Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, includes the disciplines of riding, driving, or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including dressage, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.

Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service, in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.

In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle: Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.

Other light breeds are raced worldwide. Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles, it is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulky or racing bike; the Standardbred dominates the sport in both pacing varieties. The United States Trotting Association organizes harness racing in the United States. Harness racing is found throughout Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Distance racing: Endurance riding, takes place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start; the first enguarance ride, similar to today's sport, was the Tevis Cup in Nevada, Caliornia in which horses and riders travelled 160km in one day. Top level races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.

Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Variants include various forms of long riding. Equestrian events were first included in the modern Olympic Games in 1900. By 1912, all three Olympic disciplines still seen today were part of the games; the following forms of competition are recognized worldwide and are a part of the equestrian events at the Olympics. They are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Dressage involves the progressive training of the horse to a high level of impulsion and obedience. Competitive dressage has the goal of showing the horse carrying out, on request, the natural movements that it performs without thinking while running loose. Show jumping comprises a timed event judged on the ability of the horse and rider to jump over a series of obstacles, in a given order and with the fewest refusals or knockdowns of portions of the obstacles. Eventing called combined training, horse trials, the three-day event, the Military or the complete test, puts together the obedience of dressage wit

Storylines of Shortland Street (1999)

This article details the storylines that took place on the New Zealand Soap Opera Shortland Street in the year 1999. The mystery of who bludgeoned Oscar Henry in 1998s finale continued. Fergus Kearney and Minnie Crozier were suspected, with Minnie getting arrested for attempted murder. While Oscar languished in a coma, Dr. Mackenzie Choat began acting strangely though she and Lionel were now engaged. Nurse Caroline Buxton became suspicious but backed off when Ellen told her that Oscar had raped Minnie and that Mackenzie had supported Minnie. While on a weekend vacation with Luke and Mackenzie decided to elope, but shortly after their wedding, Lionel discovered several large sums of cash in Mackenzie's bag. Mackenzie confessed it was the money Oscar had stolen from the clinic and Lionel realised that Mackenzie had bludgeoned Oscar, he was swept off some rocks at a beach. His body was never found. Burying her feelings for Rangi Heremaia, Donna Heka embarked on a flirtation with the married Dr. John Harlan.

John Harlan was CEO of Central and Frank as acting Shortland Street boss had brought him in to help out the clinic in the aftermath of Oscar's fraud. A stunned Rachel discovered that her father had had an affair with John's wife many years before; when john found out, he bitterly dumped his wife and went straight to Donna's, where they embarked on an affair. Meanwhile, Rangi dated Vani. Vani managed to forgive Mike for what had happened to her previous boyfriend. Rangi supported Vani; when they found him, they had another trauma to deal with as Rangi soon had to take in his daughter, Tasha for a while. Soon, Rangi grew to enjoy being a father, his joy was cut short when Tasha went back to her mother Terry. Rangi was stunned to learn that Vani was betrothed to someone else in an arranged marriage. Rangi ended up posing as his personal trainer. Rangi pushed Krish too hard; when Vani learned what had happened, she went ahead with her arranged marriage to Krish and left Shortland Street. Sometime Rangi and Donna were embarrassed when everybody discovered that they were related, but everyone was understanding.

After arriving to replace the departed Daniel and Vani, Dr. Jim Callen would arrive with his wife Dr. Anna Parry arriving soon after; the two would soon split apart following a suspicious Anna thinking Jim was having an affair with Minnie. After their son Oliver drowned in David's pool once he took Anna in, the two engaged in a bitter custody battle. Anna would depart for England once more. Early in 1999, the Crombies were rocked by the news that youngest son Matthew'Maddy' Crombie had leukaemia. Maddy underwent treatment, a bone marrow donor was found in the form of eldest Crombie son Jordan. Earl returned after his son got sick. Moira discovered that Jordan was gay, while she did not accept her son's homosexuality, she grew to accept him for who he was. Nick and Waverley were preparing to get married after they discovered that Roger had another wife and his marriage to Waverley was illegal. However, Roger ended up returning to town in an effort to explain himself and Waverley slept with him. Nick forgave Waverley for her indiscretion, but couldn't forgive her when she cut all of his hair off.

The two broke up. Mike Galloway would attempt to divert his one-sided love for Ellen and ended up in a relationship with school teacher Jean Burrows, it was still using. Mike looked after her when she got out of the clinic, but after being caught rifling through Jean's things after catching her trying to use again, the two realised they wouldn't last. Jean left, leaving Mike broken-hearted once again. Mackenzie became unhinged after Lionel's death and sought comfort by sleeping with Frank, despondent over Rachel's continuing love for Daniel; when Josie and Luke ran away, they went to the church in which Lionel and Mackenzie were married where they made wedding vows to each other before having sex. Fergus found them and persuaded them to return to Ferndale. Mackenzie resorted to drugging Luke in order to keep him near her. Mackenzie told Josie that Luke had only used her for sex. Caroline was suspicious of what Mackenzie was doing, but no one believed her and she was fired from the clinic. Caroline retaliated by bringing Oscar back to Shortland Street.

Luke and Josie got back together. Josie announced that she was pregnant, so they got married and went to live with Luke's mother, it was revealed that Josie gave birth to a baby boy. Upon their return and David began seeing each other again. Fergus grew tired of the way that his father was treating Bridget and so told her the truth himself. Bridget was upset and decided to leave town. Caroline began an affair with the returned Greg Feeney. Soon afterwards, Mackenzie realised Oscar was faking his coma and had a final showdown with him in his hospital ward, she managed to overpower him, set off a bomb in his room. Mackenzie fled town soon afterwards with wads of cash but she was double-crossed by bad boy Greg and ended up penniless. Fergus helped Minnie deal with her rape trauma and the tw

Glacier View, Alaska

Glacier View is a census-designated place in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, United States. It is part of Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the 2010 census the population was 234, down from 249 in 2000; the terminus of Matanuska Glacier is located three miles southwest of Glacier View. Glacier View is located at 61°49′7″N 147°42′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 450.6 square miles, of which, 448.2 square miles of it is land and 2.4 square miles of it is water. Glacier View first appeared on the 2000 U. S. Census as a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 249 people, 104 households, 61 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 0.6 people per square mile. There were 260 housing units at an average density of 0.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.76% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 7.23% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 3.21% from two or more races. There were 104 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families.

36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.11. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 2.4% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 34.9% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 122.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,429, the median income for a family was $46,250. Males had a median income of $13,542 versus $36,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $14,855. None of the families and 4.0% of the population were living below the poverty line. Skiing is a popular activity in the winter; the surrounding Chugach Mountains provide excellent back country ski slopes. Majestic Heli Ski provides helicopter guided services during the winter months from the popular Majestic Valley Wilderness Lodge.

Hiking is available year-round on many trails. Some are within walking distance of the Glenn Highway. Glacier View