nominal group, there are the "verbal group", the "adverbial group", the "prepositional group", the "prepositional phrase".

The term'nominal' in'nominal group' was adopted because it denotes a wider class of phenomena than the term noun. The nominal group is a structure which includes nouns, adjectives and determiners, associated with the thing under description, whose supporting logic is Description Logic; the term noun is detached from any notion of entity description. For instance, the words bit/bits in a bit of time, a little bit of peanut butter, bits of information can be understood as a noun, but they can hardly be understood as representing some entity on its own. In that sense, these words shall be understood as being the head of a "noun phrase" in a formalist account of grammar, but as a portion of some substance in a nominal group. Since formal linguists are interested in the recurring patterns of word classes such as "a" + "" and not in the way humans describe entities, they recruit the term "noun phrase" for their grammatical descriptions, a structure defined as a pattern around a noun, not as a way of describing an entity such as the "nominal group".

In other words, given the different architectures of language that are assumed by functional and formal theories of language, the terms "noun phrase" and "nominal group" must be seen to be doing quite different descriptive work. For instance, these group/phrase elements are re-interpreted as functional categories, in the first instance as process and circumstance, with the nominal group as the pre-eminent structure for the expression of participant roles in discourse. Within Halliday's functionalist classification of this structure, he identifies the functions of Deictic, Epithet and Thing; the word classes which realise these functions are set out in the table below: Within a clause, a definite nominal group functions as if it were a proper noun. The proper noun functions as the head of the nominal group; the modifiers preceding the head are called the ones after it postmodifiers. The modifiers that represent a circumstance such as a location are called qualifiers. In English, most postmodifiers are qualifiers.

In the following example of a nominal group, the head is bolded. Those five beautiful shiny Jonathan apples sitting on the chairEnglish is a nominalised language, thus lexical meaning is carried in nominal groups; this is because of the flexibility of these groups in encompassing premodifiers and qualification, because of the availability of a special resource called the thematic equative, which has evolved as a means of packaging the message of a clause in the desired thematic form. Many things are most expressed in nominal constructions. Like the English clause, the nominal group is a combination of three d

Cannabis in Virginia

Cannabis in Virginia is illegal for all purposes, possession of small amounts is a criminal misdemeanor, but per 2015 law possession of CBD oil or THC-A oil entails an affirmative defense for patients who have a doctor's recommendation for those substances to treat severe epilepsy. Legislation passed in 2019 allows doses to contain up to 10 mg of THC. In September 2018, the Virginia State Board of Pharmacy approved the applications for five companies to open medical cannabis dispensaries across the Commonwealth; as of November 2019, builders were getting closer to opening the Richmond district's medical cannabis farm and dispensary on Decatur Street. As of April 2019, only 251 of the 35,404 doctors licensed to practice in Virginia had registered with the state to write medical cannabis recommendations. A first offense is an unclassified Misdemeanor, with a maximum penalty is 30 days in jail and a $500 fine, loss of driving privileges; however with a change in the law as of July 1, 2017, the loss of driving privileges is now optional for adults while still mandatory for juveniles.

A subsequent offense is a Class 1 misdemeanor, with a maximum penalty of 12 months in confinement and a $2,500 fine, plus loss of driving privileges. A first-offense will qualify for a deferred disposition resulting in dismissal; this option requires a drug assessment, community service, loss of driving privileges for six months. The first-offender program is controversial, because it can affect immigration status and does not allow the defendant to qualify for expungement, as a result, remains on the individual's record for life. Virginia General Assembly tightened the laws on cannabis and added a provision allowing its use and distribution for cancer and glaucoma. There is a provision in the law, § 18.2-251, which allows a case to be dismissed if the offender goes through probation and treatment. In the 1990s, Virginia had some of the lightest penalties for cultivation in the United States. Possession is an unclassified misdemeanor punishable by 30 days in jail and a $500 fine for a first-time offense.

A second offense is a class 1 misdemeanor punishable by a $2500 fine. In 1979, Virginia passed legislation allowing doctors to recommend cannabis for glaucoma or the side effects of chemotherapy. In 1997, repeal of the medical cannabis law seemed certain, but this did not happen. For many years, the medical cannabis law was non-functioning because prescriptions were disallowed by federal law, given cannabis's status under the Controlled Substances Act as a Schedule I controlled substance with no accepted medical use. In 2015, the Virginia Senate's Courts of Justice committee rejected bills to decriminalize cannabis and remove the smoke a joint, lose your license provision in the Virginia Code. In March 2015, Governor Terry McAuliffe signed House Bill 1445 and Senate Bill 1235, creating affirmative defense against a possession charge that cannabidiol oil and THC-A oil were for treatment of epilepsy; the bill had passed Virginia's Senate with a vote of 37–1 in February. Following the 2019 Virginia elections, in which Democrats won control of both houses of the General Assembly, state Attorney General Mark Herring called for cannabis to be legalized.

In February 2020 the House of Delegates voted 64–34 in favor of Delegate Charniele Herring's HB972 to decriminalize personal possession of marijuana. The next day the Senate voted 27–13 in favor of Senator Adam Ebbin's SB 2 with a similar decriminalization scope. Virginia is expected to become the 27th state to remove the threat of jail time for low-level marijuana possession. Legislation passed on March 8 further cements the decriminalization of cannabis as well as introducing a measure to study the possibility of its legalization. Other bills in the General Assembly addressing legalization of simple possession, including Lee J. Carter's HB 87 and Steve Heretick's HB 269, have been deferred to the 2021 session

Michael Cox (running back)

Michael A. Cox Jr. is a former American football running back. He was drafted by the Giants in the 7th round of the 2013 NFL Draft, he played college football as an undergraduate for the Michigan Wolverines, as a graduate student for the Massachusetts Minutemen. A native of Dorchester, Cox attended high school at Avon Old Farms prep school in Avon, graduating in 2008. In three seasons at Avon Old Farms Cox rushed for 2,400 yards, including a junior season in which he rushed for 1,000 yards and 16 touchdowns. Ranked by most publications as a 4 star prospect Cox signed a national letter of intent with the University of Michigan, he was part of Avon Old Farms first New England track championship with former Chicago Bear Khaseem Greene. After redshirting for the 2008 season, Cox saw limited action on the Wolverines roster from 2009 to 2011. Cox would play in 15 games over three years, rushing for two touchdowns. Cox' best single game for the Wolverines was during his redshirt freshman season, against Delaware State when he rushed for 82 yards and two touchdowns.

Cox graduated from Michigan in the spring of 2012. With one year of eligibility remaining Cox transferred to UMass. Due to NCAA regulations, since Cox obtained his undergraduate degree, he was not required to sit out one season under normal transfer guidelines. Cox would serve as the feature back for the Minutemen, he started all 12 games, despite running behind an inexperienced offensive line, Cox rushed for 715 yards and five touchdowns, leading the team in both categories. Against Miami Cox recorded the best game of his career with 188 yards rushing on 30 carries and two touchdowns. Cox would register 81 yards against his former team Michigan. Cox was drafted by the New York Giants with the 253rd pick, in the seventh round of the 2013 NFL Draft. Cox made his first professional start on Monday Night Football on October 21, 2013, he was waived on April 27, 2015. In November 2013, a New York Times report revealed events that not only the Giants organization was unaware of about Cox, but that Cox himself had not become aware of until he was 13 years old.

The report detailed how Cox's father, Michael A. Cox Sr. a Boston police officer, had been the victim of a mistaken but vicious beating by fellow police officers in 1995. The beating of Michael Cox investigation was all but tossed under the rug, became infamous as "Boston's Rodney King case." Cox's father sued and was awarded $900,000 by the Boston police department, which he continues to serve as a superintendent. Cox's mother, Kimberly, is an anesthesiologist, he is the eldest of her and Michael Cox Sr.'s three children. Michael's younger brother Nicholas Cox is a college football player at a division 1 AA program University Of Maine. NFL Draft Bio UMass Minutemen football Bio