Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou, known as the House of Anjou-Sicily and House of Anjou-Naples, was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three royal houses referred to as Angevin, meaning from Anjou in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, a son of Louis VIII of France, the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with just the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages. Historically, the House ruled Naples and Sicily, parts of Greece and Poland. A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona, this meant Charles holdings were growing as Count of Provence. The reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen.
It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, in keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd and highly ambitious. The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople in 1261, for a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a storm off the coast of Trapani. Charles had fully solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania for himself, out of previously Despotate of Epirus territory, Charles was driven out of Sicily in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435. The line became extinct in the line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414. The Kingdom of Albania, or Regnum Albaniae, was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271 and he took the title of King of Albania in February 1272.
The kingdom extended from the region of Durrës south along the coast to Butrint, a major attempt to advance further in direction of Constantinople, failed at the Siege of Berat. A Byzantine counteroffensive soon ensued, which drove the Angevins out of the interior by 1281, the Sicilian Vespers further weakened the position of Charles, and the Kingdom was soon reduced by the Epirotes to a small area around Durrës. The Angevins held out here, until 1368, when the city was captured by Karl Thopia, in 1392 Karl Thopias son surrendered the city and his domains to the Republic of Venice. The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press. A History of the Crusades, Volume III, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press
Stefan Radoslav, known as Stephanos Doukas was the King of Serbia from 1228 to 1233. Stefan was the only son of Stefan Nemanjić by his first wife Eudokia Angelina. His maternal grandparents were The Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina and it is uncertain if his mother was Maria or Helena, respectively the first and second wife of Ivan Asen I. Alexander was the father of Kaliman II of Bulgaria, according to the historian John Van Antwerp Fine, Jr. Eudokia was repudiated on grounds of adultery in c. Fine summarizes a passage of Niketas Choniates to state She left on foot with only the clothes on her back, Eudokia sought refuge with her brother-in-law Vukan Nemanjić, Prince of Zeta. Vukan provided her with hospitality for a while and arranged for her transportation to Durrës and this indicates Stefan Radoslav was born either in the 1190s or the early 1200s. Fine considers the treatment of Eudokia to be an indication of a decline in the prestige the Byzantine Empire held at the time, the senior Stefan was evidently unafraid of a military confrontation with his former father-in-law which could have occurred in retaliation for his actions.
The alliance with the Empire had apparently outlived its use to the Serbian rulers, Stefan Nemanjić had ongoing border disputes with both Vukan Nemanjić and Emeric of Hungary, though outright war had not started yet. The Byzantines had failed to provide him any military support. At the same time the senior Stefan was negotiating submitting himself and he had reasons to distance himself from the Byzantines and the Eastern Orthodox Church associated with them. His father was remarried to Anna Dandolo. She was a daughter of Ranier Dandolo and granddaughter of Enrico Dandolo, Stefan Radoslav had three paternal half-brothers from this marriage. They were Serbian Archbishop Saint Sava II, Stefan Vladislav and Stefan Uroš I and his mother would proceed to marry secondly to Alexios V Doukas and thirdly to Leo Sgouros, ruler of Nafplion. However, there were no children by either marriage. Stefan Radoslav consequently had no maternal half-siblings, according to The Realm of the Slavs by Mavro Orbin, Stefan Radoslav served as ruler of Zachlumia during the reign of his father.
However the sources Orbin used for his history of Zachlumia are not identified by name and they are considered lost and Orbin remains our earliest extant source for several of the events mentioned. According to it Miroslav, the Great was succeeded by his son Andrew, missing from the text is Toljen, a son of Miroslav who was mentioned as heir apparent in other sources. With Andrew being underage, the local nobility proceeded to depose him and they offered the crown to Peter, whose relation to his predecessors is not mentioned by Orbin
The name Stephen is derived from Greek Stephanos, meaning crown. It has had hundreds of variants in Serbo-Croatian language, most of which are hypocoristics that can now only be deduced from surnames. The Serbian Orthodox Church, retained the pronunciation in its liturgy. The Swiss Slavist Robert Zett noted that the usage of Stefan indicated social hierarchy, being a rather than a regnal name, while Uroš I used Stefan. Uroš IV Dušan signed as Stefan but humbly used Stepan in a prayer book, some Serbian kings minted coins with St. Stephen called Stefan on the obverse and themselves called Stepan on the reverse. The name Stephen enjoyed great popularity among medieval South Slavic rulers, with the Christianization of South Slavs, Christian names begin to appear in rulers, in the generation after Serbian ruler Mutimir and Peter are found. Several members of the Trpimirović kings of Croatia had the name, such as Stephen Držislav, Stephen I, several bans of Bosnia held it, Stephen Vojislavljević, Stephen Kulinić and the Kotromanić bans Stephen I and Stephen II.
The royal tradition of using the name Stefan as an honorific added to the original Slavic name began with the Serbian grand prince Nemanja. His son Stephen had himself crowned king, and all the subsequent Nemanjić kings of Serbia took the honorific Stephen in addition to their Slavic name upon their accession. The veneration of Saint Stephen was so important that he was depicted on the reverse of the seals of the early Nemanjić rulers. Historians such as Dušan J. Popović and John Van Antwerp Fine, Jr. maintain that to Serbian rulers, according to Sima Ćirković, it had a special symbolical meaning to the Serbian state. When the Nemanjić line went extinct with the death of Stephen Uroš V in 1371, Serbias throne became vacant and the country disintegrated. The Bosnian ban Tvrtko I, a cognatic great-grandson of Stephen Dragutin, in an effort to emulate the Nemanjić, Tvrtko added the name Stephen to his own and at times even omitted his real name, using only the royal honorific. The last of them, Stephen Tomašević, having been christened with the name, the kings of Bosnia were not the only to claim the title Stephen.
They were never accepted as suzerains by the lords of petty states that following the disintegration of the Serbian Empire. Lazar Hrebeljanović and his son-in-law Vuk Branković, who ruled two of these states, at times called themselves Stefan although they never claimed the kingship
Stefan Nemanja was the Grand Prince of the Serbian Grand Principality from 1166 to 1196. According to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Nemanja is among the most remarkable Serbs for his literary contributions and altruistic attributes. Nemanja ultimately went to Mount Athos, where he became a monk and took the name of Symeon, joining his youngest son, together with his son Sava, Nemanja had built the Serbian Hilandar Monastery at Mount Athos from 1198-1199, and issued the Hilandar Charter. The monastery became the cradle of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Serbian Orthodox Church canonized Stefan Nemanja shortly after his death under the name Saint Symeon the Myrrh-streaming after numerous miracles. Nemanja was born around the year 1113 AD in Ribnica, Zeta and he was the youngest son of Zavida, a Prince of Zahumlje, who after a conflict with his brothers was sent to Ribnica where he had the title of Lord. Zavida was most probably a son of Uroš I or Vukan, since western Zeta was under Roman Catholic jurisdiction, Nemanja received a Latin baptism, although much of his life was spent balancing Western and Eastern forms of Christianity.
Upon arriving in Ras, the capital of Rascia, Nemanja was re-baptised in the Eastern Orthodox Church, in the Church of St. Apostles Peter, Nemanja met Emperor Manuel in Niš in 1162, who gave him the region of Dubočica to rule over and declared him independent. The Emperor gave him a Byzantine court title as it was important for the Emperor to have the borderlands of the Empire ruled by loyal leaders, Nemanjas Serb squadrons fought in the Imperial Army in 1164 in Srem during the wars against the Kingdom of Hungary. Nemanja ruled independently, he built the Monastery of Saint Nicholas in Kuršumlija and his brothers invited him to a council at Ras, supposedly to resolve the situation, but instead they imprisoned him in a nearby cave. Nemanjas supporters advised church leaders that Tihomir had done this because he disapproved of building, something that would help Nemanja greatly. A legend claimed Saint George himself freed Nemanja from the cave, between 1166 and 1168, Prince Nemanja rebelled against his older brother Tihomir, and deposed him and his brothers and Stracimir.
The Byzantine Emperor raised an army for Tihomir, made up of Greeks and Turks. Tihomir drowned in the Sitnica river, and the other brothers surrendered to Nemanja, Nemanja assumed the title of Grand Župan of all Serbia, and took the first name Stefan. Nemanja married a Serbian noblewoman, with whom he had three sons, Vukan and Rastko, Stefan Nemanja built the church of Đurđevi Stupovi in Ras in 1171. According to the legend, this was to thank Saint George for freeing him from the cave in which his brothers had imprisoned him, the same year, Nemanja had his third son - Rastko. In 1171, Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja sided with the Venetian Republic in a dispute with the Byzantine Empire, the Venetians incited the Slavs of the eastern Adriatic littoral to rebel against Byzantine rule. Nemanja joined them, launching an offensive towards the city of Kotor. A German fleet formed to replace the Venetian navy, and advanced eastwards in the September 1171, Nemanja made an alliance with the Kingdom of Hungary, though the Hungarians, with the Duchy of Austria
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014,264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the La Dominante, Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Masks, City of Bridges, The Floating City, and City of Canals.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016, the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean beloved, lovable, a connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color sea-blue, is possible.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum. In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II
Also see, Podunavlje Podunavlje is the name of the Danube river basin parts located in Serbia and Croatia. Podunavlje is located on the edge of Pannonian Basin. In its wider meaning, the term is used in Serbian and Croatian as a description for the area around the flow of the river Danube. In the first half of the 18th century, Sava-Danube section of the Habsburg Military Frontier existed in the area. Podunavlje segment of the Frontier comprised parts of southern Bačka and northern Syrmia including towns of Petrovaradin, Šid, Bačka Palanka, Bački Petrovac, Petrovaradinski Šanac, between 1922 and 1929, Podunavlje Oblast was one of the administrative units of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. It included parts of Šumadija and Banat regions and its seat was in Smederevo, between 1929 and 1941, one of the provinces of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was known as the Danube Banovina. The province consisted of the regions of Syrmia, Bačka, Baranja, Šumadija. The capital city of the Danube Banovina was Novi Sad, in 1941, the World War II Axis Powers occupied the province.
Bačka and Baranja regions were attached to Miklós Horthys Hungary, while Syrmia was attached to the Independent State of Croatia, the remaining rump Danube Banovina existed as part of German-occupied Serbia until the end of 1941 with its capital at Smederevo. Today, Smederevo is seat of the Podunavlje District of Serbia, between 1980 and 1989, Podunavlje was a name of one of the former seven municipalities of Novi Sad City in Serbia. Eastern Slavonia and Western Syrmia, the portion of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, was sometimes called Podunavska Krajina by Serbs or Croatian Podunavlje by Croats. List of cities and towns located on the river Danube in Podunavlje and towns in Serbia and towns in Croatia, List of municipal areas connected to the river Danube in Podunavlje. Municipalities in Serbia, Municipalities in Croatia, Northern part of Serbian Podunavlje is mostly flat, important rivers in Serbian Podunavlje that flowing into Danube are Tisa, Tamiš, and Morava. Two largest cities of Serbia and Novi Sad, are located in Podunavlje, Podunavlje includes parts of several traditional geographical regions in Serbia, such are Bačka, Syrmia, Šumadija, Braničevo, and Timočka Krajina.
Serbian Podunavlje is mainly populated by Serbs, while other ethnic groups in the area are Slovaks, Croats, Romanians, Roma people. Slovaks forming the majority of population in the municipality of Bački Petrovac, main religion in the area is Orthodox Christianity, while other smaller religious groups are Catholic Christians, Protestant Christians and Muslims. It was a core of the Tribal State of Celtic Scordisci, Serbian Podunavlje was a border region of Roman Empire and there are archaeological remnants of Roman civilization in the area. Although, Serbo-Croatian speaking South Slavs settled in Serbian Podunavlje in the 6th century, Kingdom of Syrmia ruled by Serb king Stefan Dragutin included southern Podunavlje and had its capitals in Debrc and Belgrade
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea, in the region of Dalmatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport, in 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, the names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin. It is mostly explained as a Slavic name of the type, referring to an oak grove or oak forest. The historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν in the 10th century and it was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Lavusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name, a connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has been proposed. The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine Porphyrogenituss De Administrando Imperio, the name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built.
Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century, the size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era, after the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a Roman population, after the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice, which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. After a fire destroyed almost the whole city in the night of August 16,1296, by the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary. Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a state, although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, for centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was the Ottoman Empires chief rival for control of the Adriatic.
Ancona and Dubrovnik developed a trade route to the Venetian, starting in Dubrovnik it went on to Ancona, through Florence. The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice, the Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital was established in 1377, slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A20 km water supply system, instead of a cistern, was constructed in 1438 by the Neapolitan architect and he completed the aqueduct with two public fountains
Charles I of Anjou
Thereafter, he claimed the island, though his power was restricted to the peninsular possessions of the kingdom, with his capital at Naples. Charles was the child and youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile. He conquered the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufen and acquired lands in the eastern Mediterranean, the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him to abandon his plans to reassemble the Latin Empire. By marriage to Beatrice of Provence, heiress of Raymond Berengar IV of Provence, he was Count of Provence, in 1247, his brother Louis IX made him Count of Anjou and Maine, as appanages of the French crown. By conquest and self-proclamation, he became King of Albania in 1272, by the testament of William II of Villehardouin, he inherited the Principality of Achaea in 1278. Charles was born in March 1227, four months after the death of his father, like his immediate older brother, Philip Dagobert, he did not receive a county as appanage, as had their older brothers. In 1232, his brothers Philip Dagobert and John, Count of Anjou and Maine, Charles became the next in line to receive the Counties, but was formally invested only in 1247.
The affection of his mother Blanche seems largely to have bestowed upon his brother Louis. The self-reliance this engendered in Charles may account for the drive, upon his accession as Count of Provence and Forcalquier in 1246, Charles rapidly found himself in difficulties. Furthermore, while Provence was technically a part of the Burgundy and hence of the Holy Roman Empire, recent counts had governed with a light hand, and the nobilities and cities had enjoyed great liberties. Three cities, Marseille and Avignon were Imperial cities technically separate from the county. In 1247, while Charles was in France to receive the counties of Anjou and Maine, the local nobility joined with Beatrice, unfortunately for Charles, he had promised to join his brother on the Seventh Crusade. For the time being, Charles compromised with Beatrice, allowing her to have Forcalquier, rich Provence provided the funds that supported his wider career. His rights as landlord were, on the whole, of recent establishment, from the Church, unlike his brothers in the north, he received virtually nothing.
Charles agents were efficient, the towns were prosperous, the peasants were buying up the duties of corvée and establishing self-governing consulats in the villages, Charles sailed with the rest of the Crusaders from Aigues-Mortes in 1248 and fought at Damietta and in the struggle around Mansourah, Egypt. However, his piety does not seem to have matched that of his brother, during his absence, open rebellion had broken out in Provence. Charles moved to suppress it, and Arles, Marseille held out until July 1252, but sued for peace. Charles imposed a lenient peace, but insisted on the recognition of his full rights, in November 1252, the death of his mother Blanche of Castile caused him to go north to Paris and assume the joint regency of the kingdom with his brother Alphonse
The Danube is Europes second-longest river, after the Volga River, and the longest river in the European Union region. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe, the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries, the Latin name Dānuvius is one of a number of Old European river names derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu. Other river names from the root include the Dunajec, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means fluid, drop, in Avestan, in the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra. Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning strong, in Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube, the Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, the bringer of luck. The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, the German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe wetland.
Classified as a waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach. The Danube flows southeast for about 2,800 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and its drainage basin extends into nine more. The highest point of the basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border. The land drained by the Danube extends into other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges, from its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tributaries are, The Danube flows through many cities, including four national capitals, more than any other river in the world. Danube remains a mountain river until Passau, with average bottom gradient 0. 0012%. Middle Section, From Devín Gate to Iron Gate, at the border of Serbia and Romania, the riverbed widens and the average bottom gradient becomes only 0. 00006%.
Lower Section, From Iron Gate to Sulina, with average gradient as little as 0. 00003%, about 60 of its tributaries are navigable. In 1994 the Danube was declared one of ten Pan-European transport corridors, routes in Central, the amount of goods transported on the Danube increased to about 100 million tons in 1987. In 1999, transport on the river was difficult by the NATO bombing of three bridges in Serbia during the Kosovo War
Anna Dandolo was a Venetian noblewoman who became Queen consort of Serbia as the second wife of King Stefan the First-Crowned, founder of the Serbian kingdom. She was crowned at Stefans coronation in 1217, and she held this title until his death on 24 September 1228 and she was the granddaughter of Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice. King Stefan Uroš I was her son, Anna was born in Venice, Republic of Venice, on an unknown date, the daughter of Rainero Dandolo, Vice-Doge of Venice, and Procurator of San Marco. Her paternal grandfather was Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice, who had made incursions into Zadar. In 1209, her father was killed in battle against the Genoese during the conquest of Candia, following the splendid festivities held in their honour, the bridal couple were transported with much fanfare by galley to Dalmatia. Anna was his wife, his first, Eudokia Angelina. In 1217, Stefan was crowned the first King of Serbia by Archbishop Sava, shortly before his death on 24 September 1228, King Stefan took monastic vows.
Anna lived until 1264, long enough to see her son, Stephen Uroš succeed to the Serbian throne in 1243 following the deposition of his half-brother. Stephen Uroš I married Helen of Anjou, by whom he had issue and it is believed that Anna died in 1258. She was buried in the Sopoćani monastery, a mausoleum where Stefan the First-Crowned. The work has dated to between 1263 and 1268. Together they had one son, Stephen Uroš I, born in about 1223, and she had three stepsons from her husbands former marriage. Italian poet Gabriele dAnnunzio immortalised Anna in his 1914 Ode alla nazione serba with the line, O Serbia, list of Serbian consorts Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti. Glas - Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles. As a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, and Dž counting as single letters. Vuks Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, and was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period. Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, and has the official status. It is a script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov, Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Serbian language in Croatia is officially recognized as a minority language, Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity. In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only even though, according to a 2014 survey, Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyrils disciples, the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. There was no distinction between capital and lowercase letters, the literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Savas Nomocanon, Dušans Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution in 1813, there he met Jernej Kopitar, a linguist with interest in slavistics.
Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform the Serbian language and he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, which was published in 1868 and he wrote several books, Mala prostonarodna slaveno-serbska pesnarica and Pismenica serbskoga jezika in 1814, and two more in 1815 and 1818, all with the alphabet still in progress. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used, Ю, я, Ы and Ѳ, in his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ. The alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death