Kidder County, North Dakota
Kidder County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,435, its county seat is Steele. The Dakota Territory legislature created the county on January 4, 1873, with areas partitioned from Buffalo County; the county government was not organized at that time, nor was the area attached to another county for administrative or judicial purposes. It was named for Jefferson Parrish Kidder, a delegate to the United States Congress from Dakota Territory and associate justice of the territorial supreme court; the county government was effected on March 22, 1881. The county boundaries were altered on 1879 with territory partitioned to Burleigh, in 1885 with territory partitioned from Burleigh County, its boundaries have remained unchanged since 1885. The terrain of Kidder County consists of hills dotted with lakes and ponds devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,433 square miles, of which 1,351 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water.
Interstate 94 North Dakota Highway 3 North Dakota Highway 36 As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 2,753 people, 1,158 households, 787 families in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,610 housing units at an average density of 1.27 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 99.49% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.15% from two or more races. 0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 64.2% were of German and 15.4% Norwegian ancestry. There were 1,158 households out of which 27.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.70% were married couples living together, 4.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families. 29.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91. The county population contained 23.20% under the age of 18, 5.00% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 24.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 103.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,389, the median income for a family was $30,469. Males had a median income of $23,056 versus $17,250 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,270. About 17.60% of families and 19.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 23.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,435 people, 1,059 households, 722 families in the county; the population density was 1.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,674 housing units at an average density of 1.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.3% white, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 1.9% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 65.8% were German, 21.8% were Norwegian, 8.2% were Russian, 6.0% were English, 1.7% were American.
Of the 1,059 households, 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families, 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age was 47.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $34,250 and the median income for a family was $47,981. Males had a median income of $35,380 versus $24,330 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,502. About 15.1% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 23.1% of those age 65 or over. Crystal Springs Ladoga Lake Williams Kickapoo South Kidder Kidder County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Kidder County, North Dakota
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Steele, North Dakota
Steele is a city in Kidder County, North Dakota, United States. It is the county seat of Kidder County; the population was 715 at the 2010 census. Although they bear the same name, the city of Steele is not in Steele County. Steele was platted in 1878 by Wilbur F. Steele, named for him; the community had its start soon. A post office has been in operation at Steele since 1880. Steele is located at 46°51′22″N 99°55′00″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.57 square miles, all of it land. On July 6, 1936, the temperature in Steele soared to 121 °F, the highest temperature recorded in the state of North Dakota; this event, during the 1936 North American heat wave, is more remarkable in light of the fact that since 1948, the temperature has not exceeded 109 °F. Never before or since has such extreme heat been recorded so far north on the North American continent. A prolonged period of extreme drought across the entire Great Plains contributed to the extreme heat.
Record high temperatures for 15 states fell that summer. In the United States, higher temperatures have been recorded in only four states: California, Arizona and New Mexico. Looking at the averages, Steele has a humid continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold winters, typical of the Great Plains. Though summers highs average 83 °F there are still 17–18 days on average of above 90 °F. January nights average 2 °F, subzero temperatures happen on multiple occasions every winter; as of the census of 2010, there were 715 people, 316 households, 194 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,254.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 362 housing units at an average density of 635.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 0.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 0.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 316 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.6% were non-families.
35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 41.9 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 761 people, 336 households, 191 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,338.5 people per square mile. There were 367 housing units at an average density of 645.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 0.13 % African American and 0.26 % Native American. There were 336 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.9% were non-families. 40.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 28.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 31.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,841, the median income for a family was $37,778. Males had a median income of $35,250 versus $20,673 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,767. About 8.7% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over. City of Steele official website
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Grand Forks County, North Dakota
Grand Forks County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 66,861, making it the third-most populous county in North Dakota, its county seat and largest community is Grand Forks. Using territory annexed from Pembina County, the Dakota Territory legislature created Grand Forks County on January 4, 1873, its governing structure was not established at that time, nor was the territory attached to another county for administrative and judicial purposes. The government was organized on March 2, 1875; the county's boundaries were altered in 1875, 1881, 1883. It has retained its present boundary since 1883. Grand Forks County is included in ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Grand Forks County lies on the east side of North Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota. The Red River flows northward along the county's east border, on its way to Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay; the Forest River flows northerly across the upper western part of the county.
The terrain of Grand Forks County consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture except around urban areas. The terrain slopes to the east; the county has a total area of 1,440 square miles, of which 1,436 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. The University of North Dakota has established a Field Biology Station on Forest River, at the county's north border. In 2013 it partnered with ND Game & Fish Department to establish a 160-acre wildlife management area at the station, to monitor whitetail deer activity in the forest; the field station is tasked with identifying plants endemic to the area. 498 plants have been collected at Wildlife Management Area. Fordville Dam Larimore Dam Smith Lakes As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 66,109 people, 25,435 households, 15,617 families in the county; the population density was 46 people per square mile. There were 27,373 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.00% White, 1.37% Black or African American, 2.31% Native American, 0.98% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 1.57% from two or more races.
2.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.6 % were of Norwegian, 5.5 % Irish ancestry. There were 25,435 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.03. The county population contained 23.8% under the age of 18, 19.6% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,785, the median income for a family was $46,620. Males had a median income of $30,079 versus $21,426 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,868.
About 8.0% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 66,861 people, 27,417 households, 15,215 families in the county; the population density was 46.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 29,344 housing units at an average density of 20.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.3% white, 2.5% American Indian, 2.0% black or African American, 1.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.8% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 34.1% were German, 33.8% were Norwegian, 9.5% were Irish, 5.8% were Polish, 5.3% were English, 2.9% were American. Of the 27,417 households, 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.5% were non-families, 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 29.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,242 and the median income for a family was $65,804. Males had a median income of $40,622 versus $31,633 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,276. About 8.2% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over. Grand Forks AFB Grand Forks County voters vote Republican. In only one national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Grand Forks County, North Dakota
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government