Big Brother and the Holding Company
Big Brother and the Holding Company is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the same psychedelic music scene that produced the Grateful Dead, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Jefferson Airplane. They are best known as the band, their 1968 album Cheap Thrills is considered one of the masterpieces of the psychedelic sound of San Francisco. The album is included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. Leader Peter Albin, a country-blues guitarist who had played with future Grateful Dead founders Jerry Garcia and Ron McKernan, met Sam Andrew, a professional rock guitarist with a jazz and classical background. After playing together at Albin's home, Andrew suggested; the pair approached guitarist James Gurley, the resulting threesome playing open jam sessions hosted by entrepreneur Chet Helms in 1965. Helms found them a drummer, Chuck Jones, Big Brother and the Holding Company was formed at their first gig, the Trips Festival in January 1966. In the audience was painter and jazz drummer David Getz, who soon displaced Jones.
Big Brother went on to become the house band at the Avalon Ballroom, playing a progressive style of instrumental rock. Feeling a need for a strong vocalist, Helms contacted Janis Joplin, who at the time was considering joining up with Roky Erickson of The 13th Floor Elevators, she traveled to San Francisco from Austin and debuted with Big Brother at the Avalon on June 10, 1966. Joplin sang for the first time with Big Brother in 1966. Years Andrew described the band's first impressions of her: We were the established rock and roll band. We were heavy. We were like: all right, out of three or four bands in this city, we are one of them. We're in the newspapers all the time. We're working out. We are doing this woman a favor to let her come and sing with us, she came in and she was dressed like a little Texan. She didn't look like a hippie, she looked like my mother, from Texas, she sang real well but it wasn't like, "Oh we're bowled over." It was more like, our sound was loud. It was bowling her over.
I am sure. She wrote letters home about; the names of the bands. That kind of thing. In other words, we weren't flattened by her and she wasn't flattened by us, it was a pretty equal meeting. She was a real intelligent, Janis was, she always rose to the occasion, she sang the songs. It wasn't like this moment of revelation. Like in a movie or something, it wasn't like. We have got Janis Joplin." I mean she was good but she had to learn how to do that. It took her about a year to learn how to sing with an electric band, it took a while for some of the band's followers to accept the new singer and her current boyfriend, keyboardist Stephen Ryder. Her music was different from that which Big Brother was playing at that time. Big Brother had a experimental and unconventional sound, but with Joplin, they became more disciplined musicians, their songs adopted a more traditional structure, the band started to increase its popularity in the San Francisco psychedelic scene. In September 1966, the band was stranded in Chicago after finishing a gig there at a venue called Mother Blues located on Wells Street.
The venue's owner paid them for two weeks' worth of their concerts but could not pay them enough money for them to buy plane tickets to San Francisco. Big Brother signed a contract with Mainstream Records, they recorded four of the songs for the album Big Brother & the Holding Company The remainder of the record was recorded in Los Angeles on December 12-14. Mainstream was known for its jazz records, Big Brother was the first rock band to appear on the label; this may have influenced the final result, since the album sounded different from what the band expected: acoustic and folk instead of heavy acid rock. The first single released was "Blind Man" b/w "All Is Loneliness," both from the album sessions, in July 1967, it did not garner much national attention. A second single, "Down on Me" b/w "Call On Me" was released along with their self-titled debut album in August 1967, following the band's national success after the Monterey Pop Festival; the album debuted on Billboard charts on September 2, 1967, peaking at No. 60.
It stayed on the charts for a total of 30 weeks. The Pop Chronicles criticized the record as difficult to find and "technically disappointing". "Down On Me" had a long gestation in the marketplace and debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on August 31, 1968, peaking at No. 43. It stayed on the charts for 8 weeks. Other singles from the album were released through the end of 1967 and in 1968. One final Mainstream single, "Coo Coo" b/w "The Last Time," was released after the band's second album was issued by Columbia Records in November, 1968; these last songs were from the original album sessions, but were not included on the LP until Columbia acquired all of the band's Mainstream recordings and reissued the album in the 1970s. In the fall of 1966, the band members moved to Lagunitas, in Marin County, California, to a communal house. In 1967 they put an ad in the San Francisco Oracle with the apparent intention of moving back to the "City"; the ad read: "Big Brother is returning to the city. Need rehearsal hall and a place to live.
Write to B. B.& the H. C. at Box 94 Lagunitas." One of the band's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the
An "archtop guitar" is a hollow steel-stringed acoustic or semiacoustic guitar with a full body and a distinctive arched top, whose sound is popular with jazz, blues and psychobilly guitarists. An archtop guitar has: 6 strings An arched top and back, not a flat top and back A hollow body Moveable adjustable bridge F-holes similar to members of the violin family Rear mounted tailpiece, stoptail bridge, or Bigsby vibrato tailpiece 14th-fret neck join The archtop guitar is credited to Orville Gibson, whose innovative designs led to the formation of the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co, Ltd in 1902, his 1898 patent for a mandolin, applicable to guitars according to the specifications, was intended to enhance "power and quality of tone." Among the features of this instrument were a violin-style arched top and back, each carved from a single piece of wood, thicker in the middle than at the sides. But Gibson was not the first to apply violin design principles to the guitar. Guitar maker A. H. Merrill, for example, patented in 1896 a modern looking instrument "of the guitar and mandolin type... with egg-shaped hoop or sides and a graduated convex back and top."
The instrument featured a metal tailpiece and teardrop shaped "f-holes," and resembled the archtop guitars of the 1930s. James S. Back obtained patent #508,858 in 1893 for a guitar that among other features included an arched top, which were produced under the Howe Orme name. Another transitional design is the parlor guitar fitted with tailpiece; these inexpensive instruments, manufactured by companies such as Stella and Harmony, are associated with early blues musicians. The earliest Gibson designs introduced the arched top and increasing body sizes, but still had round or oval sound holes. In 1922, Lloyd Loar was hired by the Gibson Company to redesign their instrument line in an effort to counter flagging sales, in that same year the Gibson L5 was released to his design. Although the new instrument models flopped commercially and Loar left Gibson after only a couple of years, Gibson instruments signed by Loar now are among the most prized and celebrated in stringed-instrument history; the most revered instrument from this period is the F5 mandolin, but the more broadly influential was the L5 guitar, which remains in production to this day.
The mature Gibson archtop guitar and its imitators are regarded as the quintessential "jazzbox." Archtop guitars were subsequently made by many top American luthiers, notably John D'Angelico of New York and Jimmy D'Aquisto, William Wilkanowski, Charles Stromberg and Son in Boston, by other major manufacturers, notably Gretsch and Epiphone. In Europe, companies such as Framus, Höfner, Hagström took up the manufacture of archtops. Archtop guitars were adopted by both jazz and country musicians, in big bands and swing bands. Gibson's ES-150 guitar is recognized as the world's first commercially successful Spanish-style electric guitar; the ES stands for Electric Spanish, it was designated 150 because it cost $150, along with an EH-150 amplifier and a cable. After its introduction in 1936, it became popular in jazz orchestras of the period. Unlike the usual acoustic guitars utilized in jazz, it was loud enough to take a more prominent position in ensembles. Jazz guitarist Eddie Durham is credited with making the first electric guitar solo, but it was ES-150 player Charlie Christian who popularized the jazz guitar as a solo, not just a rhythm, instrument.
The ES-150's top was not carved on the underside. In 1951, Gibson released the L5CES, an L5 with a single cutaway body and two electric pickups playable as either an acoustic guitar or an electric guitar; this innovation was popular, while purely acoustic archtop guitars such as the Gibson L-7C remain available to this day, they have become the exception. In 1958, the L5CES was redesigned with humbucking pickups; the electric archtop was popular with jazz musicians Tal Farlow, Barney Kessel and Johnny Smith. Other manufacturers introduced electric archtop guitars, notable examples including the Gretsch White Falcon and various Chet Atkins models; some of these instruments have a distinctive "twangy" sound and were taken up by country music and early rock and roll artists such as Duane Eddy and Eddie Cochran. Similar models remain popular in rockabilly. Gibson's last innovation in archtop design was the creation, in late 1950s, of "thinline" models with a reduced body depth, notably the Gibson ES-335 and Epiphone Casino.
These were easier to play standing up. They are classed as semiacoustic guitars. Thinlines became popular with mainstream rock artists during the 1960s; the 335 and similar guitars were taken up by, remain steadfastly popular with, electric blues players. The 1970s and 1980s were a low point of interest in archtops, with many rock and pop players switching to solid body guitars. Interest in archtops was revived in the 1990s. Archtops had long been expensive instruments, with a level of ornament to match. Boutique luthiers such as Roger Borys and Bob Benedetto brought the aesthetics of the instrument to greater heights, making them attractive to co
Fingerstyle guitar is the technique of playing the guitar by plucking the strings directly with the fingertips, fingernails, or picks attached to fingers, as opposed to flatpicking. The term "fingerstyle" is something of a misnomer, since it is present in several different genres and styles of music—but because it involves a different technique, not just a "style" of playing for the guitarist's picking/plucking hand; the term is used synonymously with fingerpicking, although fingerpicking can refer to a specific tradition of folk and country guitar playing in the US. The terms "fingerstyle" and "fingerpicking" applied to similar string instruments such as the banjo. Music arranged for fingerstyle playing can include chords and other elements such as artificial harmonics, hammering on and pulling off notes with the fretting hand, using the body of the guitar percussively, many other techniques; the guitarist will play the melody notes, interspersed with the melody's accompanying chords and the deep bassline simultaneously.
Some fingerpicking guitarists intersperse percussive tapping along with the melody and bassline. This enables a single guitarist to provide all of these important song elements; this enables singer-guitarists to accompany themselves, it enables smaller groups which have only a single guitarist to use one guitarist to provide all of these musical elements. Fingerpicking is a standard technique on the classical or nylon string guitar, but is considered more of a specialized technique on steel string guitars. Fingerpicking is less common on electric guitars, except in the heavy metal music virtuoso style of lead guitar playing known as shred guitar; the timbre of fingerpicked notes is described as, "result in a more piano-like attack," and less like pizzicato. Because individual digits play notes on the guitar rather than the hand working as a single unit, a guitarist playing fingerstyle can perform several musical elements simultaneously. One definition of the technique has been put forward by the Toronto Fingerstyle Guitar Association: Physically, "Fingerstyle" refers to using each of the right hand fingers independently to play the multiple parts of a musical arrangement that would be played by several band members.
Deep bass notes, harmonic accompaniment and percussion can all be played when playing Fingerstyle. Many fingerstyle guitarists have adopted a combination of acrylic nails and a thumbpick to improve tone and decrease nail wear and chance of breaking or chipping. Notable guitarists to adopt this hardware are Doyle Dykes and Canadian guitarist Don Ross and Richard Smith Players do not have to carry a plectrum, but fingernails may have to be maintained at the right length and in good condition if the player has a preference to use fingernails over their skin, it is possible to play multiple non-adjacent strings at the same time. This enables the guitarist to play a low bass note and a high treble note at the same time; this enables the guitarist to play double stops, such as an octave, a fifth, a sixth, or other intervals that suit the harmony. It is more suitable for playing polyphonically, with separate, independent musical lines, or separate melody and bass parts, therefore more suitable to unaccompanied solo playing, or to small ensembles, like duos in which a guitarist accompanies a singer.
Fingerstyle players have up to four surfaces striking the strings and/or other parts of the guitar independently. (an exception to this may be found in the flamenco technique of rasgueado. It is easy to play arpeggios, it is possible to play chords without any arpeggiation, because up to five strings can be plucked simultaneously. There is less need for fretting hand damping in playing chords, since only the strings that are required can be plucked. A greater variation in strokes is possible, allowing greater expressiveness in timbre and dynamics. A wide variety of strums and rasgueados are possible. Less energy is imparted to strings than with plectrum playing, leading to lower volume when playing acoustically. Playing on heavier gauge strings can damage nails: fingerstyle is more suited to nylon strings or lighter gauge steel strings Nylon string guitars are most played fingerstyle; the term "Classical guitar" can refer to any kind of art music played fingerstyle on a nylon string guitar, or more narrowly to music of the classical period, as opposed to baroque or romantic music.
The major feature of classical-fingerstyle technique is that it enables solo rendition of harmony and polyphonic music in much the same manner as the piano can. The technique is intended to maximize the degree of control over the musical dynamics, texture and timbral characteristics of the guitar; the sitting position of the player, while somewhat variable places the guitar on the left leg, elevated, rather than the right. This sitting position is intended to maintain shoulder alignment and physical balance between the le
Blind Lemon Jefferson
Lemon Henry "Blind Lemon" Jefferson was an American blues and gospel singer and musician. He was one of the most popular blues singers of the 1920s and has been called the "Father of the Texas Blues". Jefferson's performances were distinctive because of his high-pitched voice and the originality of his guitar playing, his recordings sold well, but he was not a strong influence on younger blues singers of his generation, who could not imitate him as as they could other commercially successful artists. Blues and rock and roll musicians, did attempt to imitate both his songs and his musical style. Jefferson was born blind, near Texas, he was the youngest of seven children born to Alex and Clarissa Jefferson, who were African-American sharecroppers. Disputes regarding the date of his birth derive from contradictory census records and draft registration records. By 1900, the family was farming southeast of Texas. Jefferson's birth date was recorded as September 1893 in the 1900 census; the 1910 census, taken in May, before his birthday, confirms his year of birth as 1893 and indicated that the family was farming northwest of Wortham, near his birthplace.
In his 1917 draft registration, Jefferson gave his birthday as October 26, 1894, stating that he lived in Dallas and had been blind since birth. In the 1920 census, he is recorded as having returned to Freestone County and was living with his half-brother, Kit Banks, on a farm between Wortham and Streetman. Jefferson began playing the guitar in his early teens and soon after he began performing at picnics and parties, he became a street musician, playing in East Texas towns in front of barbershops and on street corners. According to his cousin Alec Jefferson, quoted in the notes for Blind Lemon Jefferson, Classic Sides: They were rough. Men were hustling women and selling bootleg and Lemon was singing for them all night... he'd start singing about eight and go on until four in the morning... it would be just him sitting there and playing and singing all night. In the early 1910s, Jefferson began traveling to Dallas, where he met and played with the blues musician Lead Belly. Jefferson was one of the earliest and most prominent figures in the blues movement developing in the Deep Ellum section of Dallas.
It is that he moved to Deep Ellum on a more permanent basis by 1917, where he met Aaron Thibeaux Walker known as T-Bone Walker. Jefferson taught Walker the basics of playing blues guitar in exchange for Walker's occasional services as a guide. By the early 1920s, Jefferson was earning enough money for his musical performances to support a wife and a child. However, firm evidence of his marriage and children has not been found. Prior to Jefferson, few artists had recorded solo voice and blues guitar, the first of which were the vocalist Sara Martin and the guitarist Sylvester Weaver, who recorded "Longing for Daddy Blues" on October 24, 1923; the first self-accompanied solo performer of a self-composed blues song was Lee Morse, whose "Mail Man Blues" was recorded on October 7, 1924. Jefferson's music is uninhibited and represented the classic sounds of everyday life, from a honky-tonk to a country picnic, to street corner blues, to work in the burgeoning oil fields. Jefferson did what few had done before him – he became a successful solo guitarist and male vocalist in the commercial recording world.
Unlike many artists who were "discovered" and recorded in their normal venues, Jefferson was taken to Chicago, Illinois, in December 1925 or January 1926 to record his first tracks. Uncharacteristically, his first two recordings from this session were gospel songs, released under the name Deacon L. J. Bates. A second recording session was held in March 1926, his first releases under his own name, "Booster Blues" and "Dry Southern Blues", were hits. Their popularity led to the release of the other two songs from that session, "Got the Blues" and "Long Lonesome Blues", which became a runaway success, with sales in six figures, he recorded about 100 tracks between 1926 and 1929. Paramount's studio techniques and quality were poor, the recordings were released with poor sound quality. In May 1926, Paramount re-recorded Jefferson performing his hits "Got the Blues" and "Long Lonesome Blues" in the superior facilities at Marsh Laboratories, subsequent releases used those versions. Both versions appear on compilation albums.
Because of the popularity of artists such as Jefferson and his contemporaries Blind Blake and Ma Rainey, Paramount became the leading recording company for the blues in the 1920s. Jefferson's earnings reputedly enabled him to employ chauffeurs; this was a common compensation for recording rights in that market. Jefferson is known to have done an unusual amount of traveling for the time in the American South, reflected in the difficulty of placing his music in a single regional category. Jefferson's "old-fashioned" sound and confident musicianship made it easy to market him, his skillful guitar playing and impressive vocal range opened the door for a new generation of male solo blues performers, such as Furry Lewis, Charlie Patton, Barbecue Bob. He stuck to no musical conventions, varying his riffs and rhythm and singing complex and expressive lyrics in a manner exceptional at the time for a "simple country blues singer." According to the North Carolina musician Walter Davis
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Gibson Brands, Inc. is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, consumer and professional electronics from Kalamazoo and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was known as Gibson Guitar Corporation and renamed Gibson Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013. Orville Gibson founded the company in 1902 as the "Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd." in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments. Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments, acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited, that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson was owned by Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by a group led by David H. Berryman.
Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names and builds one of the world's most iconic guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars in the big band era of the 1930s. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by a team led by Ted McCarty. In addition to guitars, Gibson offers consumer electronics through its subsidiaries Onkyo Corporation, Cerwin Vega, Stanton, as well as professional audio equipment from KRK Systems, pianos from their wholly owned subsidiary Baldwin Piano, music software from Cakewalk. On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, announced a restructuring deal to return to profitability by closing down unprofitable consumer electronics divisions such as Gibson Innovations. Orville Gibson patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898, more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.
Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. The company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs. Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis; the following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments. Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F-5 mandolin, introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924. In 1936, Gibson introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars and mandolins. During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942-1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company.
Gibson folklore has claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war." In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950, he led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952, endorsed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s. The guitar was offered in Custom, Standard and Junior models. In the mid-1950s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland; the first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Hank Garland. A shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives. In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain. In the 1950s, Gibson produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF, first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.
In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially, it was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea. In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design; the new body design became known as the SG, due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The original Les Paul design returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968. On December 22, 1969, Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries, named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin.
This began an era characterized by decreasing product quality. Between 1974 and 1984, production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee; the Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years a
Kicking Mule Records
Kicking Mule Records was an American independent record label, founded in Berkeley, California in 1971 by guitarist Stefan Grossman and Eugene "ED" Denson co-owner of Takoma Records. The company's name comes from the country blues sexual two-timing allegory "there's another mule kicking in your stall". During the 1970s, the company did much to popularize solo fingerpicking guitar, expanding the style with recordings of Scott Joplin rags, Beatles hits, big band tunes, Turlough Carolan harp tunes; the label released several similarly-styled banjo records. In the 1980s, Grossman left the label and Denson branched out to include many dulcimer releases as well as recordings by Charlie Musselwhite and Michael Bloomfield. In the early 1990s, Fantasy Records bought both Takoma and Kicking Mule from Denson and soon began to re-release selected LPs on CD. In 2004, all of Fantasy's labels were purchased by Concord Records, renamed them as the Concord Music Group. A few of the Kicking Mule titles were reissued by Shanachie Records.
Kicking Mule is handled by Ace Records. List of record labels Illustrated Kicking Mule Records discography LPs re-released on CD Stefan Grossman Guitar Videos homepage ED Denson homepage