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Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, image, or video within another file, image, or video. The word steganography comes from New Latin steganographia, which combines the Greek words steganós, meaning "covered or concealed", -graphia meaning "writing"; the first recorded use of the term was in 1499 by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia, a treatise on cryptography and steganography, disguised as a book on magic. The hidden messages appear to be something else: images, shopping lists, or some other cover text. For example, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter; some implementations of steganography that lack a shared secret are forms of security through obscurity, key-dependent steganographic schemes adhere to Kerckhoffs's principle. The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that the intended secret message does not attract attention to itself as an object of scrutiny. Plainly visible encrypted messages, no matter how unbreakable they are, arouse interest and may in themselves be incriminating in countries in which encryption is illegal.

Whereas cryptography is the practice of protecting the contents of a message alone, steganography is concerned both with concealing the fact that a secret message is being sent and its contents. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol. Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size. For example, a sender might start with an innocuous image file and adjust the color of every hundredth pixel to correspond to a letter in the alphabet; the change is so subtle that someone, not looking for it is unlikely to notice the change. The first recorded uses of steganography can be traced back to 440 BC when Herodotus mentions two examples in his Histories. Histiaeus sent a message to his vassal, Aristagoras, by shaving the head of his most trusted servant, "marking" the message onto his scalp sending him on his way once his hair had regrown, with the instruction, "When thou art come to Miletus, bid Aristagoras shave thy head, look thereon."

Additionally, Demaratus sent a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it directly on the wooden backing of a wax tablet before applying its beeswax surface. Wax tablets were in common use as reusable writing surfaces, sometimes used for shorthand. In his work Polygraphiae, Johannes Trithemius developed his so-called "Ave-Maria-Cipher" that can hide information in a Latin praise of God. "Auctor Sapientissimus Conseruans Angelica Deferat Nobis Charitas Potentissimi Creatoris" for example contains the concealed word VICIPEDIA. Steganography has been used for centuries. Here are some examples: Hidden messages on paper written in secret inks. Hidden messages distributed, according to a certain rule or key, as smaller parts among other words of a less suspicious covertext; this particular form of steganography is called a null cipher. Messages written in Morse code on yarn and knitted into a piece of clothing worn by a courier. Messages written on envelopes in the area covered by postage stamps.

In the early days of the printing press, it was common to mix different typefaces on a printed page because the printer did not have enough copies of some letters in one typeface. Thus, a message could be hidden by using two or more different typefaces, such as italic. During and after World War II, espionage agents used photographically-produced microdots to send information back and forth. Microdots were minute. World War II microdots were embedded in the paper and covered with an adhesive, such as collodion, reflective and so was detectable by viewing against glancing light. Alternative techniques included inserting microdots into slits cut into the edge of postcards. During World War II, Velvalee Dickinson, a spy for Japan in New York City, sent information to accommodation addresses in neutral South America, she was a dealer in dolls, her letters discussed the quantity and type of doll to ship. The stegotext was the doll orders, the concealed "plaintext" was itself encoded and gave information about ship movements, etc.

Her case became somewhat famous and she became known as the Doll Woman. During World War II, photosensitive glass was declared secret, used for transmitting information to Allied armies. Jeremiah Denton blinked his eyes in Morse code during the 1966 televised press conference that he was forced into as an American prisoner-of-war by his North Vietnamese captors, spelling out "T-O-R-T-U-R-E"; that confirmed for the first time to the US Naval Intelligence and other Americans that the North Vietnamese were torturing American prisoners-of-war. In 1968, crew members of the USS Pueblo intelligence ship, held as prisoners by North Korea, communicated in sign language during staged photo opportunities, to inform the United States that they were not defectors but captives of the North Koreans. In other photos presented to the US, crew members gave "the finger" to the unsuspecting North Koreans, in an attempt to discredit photos that showed them smiling and comfortable. Modern steganography entered the world in 1985 with the advent of personal computers being applied to classical steganography problems.

Development following, slow, but has since taken off, going by the large number of steganography software available: Concealing messages within the lowest bits of noisy images or sound files. A

Larry Samuelson

Larry Samuelson is the A. Douglas Melamed Professor of Economics at Yale University and one of the faculty of the Cowles Foundation of Yale University. Samuelson earned his B. A. in Economics/Political Science from the University of Illinois in 1974. He continued on with the University of Illinois for both his Masters in 1977 and his PhD in 1978—both in Economics, he has held faculty positions at the University of Florida, Syracuse University, Penn State and the University of Wisconsin. He has made significant contributions to microeconomic game theory. Areas of specialization include the theory of repeated games and the evolutionary foundations of economic behavior. Samuelson has served on the editorial boards of Games and Economic Behavior, the International Journal of Game Theory, Economic Theory, the Journal of Economic Theory, Theoretical Economics, the Journal of Economic Literature, Econometrica, he has served as a co-editor of Econometrica and the American Economic Review


Incidents is a 1987 collection of four essays by Roland Barthes. It was published posthumously by Roland Barthes's literary executor. In the first essay, La Lumiere du Sud-Ouest, first published in L'Humanité in 1977, Roland Barthes reflects on the South West of France, the Adour and Bayonne; the second essay, written in 1969, details Barthes's holiday in Morocco, where he pays men and boys for sex. In Au Palace Ce Soir, the third essay, first published in issue 10 of Vogue-Hommes in May 1978, Barthes describes Le Palace, a fashionable theatre-house in Paris; the fourth essay, Soirées de Paris, is a diary from August to September 1979, where Roland Barthes admits to using male escorts as all his relationships have been disappointing to him. Although critics have questioned whether Roland Barthes intended to publish Incidents and Soirées de Paris, it has been argued that they have informed our reading of Barthes's oeuvre because of their explicit revelations of his homosexuality. Drawing upon these essays, D.

A. Miller, in Bringing Out Roland Barthes, re-reads Barthes's oeuvre through a gay lens; the essay Incidents has been compared to André Gide's Amyntas with its pastoral theme, although Gide writes about Tunisia and Algeria rather than Morocco. It has been compared to Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Confessions. Barthes, Roland. Incidents. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Free Online - UC Press E-Books Collection

University of Otago

The University of Otago is a collegiate university based in Dunedin, New Zealand. It scores for average research quality, in 2006 was second in New Zealand only to the University of Auckland in the number of A-rated academic researchers it employs. In the past it has topped the New Zealand Performance Based Research Fund evaluation; the university was created by a committee led by Thomas Burns, established by an ordinance of the Otago Provincial Council in 1869. The university accepted its first students in July 1871, making it the oldest university in New Zealand and third-oldest in Oceania. Between 1874 and 1961 the University of Otago was a part of the federal University of New Zealand, issued degrees in its name. Otago is known for its vibrant student life its flatting, in old houses. Otago students have a long standing tradition of naming their flats; the nickname "Scarfie" comes from the habit of wearing a scarf during the cold southern winters. The university's graduation song, Gaudeamus igitur, iuvenes dum sumus, acknowledges students will continue to live up to the challenge, if not always in the way intended.

The university's student magazine, Critic, is New Zealand's longest running student magazine. The architectural grandeur and accompanying gardens of Otago University led to it being ranked as one of the world's most beautiful university campuses by the British publications The Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post; the Otago Association's plan for the European settlement of southern New Zealand, conceived under the principles of Edward Gibbon Wakefield in the 1840s, envisaged a university. Dunedin leaders Thomas Burns and James Macandrew urged the Otago Provincial Council during the 1860s to set aside a land endowment for an institute of higher education. An ordinance of the council established the university in 1869, giving it 100,000 acres of land and the power to grant degrees in Arts, Medicine and Music. Burns was named Chancellor but he did not live to see the university open on 5 July 1871; the university conferred just one degree, to Alexander Watt Williamson, before becoming an affiliate college of the federal University of New Zealand in 1874.

With the dissolution of the University of New Zealand in 1961 and the passage of the University of Otago Amendment Act 1961, the university resumed its power to confer degrees. Operating from William Mason's Post Office building on Princes Street, it relocated to Maxwell Bury's Clocktower and Geology buildings in 1878 and 1879; this evolved into the Clocktower complex, a striking group of Gothic revival buildings at the heart of the campus. These buildings were inspired by then-new main building at Glasgow University in Scotland. Otago was the first university in Australasia to permit women to take a law degree. Ethel Benjamin graduated LLB in 1897; that year she became the first woman in the British Empire to appear as counsel in court. The Otago University helped train medical personnel as part of the Otago University Medical Corps, they supplied or trained most of the New Zealand Army's doctors and dentists during the First World War. Professor Robert Jack made the first radio broadcast in New Zealand from the physics department on 17 November 1921.

Queen Elizabeth II visited the university library with the Duke of Edinburgh on 18 March 1970. This was the first time the royals completed informal "walkabouts" to meet the public, it was the first visit of Prince Charles and Princess Anne to this country; because it had a wide range of courses, Otago attracted more students from outside its provincial district. This led to the growth of colleges and informal accommodation in north Dunedin around the faculty buildings; this development of a residential campus gave Otago a more vibrant undergraduate student life at the same time as comparable but smaller developments in Christchurch and Auckland were eclipsed in the late 20th century. Otago now has the most substantial residential campus of any university in New Zealand or Australia, although this is not without its problems. In May 2010 University joined the Matariki Network of Universities together with Dartmouth College, Durham University, Queen's University, University of Tübingen, University of Western Australia and Uppsala University.

The blazon of the arms granted by the Lyon King of Arms, Scotland is Azure, on a saltire cantoned between four mullets of six points Or, a book, gilt-edged and bound in a cover Gules charged with a mullet of six points of the second and a book-marker of the third issuance from the page-foot, in an Escrol under the same this Motto "Sapere Aude". The motto may be translated as'dare to be wise' or'have courage to be wise'; the shield is first described and it is blue On the shield is a saltire, an "X" shaped object. On the saltire sits a gilt edged book the cover of, red On the cover of the book is a star of six points. Mullets only have five points. At the foot of the book is a bookmark in red being the third colour mentioned; the saltire and the book are surrounded by four other stars each of six points which are placed in the spaces formed by the saltire. The five stars and the saltire are all coloured gold, the second colour mentioned. An Escrol is the scroll under the shield containing the motto.

The University of Otago's main campus is in Dunedin, which hosts the Central Administration as well as its Health Sciences, Business School, Sciences divisions. In addition, the University has four satellite campuses in Auckland, Wellington and Invercargill. The

Mystic Krewe of Nyx

The Mystic Krewe of Nyx is an all-female Carnival Krewe organization, based in New Orleans, organized and founded by Julie Lea in 2011. The Nyx's first pageant, "NOLA Reality Reigns," was featured on the St. Charles Avenue Parade Route on February 15, 2012; the Mystic Krewe of Nyx is named after the Greek goddess of Nyx. After Mardi Gras in 2011, Founder and Captain Julie Lea had an idea to start her own all-female Mardi Gras Krewe. On March 30, 2011 the Mystic Krewe of Nyx was born when the organization was incorporated with the State of Louisiana, she wanted the Krewe to parade for the 2012 season. The new Krewe had momentum, but they were running out of time as the City of New Orleans still had not approved their parade permit request as of October 1, 2011. However, a vote took place within the New Orleans City Council just in time. On October 20, 2011, the New Orleans City Council voted 7-0 in favor of putting forth a motion for the all-female Krewe of Nyx to Parade in 2012. One of the'motions or resolutions not on the agenda', Resolution R11-498, was presented by Councilmembers Cynthia Hedge-Morrell, Eric Granderson, Kristen Gisleson Palmer'supporting the application of the Krewe of Nyx to roll in the 2012 Mardi Gras season and intending to add them to the parade schedule.'On November 3, 2011, the New Orleans City Council unanimously voted to allow the Mystic Krewe of Nyx to parade in New Orleans in 2012..

This was the first new Mardi Gras Krewe created in over a decade. In less than three months upon receiving the City Council's approval, the Mystic Krewe of Nyx paraded on the streets of New Orleans for the first time on February 15, 2012, with 534 riders. 2012 Goddess Nyx I: Ms. Gigi Saak - Grand Marshal: Mrs. Karen Swensen - Parade Theme: "NOLA Reality Reigns" 2013 Goddess Nyx II: Ms. Lauren Thom - Grand Marshal: Mrs. Laura Buchtel - Parade Theme: "What a Girl Wants" 2014 Goddess Nyx III: Ms. Heather Hanlon Nichols - Grand Marshal: Mrs. Susan Spicer - Parade Theme: "Cookin' with the Krewe" 2015 Goddess Nyx IV: Mrs. Jenna Frazier - Grand Marshal: The Dixie Cups - Parade Theme: "Nyx Celebrates The King" 2016 Goddess Nyx V: Mrs. Lori Seuzeneau - Grand Marshal: Mrs. Paggy Lee - Parade Theme: "Nyx Turns 5" 2017 Goddess Nyx VI: Mrs. Zenia Williams - Grand Marshal: Mrs Irma Thomas - Parade Theme: "Dancing The Night Away" 2018 Goddess Nyx VII: Mrs Karen Boudrie Greig - Grand Marshal: Amanda Shaw - Parade Theme: "NOLA's Triple Crown" 2019 Goddess Nyx VIII: Miss Shelby Seuzeneau - Grand Marshal: Angela Hill - Parade Theme: “There’s no Bigger “P”arty than a “P”arade” 2020 Goddess Nyx IX: Mrs Sandra K. Nix - Grand Marshal: Nancy Parker Boyd - Parade Theme: "Nyx, On Cloud Nyne" Signature Throw: Hand decorated purses Krewe Colors: Pink & black Mission: The Mystic Krewe of Nyx is established to unite women of diverse backgrounds for fun and the joy of the Mardi Gras season.

The Krewe of Nyx parades on the Wednesday night before Fat Tuesday on the traditional Uptown New Orleans parade route down St. Charles Avenue and Canal Street, they parade following the Ancient Druids parade. They start on end on Tchoupitoulas and Poydras Street; the Krewe of Nyx floats are provided by PFJ Float Designers. On February 3, 2016 Nyx celebrated its 5th anniversary, debuted its first signature float, a pink Nyx purse float; the Pink Nyx PurseThe First signature float introduced in 2016. It holds up to 16 riders; each Year the Krewe holds a raffle drawing to determine. It rolls directly behind the Captain's Lounge The Nyx Title FloatThe Captain's Lounge FloatIn 2019 the Captain's Float, the Nyx Captain's Lounge float made its inaugural appearance; the double decked float holds up to 28 riders. The main platform holds her attendants; the float features a 24 cycle light show. The "Nyx Captain's Lounge" portion at the rear of the float features LED fiber optics and a 7 foot rear martini glass with a cycled light show.

The float is 38.3 ft long x 11.4 feet wide x 15.7 feet tall. Within three months of the City Council's approval, the Mystic Krewe of Nyx paraded on the streets of New Orleans for the first time. On Wednesday, February 15, 2012, the Krewe paraded with 534 riders. On Wednesday, February 6, 2013, the Krewe paraded with 921 riders. On Wednesday, February 25, 2014, the Krewe paraded with 1,222 riders. On Wednesday, February 11, 2015, the Krewe paraded with 1,511 riders. On Wednesday, February 3, 2016, the Krewe paraded with 2,232 riders. On Wednesday, February 22, 2017, the Krewe paraded with 2,951 riders as a Super Krewe On Wednesday, February 7, 2018, the Krewe paraded with 3,348 riders being the Biggest of the BIG in Parade Ridership. On Wednesday, February 27, 2019, the Krewe paraded with 3,383 riders. On Wednesday, February 19, 2020, the Krewe paraded with 3,476 riders. On Wednesday, February 10, 2021. On November 3, 2011, the New Orleans City Council voted to allow the all-female Mystic Krewe of Nyx to parade in New Orleans in 2012.

On January 6, 2015, the Mystic Krewe of Nyx was presented with a proclamation from the New Orleans City Council, led by Council member at Large Jason Williams, acknowledging the Krewe as the largest all-female parading Krewe in Mardi Gras history. In September 2015 with over 2,200 members, the Mystic Krewe of Nyx becomes the first all-female Super Krewe for Mardi Gras 2015. On January 6, 2015, the Mystic Krewe of Nyx was presented with a proclamation from the New Orleans City Council, acknowledging the Krewe as the largest all female parading Krewe in Mardi Gras history. In January 2016, Nyx teamed up with Haydel's Bakery; each King Cake from Haydel's Bakery included a Nyx pink porcela

Granville Township, Kittson County, Minnesota

Granville Township is a township in Kittson County, United States. The population was 104 at the 2000 census. Granville Township was organized in 1885. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 34.5 square miles, of which 34.5 square miles of it is land and 0.03% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 104 people, 39 households, 31 families residing in the township; the population density was 3.0 people per square mile. There were 44 housing units at an average density of 1.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.12% White, 1.92% Asian, 0.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.96% of the population. There were 39 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.9% were married couples living together, 2.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.5% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.06. In the township the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $42,292, the median income for a family was $42,292. Males had a median income of $34,375 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,403. There were 12.1% of families and 13.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including 28.6% of under eighteens and none of those over 64