Horse racing

Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance, for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.

It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.

Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. In Britain, horse racing became well-established in the 18th century. King Charles II was an avid sportsman. By 1750 the Jockey Club was formed to control the Newmarket races, set the rules of the game, prevent dishonesty, making for a level field. Epsom Derby began in 1780; the five classic races began with the St Leger Stakes in 1776. The system was complete in 1814 with five annual races. Newmarket and the Jockey Club set the standards but most of the racing took place for small cash prizes and enormous local prestige in landowners’ fields and in the rising towns.

The system of wagering was essential to the funding and the growth of the industry, all classes participated from the poor to royalty. High society was in control, they made a special effort to keeping the riff-raff out and the criminal element away from the wagering. With real money at stake, the system needed skilled jockeys, trainers and experts at breeding, thereby opening new prestigious careers for working-class rural men; every young ambitious stable boy could dream of making it big. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.

Anything less than 25 miles qualifies as a limited distance ride or LD. Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe and dirt more common in North America and Asia.

Newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, are seen at some tracks. Individual flat races are run over distances ranging


Dorzolamide, sold under the brand name Trusopt among others, is medications used to treat high pressure inside the eye including glaucoma. It is used as an eye drop. Effects lasts for at least eight hours, it is available as the combination dorzolamide/timolol. Common side effects include eye discomfort, eye redness, taste changes, blurry vision. Serious side effects include Steven Johnson syndrome; those allergic to sulfonamides may be allergic to dorzolamide. Use is not recommended in breastfeeding, it works by decreasing the production of aqueous humour. Dorzolamide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1994, it is available as a generic medication. A 5 milliliter bottle in the United Kingdom costs the NHS less than 2 £ as of 2019. In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$7.10. In 2016 it was the 271st most prescribed medication in the United States with more than a million prescriptions. Dorzolamide hydrochloride is used to lower excessive intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

Ocular stinging, burning and bitter taste. It leads to transient myopia, it lowers IOP by about 20%. Carbonic Anhydrase can convert H2CO3 into HCO3 and H+; the H+ is exchanged for sodium which allows you to make aqueous humor. By blocking carbonic anhydrase, the Na/H exchanger can't work, which will decrease Na in the cell and prevent aqueous humor production; this drug, developed by Merck, was the first drug in human therapy that resulted from structure-based drug design. It was developed to circumvent the systemic side effects of acetazolamide which has to be taken orally. Kubinyi H. "Chance favors the prepared mind--from serendipity to rational drug design". J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 19: 15–39. Doi:10.3109/10799899909036635. PMID 10071748. Plummer C, MacKay E, Gelatt K. "Comparison of the effects of topical administration of a fixed combination of dorzolamide-timolol to monotherapy with timolol or dorzolamide on IOP, pupil size, heart rate in glaucomatous dogs". Vet Ophthalmol. 9: 245–9. Doi:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2006.00469.x.

PMID 16771760. Grover S, Apushkin M, Fishman G. "Topical dorzolamide for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa". Am J Ophthalmol. 141: 850–8. Doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.12.030. PMID 16546110. Almeida G, Faria e Souza S. "Effect of topical dorzolamide on rabbit central corneal thickness". Braz J Med Biol Res. 39: 277–81. Doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2006000200015. PMID 16470316

James Lambie (rugby union)

James Taylor Lambie was a New Zealand rugby union player who represented the All Blacks between 1893 and 1894. His position of choice was forward. Lambie did not play in any test matches as New Zealand did not play their first until 1903. Described as "short but stocky" Lambie was "well under". Out of the now-defunct Waimate club in Taranaki, Lambie was described as being a "prolific try scorer", he first made the Taranaki provincial side in 1889 as a teenager and was a regular in the team until 1894. He played in the trial to pick the side for the All Blacks that would tour Australia in 1893. After being selected Lambie proved to be an outstanding player, he scored four tries. A superb season in 1894 followed and Lambie was selected for the North Island team to play the touring Waratahs. Just two days Lambie was selected for the Taranaki team that had a match on the tour. Both games were won 21-6 respectively, he played in the unofficial test match for the All Blacks in Christchurch this game was lost 8-6.

His career ended after that game. Lambie died aged 35 in 1905 while travelling home on Horseback after watching Taranaki play Great Britain, he was kicked in the head by his Horse suffering serious injuries. His brother, W. Lambie represented Taranaki between 1895 and 1899