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Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, phosphorus and excess carbon are removed from the sourced iron, alloying elements such as manganese, chromium and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities in the steel is important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel. Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 19th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the 1850s and 1860s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry. Today there are two major commercial processes for making steel, namely basic oxygen steelmaking, which has liquid pig-iron from the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed materials, electric arc furnace steelmaking, which uses scrap steel or direct reduced iron as the main feed materials.

Oxygen steelmaking is fuelled predominantly by the exothermic nature of the reactions inside the vessel. In recent times, EAF steelmaking technology has evolved closer to oxygen steelmaking as more chemical energy is introduced into the process. Steelmaking has played a crucial role in the development of ancient and modern technological societies. Early processes of steel making were made during the classical era in [[Science and technology in India, China and Rome but the process of ancient steelmaking was lost in the West after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE. Cast iron is a hard, brittle material, difficult to work, whereas steel is malleable easily formed and a versatile material. For much of human history, steel has only been made in small quantities. Since the invention of the Bessemer process in the 19th century and subsequent technological developments in injection technology and process control, mass production of steel has become an integral part of the global economy and a key indicator of modern technological development.

The earliest means of producing steel was in a bloomery. Early modern methods of producing steel were labour-intensive and skilled arts. See: finery forge, in which the German finery process could be managed to produce steel. Blister steel and crucible steel. An important aspect of the Industrial Revolution was the development of large-scale methods of producing forgeable metal; the puddling furnace was a means of producing wrought iron but was applied to steel production. The real revolution in modern steelmaking only began at the end of the 1850s when the Bessemer process became the first successful method of steelmaking in high quantity followed by the open-hearth furnace. Modern steelmaking processes can be divided into two categories: secondary. Primary steelmaking involves converting liquid iron from a blast furnace and steel scrap into steel via basic oxygen steelmaking, or melting scrap steel or direct reduced iron in an electric arc furnace. Secondary steelmaking involves refining of the crude steel before casting and the various operations are carried out in ladles.

In secondary metallurgy, alloying agents are added, dissolved gases in the steel are lowered, inclusions are removed or altered chemically to ensure that high-quality steel is produced after casting. Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is converted into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into steel; the process is known as basic due to the chemical nature of the refractories—calcium oxide and magnesium oxide—that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature and corrosive nature of the molten metal and slag in the vessel. The slag chemistry of the process is controlled to ensure that impurities such as silicon and phosphorus are removed from the metal; the process was developed in 1948 by Robert Durrer, using a refinement of the Bessemer converter where blowing of air is replaced with blowing oxygen. It reduced the capital cost of the plants and the time of smelting, increased labor productivity.

Between 1920 and 2000, labour requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1000, from more than 3 man-hours per tonne to just 0.003 man-hours. The vast majority of steel manufactured in the world is produced using the basic oxygen furnace. Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to 350 tons and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes compared to 10–12 hours in an open hearth furnace. Electric arc furnace steelmaking is the manufacture of steel from scrap or direct reduced iron melted by electric arcs. In an electric arc furnace, a batch of steel may be started by loading scrap or direct reduced iron into the furnace, sometimes with a "hot heel". Gas burners may be used to assist with the melt down of the scrap pile in the furnace; as in basic oxygen steelmaking, fluxes are added to protect the lining of the vessel and help improve the removal of impurities. Electric arc furnace steelmaking uses furnaces of capacity around 100 tonnes that produce steel every 40 to 50 minutes for further processing.

Secondary steelmaking is most performed in ladles. Some of the operations performed in ladles include de-oxidation, vacuum degassing, alloy addition, inclusion removal, inclusion chemistry modification, de-sulphurisation, a

Milan Vučićević

Milan Vučićević known by his online pseudonym Nichim Izazvan, is a Serbian marketing consultant and former professional basketball player. Vučićević has played professional basketball in several countries including Cyprus, Ukraine and Poland. In May 2010, Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas announced that Vučićević will suit up for the developmental Philippine national basketball team, Smart Gilas, in the FIBA Asia Champions Cup 2010. Vučićević played for KK Tamiš, which represents the city of Pančevo, at the start of the 2008-09 season of Basketball League of Serbia, the highest professional basketball league in the country; the Serbian has played for several ball clubs in his homeland, namely: Vizura Beograd and KK Mašinac. In 2009, Vučićević signed with AEK Larnaca B. C. a professional basketball club based in Cyprus. AEK Larnaca coach Jerry Hemmings was able to watch the skilled center play for Oman basketball team, Al Nizwa, at the Arab Club Championship held in Beirut and was impressed with his dominating performance.

Vučićević averaged 10.2 rebounds per game during his stint with Al Nizwa. Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas executive director Noli Eala announced in May 2010 that Vučićević will play for Smart Gilas, the Philippines men's national basketball team, in the FIBA Asia Champions Cup 2010, he will play under coach Rajko Toroman, former coach of the Iran national basketball team, will join notable Smart Gilas players such as Chris Tiu, Japeth Aguilar, Dylan Ababou, as well as former Oakland University Golden Grizzly Kelly Williams, who will join the national squad. Toroman, who has served as the assistant coach from 1991-95 of the Yugoslavia national basketball team that featured players such as Predrag Danilović, Vlade Divac, Dejan Bodiroga, has said that Vučićević's performance in the 2010 FIBA Asia Champions Cup will be the team's basis if they will consider him to become a naturalized Filipino. Smart Gilas officials have decided that, although the Serbian has made a good impression during the FIBA Asia Champions Cup in Doha, the team needs a bigger and stronger reinforcement.

Vučićević will fly to Turkey after his stint with Gilas. Vučićević is 2.08 m tall, plays the center and power forward positions. He has played for several European basketball teams including Age Halkidas, Unia Tarnow, Budivelnik Kyiv. Outside Europe, Vučićević has suited up for a number of teams such as a.s Bond Shiraz and Al Sadd, to name a few. In terms of inside players from Serbia, Vučićević is considered one of the biggest prospects. Aside from having great individual skills, he is described as a player who possesses a winning mentality and good attitude, he is compared to Serbian basketball legend Zoran Savić, a member of the 1990 FIBA World Championship Yugoslavian team that won the gold medal. Vučićević is the first European to play for the national basketball team of the Philippines, replacing former National Basketball Association players Jamal Sampson and C. J. Giles. Before Smart Gilas considered him as the team's naturalization candidate, Vučićević had bought an Adidas jacket from a store in Belgrade, sometime in 2008, that had the Philippine flag as part of its design.

Milan Vučićević on Twitter Asia-Basket Profile Profile

2013 Quebec Liberal Party leadership election

The Quebec Liberal Party held a leadership convention in 2013 following Jean Charest's resignation after the party's 2012 election loss. The convention was held March 16 -- 2013, at the Verdun Auditorium in Montreal; the choice of venue was in part influenced by a lack of funds due to a recent drop in donations to the party. Philippe Couillard was elected on the first ballot. Candidates had until December 14, 2012 to be nominated by gathering the signatures of 500 party members from 50 ridings in 10 regions and submitting a $50,000 deposit. There was a $600,000 spending limit. Liberal riding associations in each of the province's 125 ridings were to select 24 delegates between February 4 and March 10, 2013; the party was unable to afford to pay delegates' travel expenses. Instead, the candidates themselves were allowed to reimburse the delegates. There were 5 debates, including one in English; the rules and timeline were formally adopted on October 21, 2012, the day before the official start of the campaign.

The election was done in a traditional leadership convention format, in which delegates on the convention floor chose the leader. Each riding's 24 delegates was supposed to include an equal number of men and women and 8 members of the youth wing, although some ridings were unable to send a full delegation, it was the party's first contested leadership convention since 1983. April 30, 1998: Jean Charest wins the leadership election to succeed Daniel Johnson, Jr.. September 4, 2012: The Liberals lose the election, are reduced to official opposition status. September 5, 2012: Jean Charest announces his resignation as party leader. October 21, 2012: Party members meet to formally adopt the rules of the race. October 22, 2012: Official start of the leadership race. December 14, 2012: Deadline to submit candidate nomination. February 4 – March 10, 2013: Liberal riding associations select delegates. March 17, 2013: Date on which the election was held. BackgroundMember of National Assembly for Outremont since 2005.

Minister of Finance until 2012, former aide to Parti Québécois Premier René Lévesque. Date campaign launched: September 28, 2012 Campaign website: SupportersMNAs: Lawrence Bergman, Marguerite Blais, Rita de Santis, André Drolet, Emmanuel Dubourg, Nicole Ménard, Guy Ouellette, Danielle St-Amand, Christine St-Pierre, Lise Thériault Past MNAs: Lise Bacon, John Ciaccia, Nathalie Rochefort, Guy Saint-Pierre Other prominent individuals: Marc-André Blanchard, former Liberal party president 2000–2008. Minister of Health until 2008. Date campaign launched: October 3, 2012 Campaign website: SupportersMNAs: Stéphane Billette, Ghislain Bolduc, Yves Bolduc, Jean D'Amour, Jean-Paul Diamond, Henri-François Gautrin, Sam Hamad, Alexandre Iracà, Yvon Marcoux, Pierre Reid, Jean Rousselle, Gerry Sklavounos, Marc Tanguay, Kathleen Weil Past MNAs: Michel Audet, Raymond Bernier, Raymond Garneau, Patrick Huot, Clifford Lincoln, Norman MacMillan, Michel Matte, Alain Paquet, Jean-Pierre Paquin, Benoît Pelletier, Michel Pigeon, Serge Simard Other prominent individuals: BackgroundMember of National Assembly for Marguerite-D'Youville 2003–2007, Châteauguay since 2008.

Former Minister of Transport. Date campaign launched: October 1, 2012 Campaign website: SupportersMNAs: Pierre Arcand, Julie Boulet, Marc Carrière, Francine Charbonneau, Maryse Gaudreault, Charlotte L'Écuyer, Norbert Morin, Gilles Ouimet, Robert Poëti, Filomena Rotiroti, Stéphanie Vallée, Karine Vallières, Dominique Vien Past MNAs: Jean Cournoyer Other prominent individuals: Suzanne Marcil, wife of former Quebec premier Daniel Johnson, Jr. BackgroundFormer Cirque du Soleil marketing vice-president. President of the party's youth wing from 1971 to 1972. Chair of the party's policy commission from 1999 to 2002, when he quit the party. David admitted at the beginning of his campaign he may not be able to meet the requirements to become an official candidate, he withdrew from the race two days before the deadline to submit his nomination papers, after failing to get the requisite 500 signatures in 50 ridings. Date campaign launched: October 24, 2012 Date candidacy withdrawn: December 12, 2012 Campaign website: SupportersMNAs: Other prominent individuals: Pierre Paradis, MNA for Brome-Missisquoi and former cabinet minister.

= Winner

Gary Blair

Gary Claude Blair is the head coach of the Texas A&M Aggies women's basketball team. In his 32 years as a collegiate head coach, Blair has only suffered one losing season, has reached postseason play 28 times, including 23 NCAA Tournament appearances and 2 Final Four appearances in 1998 and 2011, he led the Aggies to the NCAA national championship in 2011. He is listed in the top 35 of the all-time winningest active NCAA Division 1 women's basketball coaches, is one of the few coaches to guide three different schools to national rankings and NCAA Tournament berths. Blair was inducted into the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame in 2013. Gary Blair is the son of Lee, a plaster foreman, Jean, a housewife, he was raised in the Forest Hills neighborhood of Dallas. He grew up playing baseball, as a 128-pound center fielder at Bryan Adams High School, he received all-city honors in 1963. Following his high school graduation in 1963, he enrolled at Texas Tech University, where he failed out of architecture, moved to California to become a restaurant manager.

He got a U. S. Army draft notice in 1969, decided to enlist in the U. S. Marine Corps, completing a four-year tour of duty, he was stationed in Okinawa during his duty. After his tour, he lived in the Los Angeles area, running a restaurant in Costa Mesa and Culver City. At age 27, he used his G. I. Bill to earn a bachelor's degree in health and physical education with a minor in journalism from Texas Tech, he played a year of baseball for the Red Raiders—he was a defensive center fielder with self-described poor hitting skills. He earned his master's degree in education from the school in 1974; when head women's basketball coach Marsha Sharp retired from Texas Tech in 2006, Blair got calls from his friends to take over the position. Blair stated, "It wasn't the right time. Timing is everything in coaching." After his graduation from Texas Tech, Blair hoped to find a high school baseball coaching job in Lubbock, but he was offered the physical education coach gig at South Oak Cliff High School in Dallas, a predominantly African American school.

South Oak Cliff had just started its women's basketball program, Blair became the team's first coach in 1973. He was the boy's P. E. teacher, while waiting for an offer to coach the baseball team, but when asked to coach the girls' team, he accepted. He started the boys and girls golf team, served as its first coach as well, he made $7,000 annually coaching all of these sports. In his seven seasons at South Oak Cliff, he set a state record with five consecutive state tournament appearances and a 239-18 record, his teams won three state Class 4A championships, in 1977, 1978, 1980, finished as the runner-up in 1979 by only two points. For his efforts, Blair was inducted into the Texas High School Basketball Hall of Fame. At South Oak Cliff, Blair coached Dennis Rodman's sisters. Blair used to play ping pong with Dennis. After winning the first state championship, he was offered the head baseball job he had been waiting for, but he turned it down to remain coaching the women's teams. In October 1980, Blair was offered an assistant coaching job at Louisiana Tech by then-head coach Sonja Hogg.

At the time of the offer, Blair was making an annual salary of $22,000. The Louisiana Tech position paid $22,500 and provided a six-year-old brown station wagon. Blair rejected the offer, but upon his wife's encouragement, he accepted it, he would coach under Leon Barmore. During his five seasons there, Louisiana Tech reached the Final Four in the NCAA Tournament four times, winning two national championships. Blair's first head coaching experience at the collegiate level came at Stephen F. Austin University in Nacogdoches, Texas. In his eight years with the school, he compiled a 210-43 record, including 25 wins in just his second season as a head coach, his teams won seven straight conference championships, appeared in the NCAA Tournament six times. During his last six seasons, his teams were ranked in the final AP Top 25 polls; the team's success was noticed by their fans, who increased home attendance enough to allow the school to rank in the top 12 of NCAA Division 1 attendance leaders. It was during his time at SFA that Blair met his future assistant coach Vic Schaefer, coaching the Sam Houston State Bearkats at the time.

Blair was inducted into the Ladyjack Hall of Fame during halftime of the Ladyjacks game against the Aggies on December 2, 2008. As the head coach of the women's basketball team at Arkansas, Blair compiled a 198-120 record. During his first season, the Lady Razorbacks won 15 of their 29 games, their first winning season in several years; the following year his team, which consisted of 9 freshmen and sophomores, won 23 games and reached the second round of the NCAA tournament. In the summer of 1996, while his Arkansas team was in their offseason, Blair spent several months in Taiwan as the assistant coach of the U. S. Jones Cup team, which won the gold medal and became the first U. S. team to be undefeated at the Jones Cup tournament. Every one of the players he helped coach during that tournament went on to play in the WNBA. Blair made history with his 1997–1998 team; the team, unranked in the national polls, received a number 9 seed for the NCAA Tournament and reached the NCAA Final Four. His teams reached the semifinals in the SEC tournament in both 2001 and 2002.

In his final season with the Lady Razorbacks, the team finished the season ranked 24th nationally and reached the second round of the NCAA Tournament. Blair arrived at Texas A&M in 2003, taking over the Big 12 Conference's worst team, which had not had a winning season in seven years. In his first season with Texas A&M, Blair wo

James Barenger

James Barenger was an English animal painter and illustrator. Barenger was born in Kentish Town, the son of James Barenger Snr. A metal chaser and artist who exhibited paintings of insects at the Society of Artists and Royal Academy, Sarah Woollett, the daughter of the engraver, William Woollett, his brother Samuel Barenger became an engraver. Beginning as a landscape artist, Barenger went on to specialise in painting horses and other animals, hunting scenes. In 1807, at the age of 28, he exhibited at the Royal Academy for the first time. At this stage, he was living with his father in Kentish Town, but moved to Camden Town, he went on to exhibit eight at the British Institution. He acquired numerous wealthy and aristocratic patrons, his pictures were engraved for sporting publications such as W. H. Scott's British Field Sports, The Sporting Repository, The Annals of Sporting and The Sporting Magazine. For the last of these, Scott engraved Barenger's painting of the racehorse Blucher; as well as painting, Barenger bred pointer dogs.

He was buried in Old St Pancras churchyard. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael. "Barenger, James". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons. Art UK Paintings in British Public Collections. James Barenger online Race Horses


Pin striping is the application of a thin line of paint or other material called a pin stripe, is used for decoration. Freehand pin stripers use a specialty brush known as a pinstriping brush. Fine lines in textiles are called pin stripes. Automotive, bike shops, do-it-yourself car and motorcycle mechanics use paint pin striping to create their own custom look on the automotive bodies and parts. Pinstriping can be seen exhibited on custom motorcycles, such as those built by Choppers Inc. Indian Larry, West Coast Choppers; the decorative use of pin striping on motorcycles as it is seen today was pioneered by artists Kenny Howard, Dean Jeffries, Dennis "Gibb" Gibbish, Ed "Big Daddy" Roth. These artists are considered pioneers of the Kustom Kulture lifestyle that spawned in the early 1950s, are recognized as the "originators of modern pin striping." In automotive body work, pin stripes are paint. The tape versions are adhered directly to the painted surface in the pattern desired, whilst painted ones are done by skilled artists with'sword' shaped brushes.

The paint used by the vast majority of stripers is a lettering enamel made by 1 Shot although companies such as House of Kolor and Kustom Shop make striping urethane. The goal of pin striping is to enhance the curves of the surface, the lines are of a complementary color. In any other form of decorative pin stripes, the goal is the same. In addition and coincidentally, it can help to hide flaws in the surface such as a scratch or blemish. Pin stripe décor is applied to motorcycles, semi trucks and surfboards, it traditionally Is combined to a lesser degree sign making. The age of computers and vinyl decals helped undercut the base of traditional sign making and with it the traditional pinstriper. Whilst stripers such as Lyle Fisk, Von Dutch and Ed "Big Daddy" Roth are the best known early practitioners of'modern' pin striping, many of the early stripers cite Tommy "The Greek" Hrones and Dean Jeffries as their major influences. There are countless brush artists who carry on the tradition, not only in the US but across the globe — The Doc in Compton, Preacher in San Antonio Texas, Steve Kafka in Arizona, Alton Gillespie in Fort Worth, Victor in Nebraska,Alan Johnson Blairstown, New Jersey, Cliff Anderson Minneapolis, Gator in Tennessee, One Arm Bandit in New England, Anthony White in Florida, SCORCH Pinstriping in Bakersfield California, Don Q Studios in Orange County California, MWM from Hot Rod Surf in San Diego, Brando in Chicago, Tommy "Itchy" Otis in Los Angeles, Don "Spiderman" Fite of Portland and Herb Martinez to name a few of the US stripers.

Tramp Warner in Canada... Nefarious, Neil Melliard and Tootall Paul in the UK, Tom Plate in Germany, Simon Watts from Australia, Makoto in Japan and Eduardo Bignami in Brazil show that pinstriping has become a worldwide art form. In addition to that, Mark Court of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars still pinstripes the "coachline" of that company's cars by hand; the method to "pull lines" used by contemporary stripers has changed little since the'50s. A beginner can start with a can of 1 shot enamel. Although some art shops like JC Hetz Studio in Iowa or Curlys Pinstriping in California have combined it with modern computer graphics to advance the trade; the "Beugler" is a mechanical version of the sword striping brush, useful in production settings. Mack still makes brushes the same way they did when Andrew Mack started the company, although their product line includes more than just swords. Stripers such as Steve Kafka and Mr J have designed brushes suited to their striping styles. Fraser, Craig. Pinstriping Masters Techniques and Special F/X for Laying Down the Line Johnson, Alan.

How To Pinstripe Martinez, Herb. Pinstripe Planet: Fine Lines from the World's Best Martinez, Herb. Herb Martinez's Guide to The. Pinstripe Planet III Mehran, Mark W. Basic Hot Rod Pinstriping Techniques With Hot Rod Surf Video of Ed Roth interviewing Von Dutch Art of Pinstriping Interview with Alan Johnson