The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing. The foremost version of the event is the 3000 metres steeplechase; the 2000 metres steeplechase is the next most common distance. The 1900 Olympics featured a 2500 metres steeplechase and a 4000 metres steeplechase, a 2590 metres steeplechase was held at the 1904 Olympics. A 1000 metres steeplechase is used in youth athletics; the event originated in Ireland. Horses and riders raced from one town's steeple to the next; the steeples were used as markers due to their visibility over long distances. Along the way runners had to jump streams and low stone walls separating estates; the modern athletics event originates from a two-mile cross country steeplechase that formed part of the University of Oxford sports in 1860. It was replaced in 1865 by an event over barriers on a flat field, which became the modern steeplechase, it has been an Olympic event since the inception of the modern Olympics, though with varying lengths.
Since the 1968 Summer Olympics, steeplechase in the Olympics has been dominated by Kenyan athletes, including the current gold medal streak since 1984 and a clean sweep of the medals at the 1992 and 2004 Games. The steeplechase for women is 3,000 metres long, but with lower barriers than for the men. A distance of 2,000 metres, with a shorter water jump, was experimented with before the current race format was established, it made its first major championship appearance at the 2005 World Championships in Helsinki. In 2008, women's 3,000 metres steeplechase appeared for the first time on the Olympic tracks in Beijing. Other divisions including masters athletics and youth athletics run 2,000 metres distances; the format for a 2,000 metre steeplechase removes the first two barriers of the first lap. The steeplechase at the 1932 Olympics was run over 3460 metres due to a lap scoring error. A 3,000 metres steeplechase is defined in the rulebook as having seven water jumps. A 2,000 meters steeplechase has five water jumps.
Since the water jump is never on the track oval, a steeplechase "course" is never a perfect 400 metres lap. Instead the water jump is placed inside the turn, shortening the lap, or outside the turn, lengthening the lap; the start line moves from conventional starting areas in order to compensate for the different length of lap. When the water jump is inside, the 3,000 metre start line is on the backstretch; when the water jump is outside, the 3,000 metre start line is on the home stretch. The 2,000 metre start line uses 5/7 the amount of compensation. IAAF list of steeplechase records in XML Women's Steeplechase
F. Ambrose Clark
Ambrose Clark was an American equestrian. "Brose" Clark was the third son of Alfred Corning Clark and Elizabeth Scriven, a grandson of Singer Sewing Machine Company partner Edward Cabot Clark. His siblings were Edward Severin Clark, Robert Sterling Clark, Stephen Carlton Clark, he grew up in Cooperstown, New York. He married Florence Lockwood Stokes in 1902, their only child, Ethel Stokes Clark, never predeceased him. Florence Stokes Clark was described as "a model sportswoman" for her attitude, her horse Kellsboro Jack carried her colours to victory in the 1933 English Grand National. He remarried November 9, 1952 to Constance Augusta Miller, who died December 20, 1981 Marylebone, England, he died on February 26, 1964. Referred popularly and with affection as “Brose,” he was the quintessential equestrian, sportsman indelibly linked with horses throughout his life until his ailing heath in 1963 marked the disbanding of his horse stables after 60 years of racing the light blue and yellow silks. Visually it was quoted that he looked to be a man who stepped right out of a 19th-century sporting print.
He was always seen in a tweed English cap, waistcoat and tall boots throughout his life in person and in captured images. Never having attended college he did however pour himself into his passion for all things equestrian, he himself a gentleman rider who owned and trained horses for steeplechase, flat racing, show jumping, fox hunting. He owned a 5,000-acre estate in Cooperstown, New York known as Iroquois Farm, a 400-acre estate in Old Westbury, LI known as Broad Hollow, an apartment in the Manhattan, New York building The Dakota built by his grandfather, a sprawling estate in Aiken, South Carolina acquired in 1929, known as Habersham House, in the Aiken Winter Colony and had a seasonal residence in England at Melton Mowbray, the spiritual home of English fox-hunting, he published in 1958 a limited catalog of his sporting paintings: The F. Ambrose Clark Collection of Sporting Paintings Which included select works by artists Sir. Alfred Munnings and George Stubbs among many others. Ambrose was master of hounds for the Meadow Brook Hounds in the 1920s.
That hunt annually held a well-attended steeplechase race meeting on Mr. Clark's property, Broad Hollow in Westbury, starting in 1919. Always the consummate horseman with a disdain for automobiles, famously Brose would not allow NBC radio to drive their equipment truck onto the estate to broadcast the races. Rather they had to use a team of horses to haul the equipment in. Mrs. Clark owned Foshalee Plantation, a 11,456-acre quail hunting property in northern Leon County, Florida just north of Tallahassee from 1938 until 1949; the most famous horse under Brose was a gelding he sold to his wife Florence for $5.00 at the time just prior to the 1933 English Grand National was Kellsboro Jack. Trained by Ivor Anthony, the American-bred horse would become, at the time, just the 3rd American owned horse to win the grueling English steeplechase race at Aintree Racecourse. In the same race Ambrose had entered Chadd's Ford. Kellsboro Jack's time of 9 minutes 38 seconds set a new record for the event. Inducted into the Aiken Thoroughbred Racing Hall of Fame and Museum, January 23, 1977, was his horse Tea Maker who raced from 1948 to 1953 and was bred by Mrs. F. Ambrose Clark.
Tea Maker, at the age of 9, won American Legion Handicap. He earned the top honors as 1952's American Champion Sprint Horse. Despite Mr. and Mrs. Clark's enthusiasm they did not find success in the American Triple Crown races. In 1928's Belmont Stakes their Broom Wisk finished 4th of 6 runners. In 1942 their Top Milk runner finished 7th of 7 runners in the Belmont Stakes. Brose would upon his death be buried beside his beloved Kellsboro Jack just outside the village of Cooperstown, NY on a hillside overlooking the community. Since 1927, he had employed Laura Stevens at his Iroquois Farms. Leo Stevens living in Fly Creek, NY. Today the selective F. Ambrose Clark Award is highest honor given in Steeplechase by the National Steeplechase Association. A coveted award, it is given to “individuals who have done the most to promote and encourage the growth and welfare of steeplechasing.” Upon his death, his estate donated Broad Hollow to become the State University of New York at Old Westbury. Its main sports venue, the Physical Education and Recreation Center, was renamed for Clark in 1988.
The Clark Center is the home of the Old Westbury basketball programs and the Nassau County men's high school basketball championships. Iroquois Farm remained with the Clark family, Habersham House in Aiken went to nephew George H. "Pete" Bostwick. The bulk of his financial estate remained with the family trusts, The Clark Estates and Scriven Foundation; the manor house at Iroquois Farm was razed in 1981 to make room for what was planned to be the relocation of the Clark Sports Center. Final changes resulted it being located in 1983 on, his significant collection of tack and historic carriage was put into The Carriage and Harness Museum of Cooperstown NY held in the Clark's Elk Street stables, which closed with the sale of the collection at auction September 8-9, 1978. Some of the tack was purchased on behalf of the Rockefeller family to furnish a carriage house being opened as a museum as part of the Kykuit Estate in Poc
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Mixed-sex sports known as mixed-gender or coed sports, are sports where the participants are not of a single sex. This can take the form of team sports involving people of different sexes. In organised sports settings, rules dictate the number of people required of each sex in a team; such rules account for the sex differences in human physiology, with males being larger and stronger than females on average. In informal settings, mixed-sex sports involves groups of friends and/or family engaging in sport without regard to the sex of the participants. Sports which are mixed-sex as standard are ones where the differences between the sexes do not affect the ability of the competitor, for example equestrian sports. Sports in which the sex of a competitor affects their ability to compete have single-sex divisions, with mixed-team variants comprising the mixed-sex element of the sport, for example mixed doubles tennis. Mixed-sex sports have been encouraged as a way of boosting female sports participation and improving social harmony between the sexes.
Mixed-sex play and sports is common among young children, among whom differences are less pronounced. It is uncommon in most organised sports to find individuals of different genders competing head-to-head at elite level, principally due to the differences between the sexes. In sports where these differences are less linked to performance, it is standard practice for men and women to compete in mixed-sex fields; these open-class sports prove accommodating to intersex athletes, who challenge the sex-defined rules of both single-sex sport and mixed-sex sports with defined male and female roles. In equestrian sports and female riders compete against each other in eventing and show jumping disciplines. Female jockeys compete alongside male ones in horse racing, though the former constitute a minority of jockeys overall. Beyond the athletes, the horses used for racing are a mixed of male and female, with a 60/40 split at the top level between colts and fillies. In snooker, the professional tour is open to men and women, although only one woman has competed on the tour for a full year, although others have played in individual tournaments.
There is a separate women only tour to encourage female participation in the sport. During an Ultimate game, teams of 7 players play in direct competition with each other, while most people of the same gender mark each other, it is not uncommon to see match ups between people of different gender. A common form of mixed-sex sports involves pairs with one female team member. Sports based on dancing have male/female pairings, such as pair figure skating, ice dancing, ballroom dancing and synchronised swimming duets. In these sports the male and female participants physically work together to produce an artistic and athletic performance. Mixed doubles involves two mixed-sex pairs competing against each other with all four competitors in open play; this is prominent in racket sports, including tennis, table tennis, badminton and racquetball. Mixed pairs and mixed teams events are organised in contract bridge. Pairs may compete in turn-based games, where men and women take turns alternately; this is found in more strategy-based sports, including mixed doubles curling, mixed golf, mixed bowling and mixed team darts.
Separate male and female performances may be combined to produce mixed team results in such sports as diving. Synchronised diving is found in mixed-sex format. Mixed tag team matches are found in professional wrestling, where wrestlers are not explicitly competing in a turn-based manner, but are obliged to only face their opponent of the same sex. In non-vehicular racing sports the physiological differences between the sexes preclude head-to-head competition between people of different sexes at the elite level; as a result, mixed-sex events are most held with a relay race format. In running, a 4 × 400 metres mixed relay race was introduced at the 2017 IAAF World Relays, will be added to the 2019 World Championships in Athletics and 2020 Summer Olympics. In cross-country running, a 4 × 2 km mixed relay race was added at the 2017 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. In swimming, mixed relay races were introduced at the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships and the 2015 World Aquatics Championships.
The event will debut at the 2020 Summer Olympics. In triathlon, the ITU Triathlon Mixed Relay World Championships mixed relay race has been held since 2009; the triathlon at the Youth Olympic Games has a mixed relay race since 2010. As in standard triathlons, each triathlon competitor must do a segment of swimming and running. In biathlon, a mixed relay race was first held at the Biathlon World Championships 2005 in Khanty-Mansiysk, it was added to the 2014 Winter Olympics; the mixed division is a staple of Ultimate, it is the only division, showcased at both the 2013 World Games and the 2017 World Games. Mixed-sex forms of ball sports involve set numbers of each sex per team, sometimes pre-defined roles in the team which people of that gender can play. Examples include korfball, coed softball and wheelchair rugby. Mixed-sex sport has a long history at the Olympic Games, dating back to the 1900 Summer Olympics, the first in which women participated. Two women competed against men in the equestrian, the croquet competition was mixed-sex, while Hélène de Pourtalès was the sole female sailor and first mixed-sex team champion, being part of a gold medal-winning
The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse in Liverpool, England. First run in 1839, it is a handicap steeplechase over an official distance of about 4 miles and 2½ furlongs, with horses jumping 30 fences over two laps, it is the most valuable jump race in Europe, with a prize fund of £1 million in 2017. An event, prominent in British culture, the race is popular amongst many people who do not watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year; the course over which the race is run features much larger fences than those found on conventional National Hunt tracks. Many of these Becher's Brook, The Chair and the Canal Turn, have become famous in their own right and, combined with the distance of the event, create what has been called "the ultimate test of horse and rider"; the Grand National has been broadcast live on free-to-air terrestrial television in the United Kingdom since 1960. From until 2012 it was broadcast by the BBC. Between 2013 and 2016 it was shown by Channel 4.
An estimated 500 to 600 million people watch the Grand National in over 140 countries. It has been broadcast on radio since 1927; the most recent running of the race, in 2019, was won by Tiger Roll ridden by jockey Davy Russell for trainer Gordon Elliott. The next Grand National meeting will start on 2 April and will finish on 4 April 2020. Since 2018, the race and accompanying festival are sponsored by Randox Health; the Grand National was founded by William Lynn, a syndicate head and proprietor of the Waterloo Hotel, on land he leased in Aintree from William Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton. Lynn set out a course, built a grandstand, Lord Sefton laid the foundation stone on 7 February 1829. There is much debate regarding the first official Grand National; this same horse won again in 1837, while Sir William was the winner in 1838. These races have long been disregarded because of the belief that they took place at Maghull and not Aintree. However, some historians have unearthed evidence in recent years that suggest those three races were run over the same course at Aintree and were regarded as having been Grand Nationals up until the mid-1860s.
Contemporary newspaper reports place all the 1836-38 races at Aintree although the 1839 race is the first described as "national". To date, calls for the Nationals of 1836–1838 to be restored to the record books have been unsuccessful; the Duke was ridden by Martin Becher. The fence Becher's Brook is where he fell in the next year's race. In 1838 and 1839 three significant events occurred to transform the Liverpool race from a small local affair to a national event. Firstly, the Great St. Albans Chase, which had clashed with the steeplechase at Aintree, was not renewed after 1838, leaving a major hole in the chasing calendar. Secondly, the railway arrived in Liverpool, enabling transport to the course by rail for the first time. A committee was formed to better organise the event; these factors led to a more publicised race in 1839 which attracted a larger field of top quality horses and riders, greater press coverage and an increased attendance on race day. Over time the first three runnings of the event were forgotten to secure the 1839 race its place in history as the first official Grand National.
It was won by rider Jem Mason on the aptly named, Lottery. By the 1840s, Lynn's ill-health blunted his enthusiasm for Aintree. Edward Topham, a respected handicapper and prominent member of Lynn's syndicate, began to exert greater influence over the National, he turned the chase into a handicap in 1843 after it had been a weight-for-age race for the first four years, took over the land lease in 1848. One century the Topham family bought the course outright. In the century the race was the setting of a thriller by the popular novelist Henry Hawley Smart. For three years during the First World War, while Aintree Racecourse was taken over by the War Office, an alternative race was run at Gatwick Racecourse, a now disused course on land now occupied by Gatwick Airport; the first of these races, in 1916, was called the Racecourse Association Steeplechase, in 1917 and 1918 the race was called the War National Steeplechase. The races at Gatwick are not always recognised as "Grand Nationals" and their results are omitted from winners' lists.
On the day of the 1928 Grand National, before the race had begun, Tipperary Tim's jockey William Dutton heard a friend call out to him: "Billy boy, you'll only win if all the others fall down!" These words turned out to be true. That year's National was run during misty weather conditions with the going heavy; as the field approached the Canal Turn on the first circuit, Easter Hero fell, causing a pile-up from which only seven horses emerged with seated jockeys. By the penultimate fence this number had reduced to three, with Great Span looking most to win ahead of Billy Barton and Tipperary Tim. Great Span's saddle slipped, leaving Billy Barton in the lead until he too fell. Although Billy Barton's jockey Tommy Cullinan managed to remount and complete the race, it was Tipperary Tim who came in first at outside odds of 100/1. With only two riders completing the course, this remains a record for the lowest number of finishers. Although the Grand National was run as normal in 1940 and most other major hors
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Montpelier (Orange, Virginia)
James Madison's Montpelier, located in Orange County, was the plantation house of the Madison family, including fourth President of the United States, James Madison, his wife Dolley. The 2,650-acre property is open seven days a week with the mission of engaging the public with the enduring legacy of Madison's most powerful idea: government by the people. Montpelier was declared a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, it was included in the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District in 1991. In 1983, the last private owner of Montpelier, Marion duPont Scott, bequeathed the estate to the National Trust for Historic Preservation; the National Trust for Historic Preservation has owned and operated the estate since 1984. In 2000, The Montpelier Foundation formed with the goal of transforming James Madison's historic estate into a dynamic cultural institution. From 2003–2008 the NTHP carried out a major restoration, in part to return the mansion to its original size of 22 rooms as it was during the years when it was occupied by James and Dolley Madison.
Extensive interior and exterior work was done during the restoration. Archeological investigations in the 21st century revealed new information about African-American life at the plantation, a gift from philanthropist David Rubenstein enabled the National Trust to restore the slave quarters in the South Yard and open a slavery exhibition, The Mere Distinction of Colour, in 2017. In 1723, James Madison's grandfather, Ambrose Madison, his brother-in-law, Thomas Chew, received a patent for 4,675 acres of land in the Piedmont of Virginia. Ambrose, his wife Frances Madison, their three children moved to the plantation in 1732, naming it Mount Pleasant. Ambrose died six months later. At the time, Ambrose Madison held close to 4,000 acres. After his death, Frances managed the estate with the help of their son, Colonel James Madison, Sr. Madison, Sr. expanded the plantation to include building services and blacksmithing in the 1740s, bought additional slaves to cultivate tobacco and other crops. He had 12 children.
James Madison, Sr.'s first-born son named James, was born on March 16, 1751 at Belle Grove, his mother's family estate in Port Conway, where she had returned for his birth. James Madison spent his early years at Mount Pleasant. In the early 1760s, Madison, Sr. built a new house half a mile away, which structure forms the heart of the main house at Montpelier today. Built around 1764, it has two stories of brick laid in a Flemish bond pattern, a low, hipped roof with chimney stacks at both ends, his son James Madison stated that he remembered helping move furniture to the new home. The building of Montpelier represents Phase 1 of the construction. Upon completion, the Madisons owned one of the largest brick dwellings in Orange County. Phase 2 of construction began in 1797, after son James returned to Montpelier with his new wife Dolley Madison, he was 39 and she was a young widow with a child. At this time Madison added a Tuscan portico to the house. Madison's widowed mother, still resided in the house following the death of her husband, James, Sr. in 1801.
In the last period of construction, Phase 3, Madison had a large drawing room added, as well as one-story wings at each end of the house and he directed construction of single-story flat-roofed extensions at either end of the house. After his second term as president, in 1817 Madison retired there full-time with his wife Dolley. James Madison is buried in the family cemetery at Montpelier, his widow Dolley Madison moved back to Washington, D. C. in 1837 after his death. In 1844 she sold the plantation to Henry W. Moncure. After Dolley Madison died in 1849, she was buried in Washington, D. C. and re-interred at Montpelier near her husband James. After Dolley Madison sold the estate to Henry W. Moncure in 1844, the property was held by a total of six additional owners before the du Ponts bought Montpelier in 1901; the various owners and the dates associated with the site include: Benjamin Thornton, William H. Macfarland, Alfred V. Scott, Thomas J. Carson and Frank Carson, Louis F. Detrick and William L. Bradley and Charles King Lennig.
The origins of the name Montpelier are uncertain, but the first recorded use of the name comes from a 1781 James Madison letter. Madison liked the French spelling of the name Montpellier; the city of Montpellier, was a famous resort. Clues from letters and visitor descriptions suggest these origins of the plantation's name; the work of Montpelier was done by its about 100 enslaved African slaves during James Madison's tenure as owner. Slaves served in a variety of roles: field workers, domestic servants in charge of cleaning and care of clothing. During the time that the Madisons owned the estate, "five and seven generations of African Americans were born into slavery at Montpelier."The most well-known slave from Montpelier was Paul Jennings, Madison's body servant from 1817-1835. When Jennings went to the White House at age 10, he did other work. Daniel Webster purchased Jennings and allowed him to work to pay off his freedom, but this was unrelated to the death of James or Dolley Madison. Born in 1799, J